Melanie Klein

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S: Melanie Klein

BC: an insight into Melanie Kleins life Snuggle up by a warm fire as you enjoy this little snippet into the life of Melanie Klein. Get an insight into her family and background, perspective in psychology, experiments and trails and relevance in todays society.

FC: Melanie Klein written by elizabeth fragiacomo

1: contents | "a little piece of Melanie Klein" Sigmund Freud personal details family & school background area of perspective & expertise | what happened to Melanie Klein? What happened to her filled of psychology? experiments & trials

3: a little piece of Melanie Klein... The significant people in my life whom I am eternally grateful and honoured to have worked with, who have influenced me the most to pursue my theories included Sandor Ferenczi and Sigmund Freud. After becoming a patient of psychoanalyst Sandor Ferenczi, he was responsible for encouraging me to psychoanalyze my own children. Sigmund Freud inspired me to write my first psychoanalytic paper, “The Development of a Child.” This experience reinforced my interest in psychoanalysis. After the end of my marriage in 1922, i eventually moved to Berlin to work with noted psychoanalyst Karl Abraham. signed yours sincerely Melanie Klein, Melanie Klein

4: Sigmund Freud Melanie Klein has had a significant impact on developmental psychology. Her play therapy techniques are still widely used today. She has also emphasized the role of the mother-child and interpersonal relationships on development. Her major contribution to psychology was her method of analysing children's play for insight into their emotional development. 'Play Therapy' remains a standard method used by child psychologists. Melanie Klein's research led her to conclude that a child’s aggressive feelings towards their mother and interpersonal relationships on development were more important than i had thought. Sigmund Freud

5: “Feelings of love and gratitude arise directly and spontaneously in the baby in response to the love and care of his mother.” Melanie Klein

6: family & school background Melanie Klein’s initial ambition was to attend medical school which she achieved. She later married Arthur Klein at age 19, briefly attended Vienna University, and had two children, Melitta (1904) and Hans (1907). The family traveled frequently due to her husband’s job, but eventually settled in Budapest in 1910. She had her third child, Eric, in 1914. While in Budapest, Melanie began studying with psychoanalyst, Sandor Ferenczi who encouraged her to psychoanalyze her own children. Out of Klein’s work, the technique known as ‘play therapy’ emerged. Through her work with Sigmund Freud, Melanie reinforced her interest in psychoanalysis. She struggled with depression throughout her life and was significantly affected by the early deaths of two siblings and the 1933 death of her eldest son. She wrote several psychoanalytic papers on the topic, attributing depression to unresolved childhood issues.

7: "One of the many interesting and surprising experiences of the beginner in child analysis is to find in even very young children a capacity for insight which is often far greater than that of adults.” Melanie Klein. | personal details Born March 30, 1882 in Vienna, Austria. Died September 22, 1960 in London, England.

8: "It is an essential part of the interpretive work that it should keep in step with fluctuations between love and hatred, between happiness and satisfaction on the one hand and persecutory anxiety and depression on the other." Melanie Klein.

9: area of perspective & expertise psychoanalysis Melanie’s area of perspective included psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis focuses on the roles of unconscious conflicts and motivations in understanding and explaining behaviour and mental processes. Psychoanalysis was developed by Sigmund Freud and later explored by Melanie.

10: XO

11: what happened to Melanie Klein? In 1927, Melanie moved to England, a move she was glad she made as the British Psychoanalytic Society more warmly accepted her than others had in the past. She continued her practice and expanded on areas of psychoanalysis such as the death instinct and the Oedipus complex. She and her children remained there until her death on September 22, 1960. Though she had been diagnosed with cancer, her death was a result after an operation and it shocked the psychoanalytical community. Two of her children modelled Melanie and became doctors practicing psychoanalysis and one chose to follow his father, becoming an engineer. Melanie Klein’s play technique ran counter to Anna Freud’s belief that children could not be psychoanalyzed. The dispute led to considerable controversy within psychoanalysis, leading many within the psychoanalytic community to take sides in the debate. Anna Freud openly criticized her theories and lack of a formal academic degree.

13: What happened to her filled of psychology? The Melanie Klein Trust was founded on the first of February 1955, to promote training and research in the psychoanalytic theory and technique adapted and practiced by Melanie Klein and the developments thereof. It was also to publish books, articles, and papers based on these contributions and to promote clinical work and the further development of the theory and technique based on them in any part of the world after her death.

14: "It was always part of my technique not to use educative or moral influence, but to keep to the psychoanalytic procedure only, which, to put it in a nutshell, consists in understanding the patient's mind and in conveying to him what goes on in it." Melanie Klein.

15: XO | experiments & trials Melanie Klein never desired to incorporated scientific methods in her discover and research. She purely relied on her two theories of ‘play therapy’ and ‘object relations’. She did not conduct scientific research such as laboratory experiments to test her theories because psychoanalytic theories and ideas are extremely difficult to test using scientific methods. The lack of scientific basis has prevented psychoanalysis from achieving widespread credibility at any time since it was first proposed by Sigmund Freud. From Melanie Klein's psychoanalytical studies, she developed the 'play therapy' technique - the first important therapeutic innovation designed to suit psychoanalytic methods to young children. In play therapy, she believed that the children's unconscious motivation is uncovered as they project their feelings through the use of play and drawings. For example, the way they play toys reveal earlier infantile fantasies and anxieties. Children could be understood through their non-verbal behaviour. The other technique, 'object relations,' was a collective idea of Melanie Klein and Sigmund Freud; the children's earliest relationships, for example, with their parents. Melanie Klein's contribution was in forming the term 'part objects.' For example, breast-feeding in part is relevant in the development of the infant.

17: bibliography Changing Minds, (2002) Melanie Klein (online), http://changingminds.org/disciplines/psychoanalysis/theorists/klein.htm The New York Times Company, (2001) Melanie Klein Bibliography (online), http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthink ers/p/klein_bio.htm Tel Asiado, (2008) Melanie Klein: beyond Freud (online), http://www.suite101.com/content/melanie-klein-beyond-freud-a17771 Fricker, M. & Hornsby, J. (2000) Melanie Klein (online), http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/klein.html Young, m. Robert (2005) Melanie Klein (online), http://www.human-nature.com/rmyoung/papers/pap127h.html Smith, Catherine (2007) Melanie Klein: Psychoanalytical Views of Male, Female dynamics, involving Creativity and Imagination (online), http://theliterarylink.com/klein.html

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