Abdul Rehman Chemistry Articles

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FC: Chemistry Articles

1: "A fact is a simple statement that everyone believes. It is innocent, unless found guilty. A hypothesis is a novel suggestion that no one wants to believe. It is guilty, until found effective. " ~Edward Teller

2: http://www.livescience.com/20085-prepare-rising-sea-levels-predictions-needed.html How Much Will Earth's Seas Rise? Answers Lacking, Scientists Warn It turns out the ocean isn't like water in a bathtub; it doesn't rise uniformly as more water pours in. As global warming raises sea levels, some places are expected to see higher-than-average increases, and a few places may even see decreases. Currently, projections suggest that over the course of this century, sea levels will rise between 8 inches and 6.6 feet (20 centimeters and 2 meters) around the planet. Scientists know this increase will be driven by the expansion of water as it warms (warmer water takes up more space) and the melting of ice, most importantly, ice stored in the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica. [Stunning Photos of Antarctic Ice] But the effects of warming water and melting ice on sea-level rise are expected to vary depending on location. What's more, some of the dynamics involved aren't well represented in models used to make projections for the future, write Willis and his co-author, John Church of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in their essay.

3: The melting of the Antarctic and Greeland ice sheets presents the largest uncertainty for the future, but air, land and water also play roles in changes to sea level, they write. For instance, sea level (which is measured relative to land) in the vicinity of the ice melt actually decreases, because the ground underneath the melting ice rebounds as the heavy ice disappears. Planet-scale effects also influence regional changes. Mass that starts out locked up as ice in the high latitudes spreads around the planet once it has melted and flowed into the ocean. This re-arrangement of mass can tweak the tilt of the Earth's axis. In turn, a slight change in the tilt of axis also redistributes the oceans because the forces of the Earth's rotation help shape the surface of the ocean, Willis said. Likewise, thermal expansion doesn't play out uniformly across the oceans. For example, during an El Niño event, which is associated with warmer waters in the equatorial Pacific, the arrival of warmer waters off the California coast lifts sea levels. During La Niña, when waters are cooler, sea levels tend to subside, Willis said. Climate change is expected to change ocean currents and the winds that help drive ocean currents. These changes will affect the distribution of heat within the oceans, and, as a result, affect changes in sea level.

4: Summary of Article This article talks about the effects of sea levels rising and also when and where we should expect it. The article talks about how the sea is not like a bath tub were you add water and the level rises. As global warming goes on sea levels rise more in some places which are supposed to see a larger increase then usual. However some other places will see a decrease in sea level. The reason why this is so is largely due to the melting of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets which presents the largest uncertainty for the future, but air, land and water also play roles in changes to sea level.The article discusses the different methods used to make predictions of future sea levels. Also explaining how the two are very different and don't agree with each other. The first earth system model are simulations that include the atmosphere,the ocean, and the ice. The model does a decent representation of the ocean and atmosphere but the representation of the ice sheets is not done very well. Making predictions on the lower end of the scale for the sea levels in the future.The second earth system model called semi-empirical models. They base there projections on the relationship between warming and the rate of global sea-level rise. This leads this method to make predictions on the higher end of the scale which is completely opposite to the first method. This method relies heavily on historic observations rather then what the first method does.

5: Opinion on the matter Global warming is something that is serious and a large event in human history. Especially since global warming is causing sea levels to rise. Due to human history lots of human civilizations are around water because of the ability to transport. Since sea levels are rising we can think that it is going to have a large impact on all of humanity. If we knew where and when this was going to take place it would be much easier for man kind as a whole. The main point of the article is the fact that it is discussing ways to find the time and place out. Which I think is crucial because it could help us plan for what is to come. Global warming is also a very delicate topic of study as there are many different factors involved in global warming. If ice caps melt then it speeds up, if we release more carbon dioxide it increases, if sea temperatures increase it speeds up. Then there are also the theories of how global warming doesn't exist and it is only a cycle of the planet goes through. There are many different things which influence how we look at global warming and how we deal with it.This article is interesting to me because it gives some light to the darked path leading towards the solution of global warming . If we don't know what the problem will be and how we will be affected then how can we possibly see ourselves dealing with such a situation.

6: http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/05/07/42-of-nation-to-be-obese-by-2030-study-predicts/ 42% of US Will Be Obese in 2030, Study Predicts Obesity rates in the United States will continue to rise over the next two decades, a new study says.By 2030, 42 percent of people in the U.S. will be obese, meaning 32 million more people will become obese in the coming years, the study found. Currently, about 34 percent of adults and 17 percent of children are obese.The percentage of Americans who are severely obese, defined those carrying more than 80 pounds of extra weight, will increase from 5 percent to 11 percent by 2030, the researchers from Duke University said.While previous predictions had suggested obesity rates could reach 50 percent or more by 2030, these were based on the steep rise in obesity rates seen in previous decades. However, more recent data suggest obesity rates have been leveling off. The new study identified variables that may predict obesity, such as changes in the country's demographics, changes in the price of healthy and fast foods, and the number of fast-food restaurants. The researchers then modeled how changes in these variables could lead to changes in the country's obesity rate.Still, the researchers noted predicting obesity rates is tricky, and the real percentages could differ if their assumptions do not hold true.The findings were presented today (May 7) at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Weight of the Nation Conference in Washington, D.C.

7: Summary of Article This article talks about an experiment that was conducted by two different organizations they had different variables in their experiment to end up with the same result. According to their results by 2030, 42 percent of people in the U.S. will be obese which turns out to be 32 million more people who will become obese. The article defines obesity to be carrying 80 pounds extra. It discusses the burden that this new increase of obese people will place upon the health care sector in the United States.Which will be a big 550 million dollars of weight placed upon the shoulders of the health sector. It also discusses how obesity is coming to be such a large problem in today's society. WIth industrialization and fast food, calories have become cheap and quick which has increased the amount of obese people very drastically. The researchers tried to make this experiment as realistic and practical as possible. Involving many different variables such as prices of groceries, price of Internet, price of alcohol, and population factors as well. Opinion on matter In my opinion this is a very big issue for the United States both figuratively and literally. This large increase is just not in obese people but the people who will be over weight. Then people wonder why athletes are paid such a large amount of money. The U.S. is a country with only roughly about 7 percent of the worlds population how ever it consumes 33 percent of the worlds resources. Its a sad reality that we spend more money on pet food in North America then we do to help the people in poverty. I find it quiet disturbing how people are able to rub there own bellies even when they are beyond full. This problem of obesity is very large for the world as well because around 3 percent of the worlds population will be obese by 2030 and this is only from the United States. This new generation of fast food eating lazy kids is going to cause problems for themselves when they grow up.This article is interesting because it explains a large problem in the world.

8: Brain Represses Bad Words for Bilingual Readers Reading a nasty word in a second language may not pack the punch it would in your native tongue, thanks to an unconscious brain quirk that tamps down potentially disturbing emotions, a new study finds.When reading negative words such as "failure" in their non-native language, bilingual Chinese-English speakers did not show the same brain response as seen when they read neutral words such as "aim." The finding suggests that the brain can process the meaning of words in the unconscious, while "withholding" information from our conscious minds."We devised this experiment to unravel the unconscious interactions between the processing of emotional content and access to the native language system. We think we've identified, for the first time, the mechanism by which emotion controls fundamental thought processes outside consciousness," study researcher Yanjing Wu, a psychologist at Bangor University in the United Kingdom, said in a statement. "Perhaps this is a process that resembles the mental repression mechanism that people have theorized about but never previously located.."Bilingual people typically respond less emotionally to words in their second language. For example, swear words in a foreign tongue don't usually feel as shocking; likewise, some research has found that people are more comfortable talking about embarrassing topics in a second language. [7 Thoughts That Are Bad For You]To unravel the emotions of language, Wu and his colleague Guillaume Thierry, also of Bangor University, recruited 15 native English speakers, 15 native Chinese speakers, and 15 native Chinese speakers who were also fluent in English (all had first learned English around age 12). They set up an experiment in which these volunteers saw word pairs on a screen. One of the words was always neutral, while the other could be neutral, positive or negative. In addition, each word was two syllables in Chinese, with the first syllable of each word always sounding the same. For example, the positive word "honesty" was paired with the neutral word "program." In Chinese, honesty translates to "chengshi" and program to "chengxu." Negative words included failure, war, discomfort and unfortunate The participants were asked to push a button if the words were linked in meaning. (In some pairs, they were.) Meanwhile, the scientists used electrodes on the scalp to measure the electrical response in the brain to reading these pairs of words.

9: Self-protection The findings revealed that although they weren't aware of it, the bilingual participants' brains were translating the positive and neutral words into Chinese as they read them in English. But surprisingly, this response was absent when they read negative words. "We were extremely surprised by our finding," Thierry said in a statement. "We were expecting to find modulation between the different words — and perhaps a heightened reaction to the emotional word — but what we found was the exact opposite to what we expected — a cancellation of the response to the negative words." It's not yet clear why the brain dampens the response to these words, the researchers report Tuesday (May 8) in the Journal of Neuroscience "We think this is a protective mechanism," Thierry said. "We know that in trauma, for example, people behave very differently. Surface conscious processes are modulated by a deeper emotional system in the brain. Perhaps this brain mechanism spontaneously minimizes negative impact of disturbing emotional content on our thinking, to prevent causing anxiety or mental discomfort." http://bodyodd.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/05/08/11605196-brains-of-bilingual-readers-repress-negative-words?lite

10: Summary of Article This article talks about how a swear or a bad word doesn't affect bilingual the same way it would in their native language. The article talks about the test they conducted to see this. When reading negative words such as "failure" in their non-native language, bilingual Chinese-English speakers did not show the same brain response as seen when they read neutral words such as "aim." The finding suggests that the brain can process the meaning of words in the unconscious, while "withholding" information from our conscious minds. It talks about bilingual people typically responding less emotionally to words in their second language. For example, swear words in a foreign tongue don't usually feel as shocking; likewise, some research have found that people are more comfortable talking about embarrassing topics in a second language. It explained how their experiment toke place with a large populous and had defined variables like any good experiment etc.

11: Opinion on matter This is interesting especially since I am bilingual and this article made me wonder about their assumption. It's weird how our mind is so powerful and can make such a large impact on how we view things and do things. However I guess since its the central control for the body it would have such a large impact.Though it is true because of the way how people dream and how it seems real. Our mind can play large tricks on us and this is a prime example of such a case. I've always have heard phrases such as you can be what you think, its how you feel not what you feel, you can do whatever you put your mind to etc. This experiment gives new meaning to all of these phrases and just reinforced the idea of how powerful the brain is into my head. Lots of things are physiological and we don't know it. We can't control such a thing either we can't decide that we get a good vibe from someone or a bad vibe. However it is very amazing that research is being done into this field which means that eventually we will find techniques to manipulate our mind into doing what we want or what our "mind" wants.

12: Strange Organism Has Unique Roots in the Tree of Life Talk about extended family: A single-celled organism in Norway has been called "mankind's furthest relative." It is so far removed from the organisms we know that researchers claim it belongs to a new base group, called a kingdom, on the tree of life. "We have found an unknown branch of the tree of life that lives in this lake. It is unique! So far we know of no other group of organisms that descend from closer to the roots of the tree of life than this species," study researcher Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, of the University of Oslo, in Norway, said in a statement.The organism, a type of protozoan, was found by researchers in a lake near Oslo. Protozoans have been known to science since 1865, but because they are difficult to culture in the lab, researchers haven't been able to get a grip on their genetic makeup. They were placed in the protist kingdom on the tree of life mostly based on observations of their size and shape.In this study, published March 21 in the journal Molecular Biology Evolution, the researchers were able to grow enough of the protozoans, called Collodictyon, in the lab to analyze its genome. They found it doesn't genetically fit into any of the previously discovered kingdoms of life. It's an organism with membrane-bound internal structures, called a eukaryote, but genetically it isn't an animal, plant, fungi, algae or protist (the five main groups of eukayotes). [Extreme Life on Earth: 8 Bizarre Creatures].Canadian Genomics Network www.genomealberta.caJoin G-SIN today. Canada's premier genomics sector innovation networkPottinger Gaherty "The microorganism is among the oldest currently living eukaryote organism we know of. It evolved around one billion years ago, plus or minus a few hundred million years. It gives us a better understanding of what early life on Earth looked like," Shalchian-Tabrizi said.

13: Mix of features What it looked like was small. The organism the researchers found is about 30 to 50 micrometers (about the width of a human hair) long. It eats algae and doesn't like to live in groups. It is also unique because instead of one or two flagella (cellular tails that help organisms move) it has four.The organism also has unique characteristics usually associated with protists and amoebas, two different branches. This left researchers wondering where the microorganism fits into the tree of life. They analyzed its genetic code to see how similar it is to organisms that have already been genetically catalogued."We are surprised," said study researcher Dag Klaveness, also of the University of Oslo, because the species is unique. They compared its genome with those in hundreds of databases around the world, with little luck. In all that looking they "have only found a partial match with a gene sequence in Tibet." The researchers think this organism belongs in a new group on the tree of life. Researchers can't say for certain if other organisms previously classified as protozoans are in this same branch without their genetic information. Its closest known genetic relative is the protist Diphylleia, though other organisms that haven't been analyzed genetically may be closer relatives."It is conceivable that only a few other species exist in this family branch of the tree of life, which has survived all the many hundreds of millions of years since the eukaryote species appeared on Earth for the first time," Klaveness said.Because it has features of two separate kingdoms of life, the researchers think that the ancestors of this group might be the organisms that gave rise to these other kingdoms, the amoeba and the protist, as well. If that's true, they would be some of the oldest eukaryotes, giving rise to all other eukaryotes, including humans. http://www.livescience.com/19955-ancient-protist-kingdom.html

14: Summary of Article This article takes about the discovery of an organism which is man kinds most distant relative. It is so far based that researchers claim that it belongs to a new base group called a kingdom, on the tree of life. The organism, a type of protozoan, was found by researchers in a lake near Oslo. Protozoans have been known to science since 1865, but because they are difficult to culture in the lab, researchers haven't been able to get a grip on their genetic makeup. They were placed in the protist kingdom on the tree of life mostly based on observations of their size and shape. This organism is very strange because it doesn't fit into anyone of the existing kingdoms. It has membrane bound internal structures which should make it eukaryote but it doesn't fit genetically into any of the five main groups of eukaryotes. This microorganism is one of the oldest eukaryotes that we know of. It has been around for one billion years plus minus a few hundred years. With the discovery of this organism scientists can get a better understanding of early life on earth. This organism has features from two separate kingdoms of life which forces the researchers to think that the ancestors of this group might be the organism that gave rise to these other kingdoms, the amoeba and the protists. If that is true then these would be one of the oldest eukaryotes which gave rise to all other eukaryotes including humans.

15: Opinion on matter This is another attempt by humanity to try to understand how man came about. Though man is wrong most of the time because of human imperfection. Discoveries such as these help us understand or grasp some sort of scientific explanation to how man arrived on this planet. It is exciting and I can't wait to see how this finding helps further the research that is taking place. I find it interesting how almost everything man knows not because he's intelligent but because its there. We only know what we know which gives us a hard time trying to understand how we came to exist. With increasing scientific knowledge we are just scratching the surface of this issue. For example it is believed that the big bang started life and everything as we know it. However scientists have discovered black holes which might have existed before the big bang itself. Which raises the question on how accurate the assumption is. Ever since man was able to reflect on what is around man has wondered about existence in general trying to gain an answer. Religion has offered answers which man has never been fully able to understand but with the increase of scientific knowledge now many people are turning towards the logical method. It will be interesting to see the answers that come from this field of study in the near future.

16: Nanotechnology Breakthrough Could Dramatically Improve Medical Tests A laboratory test used to detect disease and perform biological research could be made more than 3 million times more sensitive, according to researchers who combined standard biological tools with a breakthrough in nanotechnology.The increased performance could greatly improve the early detection of cancer, Alzheimer's disease and other disorders by allowing doctors to detect far lower concentrations of telltale markers than was previously practical.The breakthrough involves a common biological test called an immunoassay, which mimics the action of the immune system to detect the presence of biomarkers -- the chemicals associated with diseases. When biomarkers are present in samples, such as those taken from humans, the immunoassay test produces a fluorescent glow (light) that can be measured in a laboratory. The greater the glow, the more of the biomarker is present. However, if the amount of biomarker is too small, the fluorescent light is too faint to be detected, setting the limit of detection. A major goal in immunoassay research is to improve the detection limit.The Princeton researchers tackled this limitation by using nanotechnology to greatly amplify the faint fluorescence from a sample. By fashioning glass and gold structures so smallthey could only be seen with a powerful electron microscope, the scientists were able to drastically increase the fluorescence signal compared to conventional immunoassays, leading to a 3-million-fold improvement in the limit of detection. That is, the enhanced immunoassay would require 3 million times fewer biomarkers to be present compared to a conventional immunoassay. (In technical terms, the researchers measured an improvement in the detection limit from 0.9 nanomolars to 300 attomolars.)"This advance opens many new and exciting opportunities for immunoassays and other detectors, as well as in disease early detection and treatment," said Stephen Chou, the Joseph C. Elgin Professor of Engineering, who led the research team. "Furthermore, the new assay is very easy to use, since for the person conducting the test, there will be no difference from the old one- they do the procedure in exactly the same way."The researchers published their results in two recent journal articles. One, published May 10 in Nanotechnology, describes the physics and engineering of the fluorescence-enhancing material. The other, published April 20 in Analytical Chemistry, demonstrates the effect in immunoassays. In addition to Chou, the authors include post-doctoral researchers Weihua Zhang, Liangcheng Zhou and Jonathan Hu and graduate students Fei Ding, Wei Ding, Wen-Di Li and Yuxuan Wang.The work was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and the National Science Foundation.

17: The key to the breakthrough lies in a new artificial nanomaterial called D2PA, which has been under development in Chou's lab for several years. D2PA is a thin layer of gold nanostructures surrounded glass pillars just 60 nanometers in diameter. (A nanometer is one billionth of a meter; that means about 1,000 of the pillars laid side by side would be as wide as a human hair.) The pillars are spaced 200 nanometers apart and capped with a disk of gold on each pillar. The sides of each pillar are speckled with even tinier gold dots about 10 to 15 nanometers in diameter. In previous work, Chou has shown that this unique structure boosts the collection and transmission of light in unusual ways -- in particular, a 1 billion-fold increase in an effect called surface Raman scattering. The current work now demonstrates a giant signal enhancement with fluorescence. In a typical immunoassay, a sample such as blood, saliva or urine is taken from a patient and added to small glass vials containing antibodies that are designed to "capture" or bind to biomarkers of interest in the sample. Another set of antibodies that have been labeled with a fluorescent molecule are then added to the mix. If the biomarkers are not present in the vials, the fluorescent detection antibodies do not attach to anything and are washed away. The new technology developed at Princeton allows the fluorescence to be seen when very few antibodies find their mark. In addition to diagnostic uses, immunoassays are commonly used in drug discovery and other biological research. More generally, fluorescence plays a significant role in other areas of chemistry and engineering, from light-emitting displays to solar energy harvesting, and the D2PA material could find uses in those fields, Chou said. As next steps in his research, Chou said he is conducting tests to compare the sensitivity of the D2PA-enhanced immunoassay to a conventional immunoassay in detecting breast and prostate cancers. In addition he is collaborating with researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York to develop tests to detect proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease at a very early stage. "You can have very early detection with our approach," he said

18: Summary of Article This article is talking about a recent discovery by scientist which allow them to conduct laboratory experiments to detect diseases and perform biological research. The breakthrough involves something to do with the detection ability of the technology right now and its limitations. The breakthrough involves a common biological test called an immunoassay, which mimics the action of the immune system to detect the presence of biomarkers – the chemicals associated with diseases. When biomarkers are present in samples, such as those taken from humans, the immunoassay test produces a fluorescent glow (light) that can be measured in a laboratory. The greater the glow, the more of the biomarker is present. However, if the amount of biomarker is too small, the fluorescent light is too faint to be detected, setting the limit of detection. A major goal in immunoassay research is to improve the detection limit.The researchers tackled the limitation by using nanotechnology to greatly amplify the faint fluorescence from a sample.By fashioning glass and gold structures so small they could only be seen with a powerful electron microscope, the scientists were able to drastically increase the fluorescence signal compared to conventional immunoassays, leading to a 3-million-fold improvement in the limit of detection. That is, the enhanced immunoassay would require 3 million times fewer biomarkers to be present compared to a conventional immunoassay.This will help with the detection of diseases such as cancer, alzheimers, and other disorders.

19: Opinion on Article This is a great discovery for man kind because the future of technology lies in Nanotechnology. This advancement will allow us to see diseases at an earlier stage before they harm or kill the human. Many people find out about cancer when it is very lethal to them and there is no treatment for it. This causes many people to suffer and eventually pass away.This advancement is a great joy for humanity because it will allow us to find another way to prolong human. But that probably might not be a good thing for the earth. Its very interesting to see how we will alter the planet with these new advancements. If you look into the past with every 1 step forward we take with technology we take at least 5 steps back. We always end up harming more then benefiting man kind. I can't wait for the technology to increase so we have new gates open up as well. I only hope that with these advancements we don't cause damage to the earth. I was interested in this topic because it is one of the fields of science that is seen to be the future of technology. I can't wait for the time when we are able to produce clean and efficient energy. We can then use this for many things such as helping the environment,producing clean water, producing efficient products, etc. Advancements such as these will help us solve many already existing problems in the world such as shortage of fresh water,food, etc. This is all speculation but in the end all we can hope for is the best.

20: Dark Chocolate Could Prevent Heart Problems in High-Risk People Daily consumption of dark chocolate can reduce cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks and strokes, in people with metabolic syndrome (a cluster of factors that increases the risk of developing heart disease and diabetes), finds a study published in the British MedicalJournal.Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Dark chocolate (containing at least 60% cocoa solids) is rich in flavonoids -- known to have heart protecting effects -- but this has only been examined in short term studies.So a team of researchers from Melbourne, Australia used a mathematical model to predict the long-term health effects and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in 2,013 people already at high risk of heart disease.All participants had high blood pressure and met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, but had no history of heart disease or diabetes and were not on blood pressure lowering therapy.With 100% compliance (best case scenario), the researchers show that daily dark chocolate consumption could potentially avert 70 non-fatal and 15 fatal cardiovascular events per 10,000 people treated over 10 years.Even when compliance levels were reduced to 80%, the number of non-fatal and fatal events potentially averted was 55 and 10 per 10,000 people treated over 10 years, and could still be considered an effective intervention strategy.The model also suggested that $A40 (25; 31; $42) could be cost effectively spent per person per year on dark chocolate prevention strategies and could be used for advertising, educational campaigns, or subsidizing dark chocolate in this high risk population, they add.

21: The authors stress that only non-fatal stroke and non-fatal heart attack were assessed in their analysis, and that the potential effects on other cardiovascular events, such as heart failure, are yet to be tested.Also important, they say, is that these protective effects have only been shown for dark chocolate (at least 60-70% cocoa), rather than for milk or white chocolate, probably due to the higher levels of flavonoids found in dark chocolate.Nevertheless, they conclude that the blood pressure and cholesterol lowering effects of plain dark chocolate "could represent an effective and cost effective strategy for people with metabolic syndrome (and no diabetes)." http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120531200822.htm

22: Summary of Article This article is talking about a recent report that was given by a team of scientists from Australia. They found out that by eating dark chocolate the risk of Cardiovascular diseases harming you. They conducted an experiment on of 2,013 people and tried to calculate the cost of the dark chocolate and its effects on the health of the person. They ended up with the cost of about 40 pounds per person for a year of dark chocolate for this case. It also doesn't have a negative impact on health but only positive. The dark chocolate contains 60% cocoa solids making it rich flavonoids which has been known to have heart protecting effects.The researchers set up a very good experiment controlling most variables.

23: Opinion on Article This is a great excuse for me to eat dark chocolate when I get old. Though I don't like dark chocolate. This is something which is important for so many people around the world because the leading killer in the world is Cardiovascular diseases. This could help us prolong life again and make life easier for individuals around the world. Everyone should take care of their health from the very start which will not lead to problems when someone grows older. Cardiovascular diseases are going to be a big problem especially with the way young people are eating at fast food restaurants and not taking care of their health. If this keeps up then scientists will have to come up with more then just dark chocolate to deal with this problem. Non the less this is a beneficial discovery and a good one for humanity.

24: Plate Tectonics Cannot Explain Dynamics of Earth and Crust Formation More Than Three Billion Years Ago The current theory of continental drift provides a good model for understanding terrestrial processes through history. However, while plate tectonics is able to successfully shed light on processes up to 3 billion years ago, the theory isn't sufficient in explaining the dynamics of Earth and crust formation before that point and through to the earliest formation of planet, some 4.6 billion years ago. This is the conclusion of Tomas Naraa of the Nordic Center for Earth Evolution at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, a part of the University of Copenhagen. His new doctoral dissertation has just been published by the journal Nature."Using radiometric dating, one can observe that Earth's oldest continents were created in geodynamic environments which were markedly different than current environments characterised by plate tectonics. Therefore, plate tectonics as we know it today is not a good model for understanding the processes at play during the earliest episodes of Earths's history, those beyond 3 billion years ago. There was another crust dynamic and crust formation that occurred under other processes," explains Tomas Nraa, who has been a PhD student at the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland -- GEUS.Plate tectonics is a theory of continental drift and sea floor spreading. A wide range of phenomena from volcanism, earthquakes and undersea earthquakes (and pursuant tsunamis) to variations in climate and species development on Earth can be explained by the plate tectonics model, globally recognized during the 1960's. Tomas Nraa can now demonstrate that the half-century old model no longer suffices."Plate tectonics theory can be applied to about 3 billion years of the Earth's history. However, the Earth is older, up to 4.567 billion years old. We can now demonstrate that there has been a significant shift in the Earth's dynamics. Thus, the Earth, under the first third of its history, developed under conditions other than what can be explained using the plate tectonics model," explains Tomas Nraa. Tomas is currently employed as a project researcher at GEUS.

25: Since 2006, the 40-year-old Tomas Nraa has conducted studies of rocks sourced in the 3.85 billion year-old bedrock of the Nuuk region in West Greenland. Using isotopes of the element hafnium (Hf), he has managed to shed light upon a research topic that has puzzled geologists around the world for 30 years. Nraa's instructor, Professor Minik Rosing of the Natural History Museum of Denmark considers Nraa's dissertation a seminal work:"We have come to understand the context of the Earth's and continent's origins in an entirely new way. Climate and nutrient cycles which nourish all terrestrial organisms are driven by plate tectonics. So, if the Earth's crust formation was controlled and initiated by other factors, we need to find out what controlled climate and the environments in which life began and evolved 4 billion years ago. This fundamental understanding can be of great significance for the understanding of future climate change," says Minik Rosing, who adds that: "An enormous job waits ahead, and Nraas' dissertation is an epochal step."

26: Summary of Article This article is talking about a scientist who explains why the theory of continental drift provides a good model for understanding terrestrial processes through history. However, while plate tectonics is able to successfully shed light on processes up to 3 billion years ago, the theory doesn't explaining the dynamics of Earth and crust formation before that point and through to the earliest formation of planet, some 4.6 billion years ago. In this article he conducts experiment to explain this weird puzzle. Saying that with better understanding of how the plate tectonics formed we could have a better grasp upon climate change which will effect us in the near future.

27: Opinion on Article New discoveries are being made every day and the reason why they are,is largely because the old ones are wrong. These type of things just go to show you how small human minds are. We think were right about one thing and then after a few years of completely following it we find that its wrong. Though science is not perfect just like every other thing on this planet however it is something which is necessary because even wrong it is still helpful. I find this very interesting as it shows the cycle of knowledge. We take wrong steps which then eventually leads us to the right path. This happens over and over again for example the recent discovery of black holes existing before the big bang will cause problems for that theory. This article is also interesting because it explains how understanding the formation of plate tectonics will help us better understand climate change.

28: Video Games May Be Helpful in Treating 'Lazy Eye' in Adults Suppose someone told you that researchers had discovered that a major cause of vision loss is treatable, and that the most promising new treatment is -- playing video games? It may sound far-fetched, but those are the conclusions of a special article, "Removing the Brakes on Plasticity in the Amblyopic Brain," in the June issue of Optometry and Vision Science, official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.It's long been thought that after childhood, it's too late to treat "lazy eye" leading to permanent vision loss (amblyopia). But new research suggests that the visual cortex of the brain has enough "neural plasticity" to respond to treatment for amblyopia even in adulthood, according to the article by Dennis Michael Levi, OD, PhD, of UC Berkeley. What's more, initial studies suggest that specially designed video games may be effective in improving vision for adults or older children with amblyopia. For his work on neural plasticity in amblyopia, Dr Levi was named winner of the 2011 Charles F. Prentice Award. How Do New Findings on "Neural Plasticity" in Adults Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is vision loss that occurs when one eye is weaker than the other -- most often from strabismus, or "turned eye." Over time, the visual cortex ignores the information from the weaker eye. The main treatment is patching of the better eye, which makes the weaker eye work harder. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120606132200.htm

29: Summary and Opinion The article is talking is about how playing video games is a cure to a cause of vision lose. This cause of vision loss the lazy eye seemed to be thought that after childhood it was to late to treat the lazy eye. This article talks about how the visual cortex of the brain has enough "neural plasticity" to respond to the treatment for amblyopia in even adulthood. It also takes about how some specially designed video games may be more effective in improving vision for adults or older children with amblyopia. My opinion on the article is that now I have a reason to tell my parents to play video games. It's weird how somethings seem so impossible however they still happen. Thats the beauty of life we don't know everything and thats why anything is possible. Thats one of the best parts about being human is the unlimited possibilities that exist in the world. The fact that this makes sense is the most interesting part about this article for me. This just goes to show you how we have to keep an open mind and not expect a solution to be something that we think it should be.

30: Armored Caterpillar Could Inspire New Body Armor Military body armor and vehicle and aircraft frames could be transformed by incorporating the unique structure of the club-like arm of a crustacean that looks like an armored caterpillar, according to findings by a team of researchers at the University of California, Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering and elsewhere published online June 7, in the journal Science.The bright orange fist-like club of the mantis shrimp, or stomatopod, a 4-inch long crustacean found in tropical waters, accelerates underwater faster than a 22-caliber bullet. Repeated blows can destroy mollusk shells and crab exoskeletons, both of which have been studied for decades for their impact-resistant qualities. The power of the mantis shrimp is exciting, but David Kisailus, an assistant professor at the Bourns College of Engineering, and his collaborators, were interested in what enabled the club to withstand 50,000 high-velocity strikes on prey during its lifespan. Essentially, how does something withstand 50,000 bullet impacts?They found that the club is a highly complex structure, composed of three specialized regions that work together to create a structure tougher than many engineered ceramics. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607142355.htm

31: Summary and Opinion The article talks about how the crustacean could be an inspiration to build new body armor. This mantis shrimp is being looked at because of its marvelous abilities.The crustacean (mantis shrimp) can go underwater faster than a 22-caliber bullet. The blows in the water can mollusk shells and crab exoskeletons. The shell of the crustacean can with stand 50,000 high-velocity strikes from prey during its lifespan. The 50,000 high velocity strikes are like 50,000 bullet impacts. Scientist wanted to figure this out and found that the structure is very complexed the layers help make it very secure and have there own specialties. The structure is also very light weight but its very strong and durable. This is the type of stuff that they need to build strong and effective weapons. My opinion is that this is just another thing that we learned from nature and used it to advance. All of technology is very much based on what nature has to offer us. I find this to be a very interesting fact of life. For example when man tried to fly at the very beginning they took the anatomy of birds into consideration and at one point thinking that attaching feathers meant that you could fly. We take almost everything from nature both the building materials and the designs to those things. Things such as medicine, planes, helicopters, living in civilizations, etc. We have all gotten from nature however the saddest part about all of this is that we use this new found knowledge only to damage nature.

32: Experiments Show 'Artificial Gravity' Can Prevent Muscle Loss In Space When the Apollo 11 crew got back from the moon, 40 years ago this week, they showed no ill effects from seven days spent in weightlessness. But as American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts began conducting longer-duration space flights, scientists noticed a disturbing trend: the longer humans stay in zero gravity, the more muscle they lose. Space travelers exposed to weightlessness for a year or more — such as those on a mission to Mars, for example — could wind up crippled on their return to Earth, unable to walk or even sit up.Now, researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have conducted the first human experiments using a device intended to counteract this effect — a NASA centrifuge that spins a test subject with his or her feet outward 30 times a minute, creating an effect similar to standing against a force two and half times that of gravity. Working with volunteers kept in bed for three weeks to simulate zero-gravity conditions, they found that just one hour a day on the centrifuge was sufficient to restore muscle synthesis."This gives us a potential countermeasure that we might be able to use on extended space flights and solve a lot of the problems with muscle wasting," said UTMB associate professor Douglas Paddon-Jones, senior author of a paper on the centrifuge research in the July issue of the Journal of Applied Physiology. "This small amount of loading, one hour a day of essentially standing up, maintained the potential for muscle growth." (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090722165459.htm)

33: Summary and Opinion The article talks about an experiment scientist did to try and figure out a way to help reduce the rate at which you lose muscle in space at . They created zero gravity simulations and tested it on some 15 young healthy men volunteers. They put through stimulation for somewhere about 21 days and there protein and muscle tissues etc were all measured all the time. They made all of them lay in a slightly head down position which essentially is like zero gravity. They had to some members of the group just lay and with others they made them do some physical work along with the technique they developed. Which employees a NASA centrifuge that spins a test subject with his or her feet outward 30 times a minute, creating an effect similar to standing against a force two and half times that of gravity. Working with volunteers kept in bed for three weeks to simulate zero-gravity conditions, they found that just one hour a day on the centrifuge was sufficient to restore muscle synthesis. They ended up with the conclusion that if the person stands up for an hour or so there muscles wont reiterate at such a rapid rate. In my opinion this is one of the things that we as humans have to do to make advancement in space. Not just finding ways to help stop muscles from falling apart but just how to survive in space without us dieing or harming our selves. Since space is so vast and with our current technology we would`t survive a trip to mars. I find this article to be interesting because this is the future of human exploration and finding things such as this to help in the exploration is something I want to know about.

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  • By: Abdul R.
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  • Title: Abdul Rehman Chemistry Articles
  • Tags: Mr.Foreman
  • Published: about 2 years ago