FC: Science Scrapbook
1: "A fact is a simple statement that everyone believes. It is innocent, unless found guilty. A hypothesis is a novel suggestion that no one wants to believe. It is guilty, until found effective. " ~Edward Teller
2: How Much Will Earth's Seas Rise? Answers Lacking, Scientists Warn It turns out the ocean isn't like water in a bathtub; it doesn't rise uniformly as more water pours in. As global warming raises sea levels, some places are expected to see higher-than-average increases, and a few places may even see decreases. Currently, projections suggest that over the course of this century, sea levels will rise between 8 inches and 6.6 feet (20 centimeters and 2 meters) around the planet. Scientists know this increase will be driven by the expansion of water as it warms (warmer water takes up more space) and the melting of ice, most importantly, ice stored in the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica. [Stunning Photos of Antarctic Ice] But the effects of warming water and melting ice on sea-level rise are expected to vary depending on location. What's more, some of the dynamics involved aren't well represented in models used to make projections for the future, write Willis and his co-author, John Church of the Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research in their essay.
3: The melting of the Antarctic and Greeland ice sheets presents the largest uncertainty for the future, but air, land and water also play roles in changes to sea level, they write. For instance, sea level (which is measured relative to land) in the vicinity of the ice melt actually decreases, because the ground underneath the melting ice rebounds as the heavy ice disappears. Planet-scale effects also influence regional changes. Mass that starts out locked up as ice in the high latitudes spreads around the planet once it has melted and flowed into the ocean. This re-arrangement of mass can tweak the tilt of the Earth's axis. In turn, a slight change in the tilt of axis also redistributes the oceans because the forces of the Earth's rotation help shape the surface of the ocean, Willis said. Likewise, thermal expansion doesn't play out uniformly across the oceans. For example, during an El Niño event, which is associated with warmer waters in the equatorial Pacific, the arrival of warmer waters off the California coast lifts sea levels. During La Niña, when waters are cooler, sea levels tend to subside, Willis said. Climate change is expected to change ocean currents and the winds that help drive ocean currents. These changes will affect the distribution of heat within the oceans, and, as a result, affect changes in sea level.
4: Summary of Article This article talks about the effects of sea levels rising and also when and where we should expect it. The article talks about how the sea is not like a bath tub were you add water and the level rises. As global warming rises sea levels the oceans some places are supposed to see a larger increase then usual. However some other places will see a decrease in sea level. The reason why this is so is largely due to the melting of the Antarctic and Greeland ice sheets which presents the largest uncertainty for the future, but air, land and water also play roles in changes to sea level.
5: Opinion on the matter Global warming is something that is serious and a large event in human history. Especially since global warming is causing sea levels to rise. Due to human history lots of human civilizations are around water because of the ability to transport. Since sea levels are rising we can think that it is going to have a large impact on all of humanity. If we knew where and when this was going to take place it would be much easier for humans as a whole. The main point of the article is the fact that it is discussing ways to find the time and place out. Which I think is crucial because it could help us plan for what is to come.
6: Rare Venus Transit of Sun in June to Amaze Skywatchers Your last chance to watch Venus cross the face of the sun is less than a month away.This rare event, known as a transit of Venus, will take place on June 5 for Western Hemisphere observers, though it will be June 6 local time for skywatchers in the Eastern Hemisphere. Over a seven-hour span, Earth's so-called sister planet will trek across the solar disk from our perspective, appearing in silhouette as a slow-moving tiny black dot, weather permitting.Venus transits occur in pairs that are eight years apart, but these dual events take place less than once per century. The last one happened in 2004, and the next won't come until 2117."Only six such events have occurred since the invention of the telescope," said astrophysicist Sten Odenwald, of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., in a statement.Venus transits hold a special place in astronomical history. In the 18th century, scientists and explorers traveled around the world to watch them, in an effort to calculate the size of our solar system.The idea came from astronomer and mathematician Edmond Halley, of comet fame. In the 1700s, scientists knew the relative size of the solar system — they knew that Jupiter orbited the sun about five times farther out than Earth did, for example — but its absolute dimensions remained a mystery.And NASA's Hubble Space Telescope will observe the transit using the moon as a mirror, to test out a technique that could eventually probe the atmospheres of faraway alien planets.
7: Observing tips The coming transit is also a seminal event for skywatchers, since very few folks alive today are likely to be around to see the next one in 2117.At least part of the June 5/6 transit will be visible from most places around the world. But if you want to see the entire seven-hour event, you may have to jump on a plane or gas up the car. The whole transit will be widely visible from eastern Asia and eastern Australia, New Zealand, the western Pacific, Hawaii, Alaska, northern Canada and most of Greenland.Warning: NEVER look at the sun with your naked eye, binoculars or a telescope. Serious and permanent eye damage, including blindness, can result.To safely observe the sun, you can buy special solar filters to fit over your equipment, or welder's glasses to wear over your eyes. But the safest and simplest technique is to watch the transit indirectly with the solar projection method. Use your telescope, or one side of your binoculars, to project a magnified image of the sun’s disk onto a shaded white piece of cardboard.The image on the cardboard will be safe to view and photograph. But make sure to cover the telescope's finder scope or the unused half of the binoculars, and don't let anybody look through them. NASA also plans to air live footage of the transit taken by various instruments. Check the space agency's website (www.nasa.gov) for specifics as June 5 approaches.
8: Summary of Article The article is talking about rare Venus transit which only takes place in pairs which are 8 years apart. However they only happen less then once every century. This will take place on June 5 for the western hemisphere sky watchers. It will take place somewhere between 6 o'clock local time. Over a seven-hour span, Earth's so-called sister planet will trek across the solar disk from our perspective, appearing in silhouette as a slow-moving tiny black dot, weather permitting.
9: Opinion on the Article This is something that I am looking forward. This only takes place two times in one century. Also not to mention that the next time its going to take place is in 2117. This event has only taken place 6 times since the telescope was invented. This is exciting for both the scientific community and the sky watchers who love to watch space and the sky in general .
10: 42% of US Will Be Obese in 2030, Study Predicts Obesity rates in the United States will continue to rise over the next two decades, a new study says.By 2030, 42 percent of people in the U.S. will be obese, meaning 32 million more people will become obese in the coming years, the study found. Currently, about 34 percent of adults and 17 percent of children are obese.The percentage of Americans who are severely obese, defined those carrying more than 80 pounds of extra weight, will increase from 5 percent to 11 percent by 2030, the researchers from Duke University said.While previous predictions had suggested obesity rates could reach 50 percent or more by 2030, these were based on the steep rise in obesity rates seen in previous decades. However, more recent data suggest obesity rates have been leveling off. The new study identified variables that may predict obesity, such as changes in the country's demographics, changes in the price of healthy and fast foods, and the number of fast-food restaurants. The researchers then modeled how changes in these variables could lead to changes in the country's obesity rate.Still, the researchers noted predicting obesity rates is tricky, and the real percentages could differ if their assumptions do not hold true.The findings were presented today (May 7) at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Weight of the Nation Conference in Washington, D.C.
11: Summary of Article This article talks about an experiment that was conducted by two different organizations they had different variables in their experiment to end up with the result. However according to their results by 2030, 42 percent of people in the U.S. will be obese which turns out to be 32 million more people who will become obese. Opinion on matter In my opinion this is a very big issue for the United States. This large increase is just in Obese people not to mention the people who will be over weight. Then people wonder why athletes are paid such a large amount of money. The U.S. is a country with only roughly about 7 percent of the worlds population how ever it consumes 33 percent of the worlds resources. Its a sad reality that we spend more money on pet food in North America then we do to help the people in poverty.
12: Brain Represses Bad Words for Bilingual Readers Reading a nasty word in a second language may not pack the punch it would in your native tongue, thanks to an unconscious brain quirk that tamps down potentially disturbing emotions, a new study finds.When reading negative words such as "failure" in their non-native language, bilingual Chinese-English speakers did not show the same brain response as seen when they read neutral words such as "aim." The finding suggests that the brain can process the meaning of words in the unconscious, while "withholding" information from our conscious minds."We devised this experiment to unravel the unconscious interactions between the processing of emotional content and access to the native language system. We think we've identified, for the first time, the mechanism by which emotion controls fundamental thought processes outside consciousness," study researcher Yanjing Wu, a psychologist at Bangor University in the United Kingdom, said in a statement. "Perhaps this is a process that resembles the mental repression mechanism that people have theorized about but never previously located.."Bilingual people typically respond less emotionally to words in their second language. For example, swear words in a foreign tongue don't usually feel as shocking; likewise, some research has found that people are more comfortable talking about embarrassing topics in a second language. [7 Thoughts That Are Bad For You]To unravel the emotions of language, Wu and his colleague Guillaume Thierry, also of Bangor University, recruited 15 native English speakers, 15 native Chinese speakers, and 15 native Chinese speakers who were also fluent in English (all had first learned English around age 12). They set up an experiment in which these volunteers saw word pairs on a screen. One of the words was always neutral, while the other could be neutral, positive or negative. In addition, each word was two syllables in Chinese, with the first syllable of each word always sounding the same. For example, the positive word "honesty" was paired with the neutral word "program." In Chinese, honesty translates to "chengshi" and program to "chengxu." Negative words included failure, war, discomfort and unfortunate The participants were asked to push a button if the words were linked in meaning. (In some pairs, they were.) Meanwhile, the scientists used electrodes on the scalp to measure the electrical response in the brain to reading these pairs of words.
13: Self-protection The findings revealed that although they weren't aware of it, the bilingual participants' brains were translating the positive and neutral words into Chinese as they read them in English. But surprisingly, this response was absent when they read negative words. "We were extremely surprised by our finding," Thierry said in a statement. "We were expecting to find modulation between the different words — and perhaps a heightened reaction to the emotional word — but what we found was the exact opposite to what we expected — a cancellation of the response to the negative words." It's not yet clear why the brain dampens the response to these words, the researchers report Tuesday (May 8) in the Journal of Neuroscience "We think this is a protective mechanism," Thierry said. "We know that in trauma, for example, people behave very differently. Surface conscious processes are modulated by a deeper emotional system in the brain. Perhaps this brain mechanism spontaneously minimizes negative impact of disturbing emotional content on our thinking, to prevent causing anxiety or mental discomfort."
14: Summary of Article This article talks about how a swear or a bad word doesn't affect bilingual the same way it would in their native language. The article talks about the test they conducted to see this. When reading negative words such as "failure" in their non-native language, bilingual Chinese-English speakers did not show the same brain response as seen when they read neutral words such as "aim." The finding suggests that the brain can process the meaning of words in the unconscious, while "withholding" information from our conscious minds.
15: Opinion on matter This is interesting especially since I am bilingual and this article made me wonder about there assumption. It's weird how our mind is so powerful and can make such a large impact on how we view things and do things. However I guess since its the central control for the body it would have such a large impact.Though it is true because of the way how people dream and how it seems real. Our mind can play large tricks on us and this is a prime example.
16: Strange Organism Has Unique Roots in the Tree of Life Talk about extended family: A single-celled organism in Norway has been called "mankind's furthest relative." It is so far removed from the organisms we know that researchers claim it belongs to a new base group, called a kingdom, on the tree of life. "We have found an unknown branch of the tree of life that lives in this lake. It is unique! So far we know of no other group of organisms that descend from closer to the roots of the tree of life than this species," study researcher Kamran Shalchian-Tabrizi, of the University of Oslo, in Norway, said in a statement.The organism, a type of protozoan, was found by researchers in a lake near Oslo. Protozoans have been known to science since 1865, but because they are difficult to culture in the lab, researchers haven't been able to get a grip on their genetic makeup. They were placed in the protist kingdom on the tree of life mostly based on observations of their size and shape.In this study, published March 21 in the journal Molecular Biology Evolution, the researchers were able to grow enough of the protozoans, called Collodictyon, in the lab to analyze its genome. They found it doesn't genetically fit into any of the previously discovered kingdoms of life. It's an organism with membrane-bound internal structures, called a eukaryote, but genetically it isn't an animal, plant, fungi, algae or protist (the five main groups of eukayotes). [Extreme Life on Earth: 8 Bizarre Creatures].Canadian Genomics Network www.genomealberta.caJoin G-SIN today. Canada's premier genomics sector innovation networkPottinger Gaherty "The microorganism is among the oldest currently living eukaryote organism we know of. It evolved around one billion years ago, plus or minus a few hundred million years. It gives us a better understanding of what early life on Earth looked like," Shalchian-Tabrizi said.
17: Mix of features What it looked like was small. The organism the researchers found is about 30 to 50 micrometers (about the width of a human hair) long. It eats algae and doesn't like to live in groups. It is also unique because instead of one or two flagella (cellular tails that help organisms move) it has four.The organism also has unique characteristics usually associated with protists and amoebas, two different branches. This left researchers wondering where the microorganism fits into the tree of life. They analyzed its genetic code to see how similar it is to organisms that have already been genetically catalogued."We are surprised," said study researcher Dag Klaveness, also of the University of Oslo, because the species is unique. They compared its genome with those in hundreds of databases around the world, with little luck. In all that looking they "have only found a partial match with a gene sequence in Tibet." The researchers think this organism belongs in a new group on the tree of life. Researchers can't say for certain if other organisms previously classified as protozoans are in this same branch without their genetic information. Its closest known genetic relative is the protist Diphylleia, though other organisms that haven't been analyzed genetically may be closer relatives."It is conceivable that only a few other species exist in this family branch of the tree of life, which has survived all the many hundreds of millions of years since the eukaryote species appeared on Earth for the first time," Klaveness said.Because it has features of two separate kingdoms of life, the researchers think that the ancestors of this group might be the organisms that gave rise to these other kingdoms, the amoeba and the protist, as well. If that's true, they would be some of the oldest eukaryotes, giving rise to all other eukaryotes, including humans.
18: Summary of Article This article takes about the discovery of an organism which is man kinds most distant relative. It is so far based that researchers claims that it belongs to a new base group called a kingdom, on the tree of life. The organism, a type of protozoan, was found by researchers in a lake near Oslo. Protozoans have been known to science since 1865, but because they are difficult to culture in the lab, researchers haven't been able to get a grip on their genetic makeup. They were placed in the protist kingdom on the tree of life mostly based on observations of their size and shape.
19: Opinion on matter This is another attempt by humanity to try to understand how man came about. Though since is wrong large amounts of times because of human imperfection. Discoveries such as these help us understand or grasp some sort of scientific explanation to how man arrived on this planet. It is exciting and I can't wait to see how this finding helps further the research that is taking place.
20: Nanotechnology Breakthrough Could Dramatically Improve Medical Tests A laboratory test used to detect disease and perform biological research could be made more than 3 million times more sensitive, according to researchers who combined standard biological tools with a breakthrough in nanotechnology.The increased performance could greatly improve the early detection of cancer, Alzheimer's disease and other disorders by allowing doctors to detect far lower concentrations of telltale markers than was previously practical.The breakthrough involves a common biological test called an immunoassay, which mimics the action of the immune system to detect the presence of biomarkers -- the chemicals associated with diseases. When biomarkers are present in samples, such as those taken from humans, the immunoassay test produces a fluorescent glow (light) that can be measured in a laboratory. The greater the glow, the more of the biomarker is present. However, if the amount of biomarker is too small, the fluorescent light is too faint to be detected, setting the limit of detection. A major goal in immunoassay research is to improve the detection limit.The Princeton researchers tackled this limitation by using nanotechnology to greatly amplify the faint fluorescence from a sample. By fashioning glass and gold structures so smallthey could only be seen with a powerful electron microscope, the scientists were able to drastically increase the fluorescence signal compared to conventional immunoassays, leading to a 3-million-fold improvement in the limit of detection. That is, the enhanced immunoassay would require 3 million times fewer biomarkers to be present compared to a conventional immunoassay. (In technical terms, the researchers measured an improvement in the detection limit from 0.9 nanomolars to 300 attomolars.)"This advance opens many new and exciting opportunities for immunoassays and other detectors, as well as in disease early detection and treatment," said Stephen Chou, the Joseph C. Elgin Professor of Engineering, who led the research team. "Furthermore, the new assay is very easy to use, since for the person conducting the test, there will be no difference from the old one- they do the procedure in exactly the same way."The researchers published their results in two recent journal articles. One, published May 10 in Nanotechnology, describes the physics and engineering of the fluorescence-enhancing material. The other, published April 20 in Analytical Chemistry, demonstrates the effect in immunoassays. In addition to Chou, the authors include post-doctoral researchers Weihua Zhang, Liangcheng Zhou and Jonathan Hu and graduate students Fei Ding, Wei Ding, Wen-Di Li and Yuxuan Wang.The work was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and the National Science Foundation.
21: The key to the breakthrough lies in a new artificial nanomaterial called D2PA, which has been under development in Chou's lab for several years. D2PA is a thin layer of gold nanostructures surrounded glass pillars just 60 nanometers in diameter. (A nanometer is one billionth of a meter; that means about 1,000 of the pillars laid side by side would be as wide as a human hair.) The pillars are spaced 200 nanometers apart and capped with a disk of gold on each pillar. The sides of each pillar are speckled with even tinier gold dots about 10 to 15 nanometers in diameter. In previous work, Chou has shown that this unique structure boosts the collection and transmission of light in unusual ways -- in particular, a 1 billion-fold increase in an effect called surface Raman scattering. The current work now demonstrates a giant signal enhancement with fluorescence. In a typical immunoassay, a sample such as blood, saliva or urine is taken from a patient and added to small glass vials containing antibodies that are designed to "capture" or bind to biomarkers of interest in the sample. Another set of antibodies that have been labeled with a fluorescent molecule are then added to the mix. If the biomarkers are not present in the vials, the fluorescent detection antibodies do not attach to anything and are washed away. The new technology developed at Princeton allows the fluorescence to be seen when very few antibodies find their mark. In addition to diagnostic uses, immunoassays are commonly used in drug discovery and other biological research. More generally, fluorescence plays a significant role in other areas of chemistry and engineering, from light-emitting displays to solar energy harvesting, and the D2PA material could find uses in those fields, Chou said. As next steps in his research, Chou said he is conducting tests to compare the sensitivity of the D2PA-enhanced immunoassay to a conventional immunoassay in detecting breast and prostate cancers. In addition he is collaborating with researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York to develop tests to detect proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease at a very early stage. "You can have very early detection with our approach," he said
22: Summary of Article This article is talking about a recent discovery by scientist which allow them to conduct laboratory experiments to detect diseases and perform biological research. The breakthrough involves something to do with the detection ability of the technology right now and its limitations. This makes it harder for the scientists to see the disease and its light.The researchers tackled the limitation by using nanotechnology to greatly amplify the faint fluorescence from a sample
23: Opinion on Article This is a great discovery for man kind because the future of technology lies in Nanotechnology. This advancement will allow us to see diseases at an earlier stage before they harm or kill the human. This advancement is a great joy for humanity because it will allow us to find another way to prolong human. But that probably might not be a good thing for the earth. Even then this advancement is still a great step forward for man kind.
24: Dark Chocolate Could Prevent Heart Problems in High-Risk People Daily consumption of dark chocolate can reduce cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks and strokes, in people with metabolic syndrome (a cluster of factors that increases the risk of developing heart disease and diabetes), finds a study published in the British MedicalJournal.Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Dark chocolate (containing at least 60% cocoa solids) is rich in flavonoids -- known to have heart protecting effects -- but this has only been examined in short term studies.So a team of researchers from Melbourne, Australia used a mathematical model to predict the long-term health effects and cost effectiveness of daily dark chocolate consumption in 2,013 people already at high risk of heart disease.All participants had high blood pressure and met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, but had no history of heart disease or diabetes and were not on blood pressure lowering therapy.With 100% compliance (best case scenario), the researchers show that daily dark chocolate consumption could potentially avert 70 non-fatal and 15 fatal cardiovascular events per 10,000 people treated over 10 years.Even when compliance levels were reduced to 80%, the number of non-fatal and fatal events potentially averted was 55 and 10 per 10,000 people treated over 10 years, and could still be considered an effective intervention strategy.The model also suggested that $A40 (25; 31; $42) could be cost effectively spent per person per year on dark chocolate prevention strategies and could be used for advertising, educational campaigns, or subsidizing dark chocolate in this high risk population, they add.
25: The authors stress that only non-fatal stroke and non-fatal heart attack were assessed in their analysis, and that the potential effects on other cardiovascular events, such as heart failure, are yet to be tested.Also important, they say, is that these protective effects have only been shown for dark chocolate (at least 60-70% cocoa), rather than for milk or white chocolate, probably due to the higher levels of flavonoids found in dark chocolate.Nevertheless, they conclude that the blood pressure and cholesterol lowering effects of plain dark chocolate "could represent an effective and cost effective strategy for people with metabolic syndrome (and no diabetes)."
26: Summary of Article This article is talking about a recent report that was given by a team of scientists from Australia. They found out that by eating dark chocolate the risk of Cardiovascular diseases harming you. They conducted an experiment on of 2013 people and tried to calculate the cost of the dark chocolate and its effects on the health of the person. They ended up with the cost of about 40 pounds per person for a year of dark chocolate for this case. It also doesn't have a negative impact on health but only positive.
27: Opinion on Article This is a great excuse for me to eat chocolate when I get old. Though I don't like dark chocolate. This is something which is important for so many people around the world because the leading killer in the world is Cardiovascular diseases. This could help us prolong life again and make life easier for individuals around the world. This is a beneficial discovery and good for humanity.
28: Plate Tectonics Cannot Explain Dynamics of Earth and Crust Formation More Than Three Billion Years Ago The current theory of continental drift provides a good model for understanding terrestrial processes through history. However, while plate tectonics is able to successfully shed light on processes up to 3 billion years ago, the theory isn't sufficient in explaining the dynamics of Earth and crust formation before that point and through to the earliest formation of planet, some 4.6 billion years ago. This is the conclusion of Tomas Naraa of the Nordic Center for Earth Evolution at the Natural History Museum of Denmark, a part of the University of Copenhagen. His new doctoral dissertation has just been published by the journal Nature."Using radiometric dating, one can observe that Earth's oldest continents were created in geodynamic environments which were markedly different than current environments characterised by plate tectonics. Therefore, plate tectonics as we know it today is not a good model for understanding the processes at play during the earliest episodes of Earths's history, those beyond 3 billion years ago. There was another crust dynamic and crust formation that occurred under other processes," explains Tomas Nraa, who has been a PhD student at the Natural History Museum of Denmark and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland -- GEUS.Plate tectonics is a theory of continental drift and sea floor spreading. A wide range of phenomena from volcanism, earthquakes and undersea earthquakes (and pursuant tsunamis) to variations in climate and species development on Earth can be explained by the plate tectonics model, globally recognized during the 1960's. Tomas Nraa can now demonstrate that the half-century old model no longer suffices."Plate tectonics theory can be applied to about 3 billion years of the Earth's history. However, the Earth is older, up to 4.567 billion years old. We can now demonstrate that there has been a significant shift in the Earth's dynamics. Thus, the Earth, under the first third of its history, developed under conditions other than what can be explained using the plate tectonics model," explains Tomas Nraa. Tomas is currently employed as a project researcher at GEUS.
29: Since 2006, the 40-year-old Tomas Nraa has conducted studies of rocks sourced in the 3.85 billion year-old bedrock of the Nuuk region in West Greenland. Using isotopes of the element hafnium (Hf), he has managed to shed light upon a research topic that has puzzled geologists around the world for 30 years. Nraa's instructor, Professor Minik Rosing of the Natural History Museum of Denmark considers Nraa's dissertation a seminal work:"We have come to understand the context of the Earth's and continent's origins in an entirely new way. Climate and nutrient cycles which nourish all terrestrial organisms are driven by plate tectonics. So, if the Earth's crust formation was controlled and initiated by other factors, we need to find out what controlled climate and the environments in which life began and evolved 4 billion years ago. This fundamental understanding can be of great significance for the understanding of future climate change," says Minik Rosing, who adds that: "An enormous job waits ahead, and Nraas' dissertation is an epochal step."
30: Summary of Article This article is talking about a scientist who explains why the theory of continental drift provides a good model for understanding terrestrial processes through history. However, while plate tectonics is able to successfully shed light on processes up to 3 billion years ago, the theory doesn't explaining the dynamics of Earth and crust formation before that point and through to the earliest formation of planet, some 4.6 billion years ago. In this article he offers a theory which can be used to go back all 4.6 billion years.
31: Opinion on Article New discoveries are being made every day and the reason why they are is largely because the old ones are wrong. These type of things just go to show you how small human minds are. We think were right about one thing and then after a few years of completely following it we find that its wrong. Though science is not perfect just like every other thing on this planet however it is something which is necessary because even wrong it is still helpful.
32: Crash of the Titans: Milky Way Is Destined for Head-On Collision With Andromeda Galaxy NASA astronomers can now predict with certainty the next major cosmic event to affect our galaxy, Sun, and solar system: the titanic collision of our Milky Way galaxy with the neighboring Andromeda galaxy.The Milky Way is destined to get a major makeover during the encounter, which is predicted to happen four billion years from now. It is likely the Sun will be flung into a new region of our galaxy, but our Earth and solar system are in no danger of being destroyed."Our findings are statistically consistent with a head-on collision between the Andromeda galaxy and our Milky Way galaxy," said Roeland van der Marel of the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore.the solution came through painstaking NASA Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the motion of Andromeda, which also is known as M31. The galaxy is now 2.5 million light-years away, but it is inexorably falling toward the Milky Way under the mutual pull of gravity between the two galaxies and the invisible dark matter that surrounds them both."After nearly a century of speculation about the future destiny of Andromeda and our Milky Way, we at last have a clear picture of how events will unfold over the coming billions of years," said Sangmo Tony Sohn of STScI.The scenario is like a baseball batter watching an oncoming fastball. Although Andromeda is approaching us more than two thousand times faster, it will take four billion years before the strike. Computer simulations derived from Hubble's data show that it will take an additional two billion years after the encounter for the interacting galaxies to completely merge under the tug of gravity and reshape into a single elliptical galaxy similar to the kind commonly seen in the local universe. Although the galaxies will plow into each other, stars inside each galaxy are so far apart that they will not collide with other stars during the encounter. However, the stars will be thrown into different orbits around the new galactic center. Simulations show that our solar system will probably be tossed much farther from the galactic core than it is today.To make matters more complicated, M31's small companion, the Triangulum galaxy, M33, will join in the collision and perhaps later merge with the M31/Milky Way pair. There is a small chance that M33 will hit the Milky Way first.
33: The universe is expanding and accelerating, and collisions between galaxies in close proximity to each other still happen because they are bound by the gravity of the dark matter surrounding them. The Hubble Space Telescope's deep views of the universe show such encounters between galaxies were more common in the past when the universe was smaller.A century ago astronomers did not realize that M31 was a separate galaxy far beyond the stars of the Milky Way. Edwin Hubble measured its vast distance by uncovering a variable star that served as a "milepost marker."Edwin Hubble went on to discover the expanding universe where galaxies are rushing away from us, but it has long been known that M31 is moving toward the Milky Way at about 250,000 miles per hour. That is fast enough to travel from here to the Moon in one hour. The measurement was made using the Doppler Effect, which is a change in frequency and wavelength of waves produced by a moving source relative to an observer, to measure how starlight in the galaxy has been compressed by Andromeda's motion toward us.Previously, it was unknown whether the far-future encounter will be a miss, glancing blow, or head-on smashup. This depends on M31's tangential motion. Until now, astronomers have not been able to measure M31's sideways motion in the sky, despite attempts dating back more than a century. The Hubble Space Telescope team, led by van der Marel, conducted extraordinarily precise observations of the sideways motion of M31 that remove any doubt that it is destined to collide and merge with the Milky Way."This was accomplished by repeatedly observing select regions of the galaxy over a five- to seven-year period," said Jay Anderson of STScI."In the 'worst-case-scenario' simulation, M31 slams into the Milky Way head-on and the stars are all scattered into different orbits," said team member Gurtina Besla of Columbia University in New York, N.Y. "The stellar populations of both galaxies are jostled, and the Milky Way loses its flattened pancake shape with most of the stars on nearly circular orbits. The galaxies' cores merge, and the stars settle into randomized orbits to create an elliptical-shaped galaxy." The space shuttle servicing missions to Hubble upgraded it with ever more-powerful cameras, which have given astronomers a long-enough time baseline to make the critical measurements needed to nail down M31's motion. The Hubble observations and the consequences of the merger are reported in three papers that will appear in an upcoming issue of the
34: Summary of Article This article is talking about the discover of the clash between our galaxy the milky way and neighboring Andromeda galaxy. They talk about the speed at which it is coming at and they estimate it is coming at the speed of 250000 miles per hour. It will take atleast 4 billion years for the galaxies to clash according to the information given by the NASA satelight. They also predict the effects of the collision and what impact it will have on earth.
35: Opinion on Article My opinion on the matter is lets just hope earth is around by the time this happens. At the rate were destroying the earth this collision is to slow. When were done with the earth at that time this might happen. Its mind blowing when you think about how humans could leave earth by that time and find another planet to inhabit. Though it would be a sight to see if man tried something to stop this. Overall its amazing that we can even calculate this stuff which is a few hundred million light years away.
36: Astronomers Discover Faintest Distant Galaxy Astronomers at Arizona State University have found an exceptionally distant galaxy, ranked among the top 10 most distant objects currently known in space. Light from the recently detected galaxy left the object about 800 million years after the beginning of the universe, when the universe was in its infancy.A team of astronomers, led by James Rhoads, Sangeeta Malhotra, and Pascale Hibon of the School of Earth and Space Exploration at ASU, identified the remote galaxy after scanning a moon-sized patch of sky with the IMACS instrument on the Magellan Telescopes at the Carnegie Institution's Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The observational data reveal a faint infant galaxy, located 13 billion light-years away. "This galaxy is being observed at a young age. We are seeing it as it was in the very distant past, when the universe was a mere 800 million years old," says Rhoads, an associate professor in the school. "This image is like a baby picture of this galaxy, taken when the universe was only 5 percent of its current age. Studying these very early galaxies is important because it helps us understand how galaxies form and grow.The galaxy, designated LAEJ095950.99+021219.1, was first spotted in summer 2011. The find is a rare example of a galaxy from that early epoch, and will help astronomers make progress in understanding the process of galaxy formation. The find was enabled by the combination of the Magellan telescopes' tremendous light gathering capability and exquisite image quality, thanks to the mirrors built in Arizona's Steward Observatory; and by the unique ability of the IMACS instrument to obtain either images or spectra across a very wide field of view. The research, published in the June 1 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters, was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF).This galaxy, like the others that Malhotra, Rhoads, and their team seek, is extremely faint and was detected by the light emitted by ionized hydrogen. The object was first identified as a candidate early-universe galaxy in a paper led by team member and former ASU postdoctoral researcher Hibon. The search employed a unique technique they pioneered that uses special narrow-band filters that allow a small wavelength range of light through.A special filter fitted to the telescope camera was designed to catch light of narrow wavelength ranges, allowing the astronomers to conduct a very sensitive search in the infrared wavelength range.
37: "We have been using this technique since 1998 and pushing it to ever-greater distances and sensitivities in our search for the first galaxies at the edge of the universe," says Malhotra, an associate professor in the school. "Young galaxies must be observed at infrared wavelengths and this is not easy to do using ground-based telescopes, since the Earth's atmosphere itself glows and large detectors are hard to make."To be able to detect these very distant objects which were forming near the beginning of the universe, astronomers look for sources which have very high redshifts. Astronomers refer to an object's distance by a number called its "redshift," which relates to how much its light has stretched to longer, redder wavelengths due to the expansion of the universe. Objects with larger redshifts are farther away and are seen further back in time. LAEJ095950.99+021219.1 has a redshift of 7. Only a handful of galaxies have confirmed redshifts greater than 7, and none of the others is as faint as LAEJ095950.99+021219.1."We have used this search to find hundreds of objects at somewhat smaller distances. We have found several hundred galaxies at redshift 4.5, several at redshift 6.5, and now at redshift 7 we have found one," explains Rhoads. "We've pushed the experiment's design to a redshift of 7 -- it's the most distant we can do with well-established, mature technology, and it's about the most distant where people have been finding objects successfully up to now."Malhotra adds, "With this search, we've not only found one of the furthest galaxies known, but also the faintest confirmed at that distance. Up to now, the redshift 7 galaxies we know about are literally the top one percent of galaxies. What we're doing here is to start examining some of the fainter ones -- thing that may better represent the other 99 percent."Resolving the details of objects that are far away is challenging, which is why images of distant young galaxies such as this one appear small, faint, and blurry."As time goes by, these small blobs which are forming stars, they'll dance around each other, merge with each other and form bigger and bigger galaxies. Somewhere halfway through the age of the universe they start looking like the galaxies we see today -- and not before. Why, how, when, where that happens is a fairly active area of research," explains Malhotra.In addition to Hibon, Malhotra, and Rhoads, the paper's authors include Michael Cooper of the University of California at Irvine, and Benjamin Weiner of the University of Arizona.
38: Summary of Article This article is talking about the discover of a new galaxy which is ranked one of the top 10 furthest things in space that we know about. It is atleast 13 billion light years away from earth. It is also in the early stage of its development about 800 million years old and thats it. This allows scientists to understand how a galaxy forms because they are able to observe an infant galaxy and watch it grow.
39: Opinion on Article This is beneficial for Astronomers because now they will be able to understand a little more about space and how galaxies form. This is helpful because it might help us figure out why and how we came to this galaxy. Also not to mention the fact that now we have a living thing to experiment with rather then just make assumptions based on what we know. This is a large leap man and long sprint in space which I think will be beneficial for humanity in the long term.
40: Video Games May Be Helpful in Treating 'Lazy Eye' in Adults Suppose someone told you that researchers had discovered that a major cause of vision loss is treatable, and that the most promising new treatment is -- playing video games? It may sound far-fetched, but those are the conclusions of a special article, "Removing the Brakes on Plasticity in the Amblyopic Brain," in the June issue of Optometry and Vision Science, official journal of the American Academy of Optometry.It's long been thought that after childhood, it's too late to treat "lazy eye" leading to permanent vision loss (amblyopia). But new research suggests that the visual cortex of the brain has enough "neural plasticity" to respond to treatment for amblyopia even in adulthood, according to the article by Dennis Michael Levi, OD, PhD, of UC Berkeley. What's more, initial studies suggest that specially designed video games may be effective in improving vision for adults or older children with amblyopia. For his work on neural plasticity in amblyopia, Dr Levi was named winner of the 2011 Charles F. Prentice Award. How Do New Findings on "Neural Plasticity" in Adults Amblyopia ("lazy eye") is vision loss that occurs when one eye is weaker than the other -- most often from strabismus, or "turned eye." Over time, the visual cortex ignores the information from the weaker eye. The main treatment is patching of the better eye, which makes the weaker eye work harder. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120606132200.htm
41: The article is talking is about how playing video games is a cure to a cause of vision lose. This cause of vision loss the lazy eye seemed to be thought that after childhood it was to late to treat the lazy eye. This article talks about how the visual cortex of the brain has enough "neural plasticity" to respond to the treatment for amblyopia in even adulthood. It also takes about how some specially designed video games may be more effective in improving vision for adults or older children with amblyopia. My opinion on the article is that now I have a reason to tell my parents to watch video games. It's weird how somethings seem so impossible however they still happen. Thats the beauty of life we don't know everything and thats why anything is possible. Thats one of the best parts about being human is the unlimited options that exist in the world.
42: Milk Ingredient Does a Waistline Good A natural ingredient found in milk can protect against obesity even as mice continue to enjoy diets that are high in fat. The researchers who report their findings in the June Cell Metabolism, a Cell Press publication, liken this milk ingredient to a new kind of vitamin."This is present in what we've all been eating since day one," says Johan Auwerx of École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.The researchers identified this ingredient, known as nicotinamide riboside, as they were searching for alternative ways to boost the well-known gene SIRT1, which comes with benefits for both metabolism and longevity. One way to do that is to target SIRT1 directly, as the red wine ingredient resveratrol appears to do, at least at some doses.Auwerx's team suspected there might be a simpler way to go about it, by boosting levels of one of SIRT1's molecular sidekicks, the cofactor NAD+.This milk ingredient does just that in a rather appealing way. Not only is it a natural product, but it also gets trapped within cells, where it can do its magic. Mice that take nicotinamide riboside in fairly high doses along with their high-fat meals burn more fat and are protected from obesity. They also become better runners thanks to muscles that have greater endurance. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120605130748.htm
43: The article talks about how milk has an natural ingredient found in it which can protect against obesity. The scientists were trying to find a way to boost the SIRT1. This helps the metabolism and longevity. They talk about how milk is a natural product which helps boost SIRT1 unlike red wine which isn't as appealing as milk. The milk also has another advantage because it keeps the ingredient in the cells allowing it to work its magic. The milk also helps build muscle for running and what not which is already a known fact. My opinion on the article is this happens to be a very beneficial finding for North America were people are at a higher risk of being obese. This is a much better way to help control your weight rather then the dieting and no food rules that some people use and kill themselves doing so.
44: Armored Caterpillar Could Inspire New Body Armor Military body armor and vehicle and aircraft frames could be transformed by incorporating the unique structure of the club-like arm of a crustacean that looks like an armored caterpillar, according to findings by a team of researchers at the University of California, Riverside's Bourns College of Engineering and elsewhere published online June 7, in the journal Science.The bright orange fist-like club of the mantis shrimp, or stomatopod, a 4-inch long crustacean found in tropical waters, accelerates underwater faster than a 22-caliber bullet. Repeated blows can destroy mollusk shells and crab exoskeletons, both of which have been studied for decades for their impact-resistant qualities. The power of the mantis shrimp is exciting, but David Kisailus, an assistant professor at the Bourns College of Engineering, and his collaborators, were interested in what enabled the club to withstand 50,000 high-velocity strikes on prey during its lifespan. Essentially, how does something withstand 50,000 bullet impacts?They found that the club is a highly complex structure, composed of three specialized regions that work together to create a structure tougher than many engineered ceramics. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607142355.htm
45: The article talks about how the crustacean could be an inspiration to build new body armor. The crustacean can go underwater faster than a 22-caliber bullet. The blows in the water can mollusk shells and crab exoskeletons. The shell of the crustacean can with stand 50,000 high-velocity strikes from prey during its lifespan. The 50,000 high velocity strikes are like 50,000 bullet impacts. Scientist wanted to figure this out and found that the structure is very complexed the layers help make it very secure and have there own specialties. The structure is also very light weight but its very strong and durable. This is the type of stuff that they need to build strong and effective weapons. My opinion is that this is just another thing that we learned from nature and used it to advance. All of technology is very much based on what nature has to offer us.
46: Scientists Discover Huge Phytoplankton Bloom in Ice-Covered Waters A team of researchers, including scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), discovered a massive bloom of phytoplankton beneath ice-covered Arctic waters. Until now, sea ice was thought to block sunlight and limit the growth of microscopic marine plants living under the ice.The amount of phytoplankton growing in this under-ice bloom was four times greater than the amount found in neighboring ice-free waters. The bloom extended laterally more than 100 kilometers (62 miles) underneath the ice pack, where ocean and ice physics combined to create a phenomenon that scientists had never seen before. The study, published June 8 in the journal Science, concluded that ice melting in summer forms pools of water that act like transient skylights and magnifying lenses. These pools focused sunlight through the ice and into waters above the continental shelf north of Alaska, where currents steer nutrient-rich deep waters up toward the surface. Phytoplankton under the ice were primed to take advantage of this narrow window of light and nutrients."Way more production is happening under the ice than we previously thought, in a manner that's very different than we expected," said WHOI biologist Sam Laney, who was part of the multi-institutional team led by Kevin Arrigo of Stanford University. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607154142.htm
47: The article talks about how phytoplankton are rapidly growing under the Arctic Ice. This article is talking about the phytoplankton which is growing largely due to the ice that is melting. Normally science thought that since the ice stopped the light from reaching the phytoplankton it would be less likely for it to grow at that part. However this discovery shows other wise the reason to why this is the case is explained through this article. It explains that since the ice melts it reflects the sunlight at an larger rate and allows the phytoplankton to grow rapidly. My opinion on the article is that the phytoplankton growing is a good thing however the amount of goods its taking to grow it is to expensive for the earth. We cant handle losing the Arctic ice because it has such a large impact on the way our environment works.
48: New Twist On Old Chemical Process Could Boost Energy Efficiency Significantly Chemical reactions on the surface of metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, are important for applications such as solar cells that convert the sun's energy to electricity. Now University of Washington scientists have found that a previously unappreciated aspect of those reactions could be key in developing more efficient energy systems.Such systems could include, for example, solar cells that would produce more electricity from the sun's rays, or hydrogen fuel cells efficient enough for use in automobiles, said James Mayer, a UW chemistry professor."As we think about building a better energy future, we have to develop more efficient ways to convert chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa," said Mayer, the corresponding author of a paper about the discovery in the June 8 edition of Science.Chemical reactions that change the oxidation state of molecules on the surface of metal oxides historically have been seen as a transfer solely of electrons. The new research shows that, at least in some reactions, the transfer process includes coupled electrons and protons."Research and manufacturing have grown up around models in which electrons moved but not atoms," Mayer said. The new paper proposes a different model for certain kinds of processes, a perspective that could lead to new avenues of investigation, he said. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607142242.htm
49: The article talks about a new chain of thought that scientists have come up with. The new thought is that the chemical reactions on the surface of metal oxides such as lilanium dioxide and zinc oxide are important in the process of making solar cells that convert the sun's energy to electricity. The article talks about how a previous unappreciated aspect of these reacations could help produce much more efficient energy systems. My opinion on this article is that it is just a step further into the development in the energy cycle for humans. This is neccessary for us to make advancments and then make a much more efficent and better world for us to live in. This step is better for the environment and the energy cycle for humans. Even though this is small but even a journey of a 1000 miles starts with one step.
50: City Kids More Likely to Have Food Allergies Than Rural Ones: Population Density Is Key Factor, Study Finds Children living in urban centers have a much higher prevalence of food allergies than those living in rural areas, according to a new study, which is the first to map children's food allergies by geographical location in the United States. In particular, kids in big cities are more than twice as likely to have peanut and shellfish allergies compared to rural communities.Gupta, also a researcher at the Institute for Healthcare Studies at the Feinberg School, said some of her future research will focus on trying to identify the environmental causes. The study included 38,465 children, 18 years and under, who comprised a representative sample of U.S. households. Their food allergies were mapped by ZIP code. Here are the key findings of the study: In urban centers, 9.8 percent of children have food allergies, compared to 6.2 percent in rural communities, almost a 3.5 percent difference.Peanut allergies are twice as prevalent in urban centers as in rural communities, with 2.8 percent of children having the allergy in urban centers compared to 1.3 percent in rural communities. Shellfish allergies are more than double the prevalence in urban versus rural areas; 2.4 percent of children have shellfish allergies in urban centers compared to 0.8 percent in rural communities. (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607105858.htm)
51: The article talks about study which scientists conducted which came up the conclusion that childern in rural areas have a less chance of getting food allergies then childern who live in Urban areas. The article talks about the experiment that the Feinberg School conducted to see the difference. In the experiment they sent out a survey to a large amount of children under the age on 18.The children replied back with there information such as if there from a rural or urban area and what allergies they have. In the end they came up with scary results showing that the kids in the Urban areas had a higher chance of having allergies statistically. The reason behind it is because of the population cramping together. In my opinion that is a weird finding but it is understandable because we've changed the natural cycle so much why could this not be changed that much.
52: Experiments Show 'Artificial Gravity' Can Prevent Muscle Loss In Space When the Apollo 11 crew got back from the moon, 40 years ago this week, they showed no ill effects from seven days spent in weightlessness. But as American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts began conducting longer-duration space flights, scientists noticed a disturbing trend: the longer humans stay in zero gravity, the more muscle they lose. Space travelers exposed to weightlessness for a year or more — such as those on a mission to Mars, for example — could wind up crippled on their return to Earth, unable to walk or even sit up.Now, researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have conducted the first human experiments using a device intended to counteract this effect — a NASA centrifuge that spins a test subject with his or her feet outward 30 times a minute, creating an effect similar to standing against a force two and half times that of gravity. Working with volunteers kept in bed for three weeks to simulate zero-gravity conditions, they found that just one hour a day on the centrifuge was sufficient to restore muscle synthesis."This gives us a potential countermeasure that we might be able to use on extended space flights and solve a lot of the problems with muscle wasting," said UTMB associate professor Douglas Paddon-Jones, senior author of a paper on the centrifuge research in the July issue of the Journal of Applied Physiology. "This small amount of loading, one hour a day of essentially standing up, maintained the potential for muscle growth." (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090722165459.htm)
53: The article talks about an experiment scientist did to try and figure out a way to help reduce the rate at which you lose muscle in space at . They created zero gravity simulations and tested it on some 21 young men volunteers. They put through stimulation for somewhere about 2 weeks and there protein and muscle tissues etc were all measured all the time. They had to different groups and with one of them they made them to some physical work. They ended up with the conclusion that if the person stands up for an hour or so there muscles wont reiterate at such a rapid rate. In my opinion this is one of the things that we as humans have to do to make advancement in space. Not just finding ways to help stop muscles from falling apart but just how to survive in space without us dieing or harming our selves.
54: The Power of Suggestion: What We Expect Influences Our Behavior, for Better or Worse A lucky rabbit foot. A glass of wine. A pill. What do these things all have in common? Their effects -- whether we do well on a test, whether we mingle at the cocktail party, whether we feel better -- all depend on the power of suggestion.In a new article, psychological scientists Maryanne Garry and Robert Michael of Victoria University of Wellington, along with Irving Kirsch of Harvard Medical School and Plymouth University, delve into the phenomenon of suggestion, exploring the intriguing relationship between suggestion, cognition, and behavior. The article is published in the June issue of Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological ScienceOver their research careers, Garry and Kirsch have both studied the effects of suggestion on cognition and behavior. Kirsch focused mostly on suggestion in clinical psychology, while Garry, whose work is supported by the Marsden Fund of New Zealand, was interested in the effects of suggestion on human memory. When the two got to talking, "we realized that the effects of suggestion are wider and often more surprising than many people might otherwise think," says Garry.Across many studies, research has shown that deliberate suggestion can influence how people perform on learning and memory tasks, which products they prefer, and how they respond to supplements and medicines, which accounts for the well-known placebo effect.(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120606142818.htm)
55: The article talks about an experiment scientist did which suggests that the power of suggestion is much more influenciatal on what humans do then we have thought of before. It talks about how a human can feel certain ways largely because of the way we are suggested to feel. The example which is given is that if someone shy is at a party and they think some wine will loosen him up and he goes around talking. He might be telling himself that its the wine but its not that but just the suggestion in the brain that is causing it. In my opinion I find this really interesting and I have thought about this before but hearing it in a article is very interesting. A person can make or break themselves with the suggestion that they give themselves which usually comes with the ability to have confidence in ourselves. I think this is something that is just great to know.
56: Science's Long—and Successful—Search for Where Memory Lives Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell appeared outside Grauman’s Chinese Theatre to write their names and leave imprints of their hands and high heels in the wet concrete. Down on their knees, supported by a velvet-covered pillow for their elbows, they wrote “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” in looping script, followed by their signatures and the date, 6-26-53. But how did those watching the events of that day manage to imprint a memory trace of it, etching the details with neurons and synapses in the soft cement of the brain? Where and how are those memories written, and what is the molecular alphabet that spells out the rich recollections of color, smell, and sound?After more than a century of searching, an answer was recently found, strangely enough, just eight miles from Grauman’s. Although not located on any tourist map, the scene of the discovery can be reached easily from Hollywood Boulevard by heading west on Sunset to the campus of UCLA. There, amid one of the densest clusters of neuroscience research facilities in the world, stands the Gonda (Goldschmied) Neuroscience and Genetics Research Center. And sitting at a table in the building’s first-floor restaurant, the Café Synapse, is the neuroscientist who has come closer than anyone ever thought possible to finding the place where memories are written in the brain.That spot, the physical substrate of a particular memory, has long been known in brain research as an engram. (http://discovermagazine.com/2012/apr/13-long-successful-search-where-memory-lives)
57: The article talks about how its possible for humans to remeber something exactly after it took place a few years before. They wanted to find out exactly where the memory is located and thats what it takes about in this article. They give the example of a Hollywood event which took place when there were no camera's and people just watched with their eyes and they are still able to remember it to this day.The hippocampus is the area in the brain where long term memory is placed into. In my opinion humans are so complexed that it becomes literally impossible for us to know exactly who we are, what we are etc. Science isn't capable of proving such a thing for a very long time or maybe ever, However this is a good start or step forward towards advancement.
58: Steel-Strength Plastics: Durable Plastic May Replace Metals As landfills overflow with discarded plastics, scientists have been working to produce a biodegradable alternative that will reduce pollution. Now a Tel Aviv University researcher is giving the quest for environmentally friendly plastics an entirely new dimension -- by making them tougher than ever before.Prof. Moshe Kol of TAU's School of Chemistry is developing a super-strength polypropylene -- one of the world's most commonly used plastics -- that has the potential to replace steel and other materials used in everyday products. This could have a long-term impact on many industries, including car manufacturing, in which plastic parts could replace metallic car parts.Durable plastics consume less energy during the production process, explains Prof. Kol. And there are additional benefits as well. If polypropylene car parts replaced traditional steel, cars would be lighter overall and consume less fuel, for example. And because the material is cheap, plastic could provide a much more affordable manufacturing alternative. His research has been published in the journal Angewandte Chemie.Better building blocks Although a promising field of research, biodegradable plastics have not yet been able to mimic the durability and resilience of common, non-biodegradable plastics like polypropylene. (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120607141644.htm)
59: The article talks an alternate solution to the pollution in the seas caused by plastic. The scientists have been working on producing a biodegradable alternative that will reduce the pollution caused by plastic. The plastic will also be much tougher then the one before and it will be stronger then metal. Thus you could essentially replace the metal in our everyday lives with the stronger plastic. This could bring forth a massive change in industries that use plastic to build there products. In my opinion we need more efficient material and energy so that we can live with the world without littering its place.These type of advancements are necessary for us to make any attempt of saving ourselves from the jaws of global warming.