S: World War I
BC: World War I Book Project Students at Fayetteville High School understand the importance of learning by doing. This book project was a collaborative effort which brought "the war to end all wars" to life. When history comes to life, we are able to understand who we are. Though it's not easy to understand war, these students will tell you, it's absolutely necessary. Congratulations on a job well done!
FC: World War I Why It Happened and What It Meant | by Fayetteville High School 11th Grade Modern U.S. History Barnett, Teacher 2007-08
1: Contributors Jacob Barrand, Lani Bourgeois, Shelby Brown, Katherine Bryant, Cody Butler, Duncan Clardy, Melissa Crook, Cassandra Crowe, Alex Edwards, Adam Fulmer, Stephen Gamble, Colby Goins, Michael Growden, Jessica Harbin, Shay Huntley, Tessa Kelly, Billy Lawson, Miranda Lee, Bradley Lovett, Clint Maddox, Jordan McKemie, Derek Patrick, Dakota Pelfrey, Josh Pennington, Kevin Peters, Jack Piper, Anna Ricks, Matt Ridley, Barry Saffold, Perry Sanders, Cameron Shaw, Ally Smith, Lauren Spates, Sarah Taylor, Mark Vanzant, Samantha Voce, Cheston Watkins, Joseph Wesson, Cayla Whitehead Teacher - Jennifer L. Barnett, 11th Grade US History Fayetteville High School 170 W W Averitte Drive Sylacauga, Alabama 35151 256-315-5550
2: Franz Ferdinand Assassination Sparks Start to War The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand,heir to the Austro Hungarian throne, sparked World War I. On June 28, 1914, Franz and his wife, Sophie, were killed. They were shot by a nationalist Gaurilo Princip while on a visit to Sarajevo. Princip shot Feridinad at point blank range while riding in a car to a reception in a parade. Earlier that day, Ferdinand had already escaped an assination attempt. A witness said that as the car quickly reversed a thin stream of blood spurted from his mouth onto my right cheek. As I went to wipe the blood from my mouth the duchess yelled out what happened to you. Then right after that she was shot . The king didn't know he was shot he just said it was nothing when it turned out to be death. Dakota P.
3: Imperialism is one of the many causes of WWI. Imperialism is the forceful extension of a nation's authority by territorial conquest establishing economic and political domination of other nations that are not its own colonies. Causes of imperialism include: wanting the control of raw materials, the power of politics, foreign markets, investment, Social Darwinism, and missionaries. Imperialists wanted total control of political, social, and economic standings of a nation. When a nation pursues domination over another territory, this nation is basically asking for a confrontation. This is what brought World War I into existence. The United States did not like that they were not the dominant power. Lauren S.
4: -Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a nation. -A nationalist : a movement or group. -The main cause of the war was the rise of nationalism. | Europe avoided major wars for 100 years before WWI until a force swept across the continent. The force was nationalism. Nationalism led to the creation of two powers Italy and Germany. The war had a major role in achieving nation unification in Italy and Germany. Nationalism weakened eastern European empires like Austria-Hungry, Russia, and Turkey. Those empires ruled many national groups that clamored for indepence and that started rivarly for WW1. Jessica H.
5: Militarism President Woodrow Wilson of the United States and others blamed the war on militarism. Some argued that aristocrats and military elites had too much power in countries such as Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. War was thus a consequence of their desire for military power and disdain for democracy. This theme figured prominently in anti-German propaganda. Consequently, supporters of this theory called for the abdication of rulers such as Kaiser Wilhelm II, as well as an end to aristocracy and militarism in general. This platform provided some justification for the American entry into the war when the Russian Empire surrendered in 1917. Wilson hoped the League of Nations and disarmament would secure a lasting peace. He also acknowledged that variations of militarism, in his opinion, existed within the British and French Empires. There was some validity to this view, as the Allies consisted of Great Britain and France, both democracies, fighting the Central Powers, which included Germany, Austro-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. Russia, one of the Allied Powers, was an empire until 1917, but it was opposed to the subjugation of Slavic peoples by Austro-Hungary. Against this backdrop, the view of the war as one of democracy versus dictatorship initially had some validity, but lost credibility as the conflict dragged on. Sarah T.
6: Alliance Systems The roots of World War I date back to the 1860s. The German kingdom of Prussia fought to create a German Empire. To protect itself, Germany signed alliances with Italy and Austria-Hungary. This became known as the Triple Alliance. This alarmed Russia, who feared they'd try to expand eastward. Russian also competed with Austria-Hungary for influence in southeastern Europe. Many of the people of this region were Slavs - the same ethnic group as the Russians - and Russia wanted to support them against Austria-Hungary. As a result, Russia and France had a common interest in opposing Germany and Austria-Hungary. In 1894 they signed the Franco-Russian Alliance. Later Great Britain will join this alliance. When these countries began "ganging up" and choosing sides, the conditions were made ripe for a fall out. Unfortunately, the fall out would be our first world war. Perrry and Justin
7: The United States Enters The War President Woodrow Wilson outlined a case for declaring war on Germany on April 2, 1917 to a joint session of Congress. A declaration of war was made on April 6, 1917 by the House of Representatives and the Senate. The reasons for this declaration are described on the pages that follow.
8: The Lusitania, a 32,000 ton luxury ship, sailed on May 1st 1915 from New York bound for Liverpool. The Lusitania was headed straight for the "European War Zone!" | The sinking of the Lusitania was thought to have made a major impact on America and World War One, but America did not join the war for another two years. | The sinking of the Lusitania was thought to have made a major impact on America and World War One, but America did not join the war for another two years. Katherine & Cheston
9: The Zimmermann telegram was a coded telegram dispatched by the foreign secretary of the German Empire, Arthur Zimmermann on January 16,1917, to the German ambassador in Mexico, Heinrich von Eckarat, at the height of World War I. The telegram instructed the ambassador to approach the Mexican government with a proposal to form a military alliance against the United States. It promised Mexico the land acquired and paid for by the United States and Mexican war if they were to help. It was intercepted and decoded by the British, and it's contents hastened the entry of the United States into World War I. Miranda & Josh
10: Bolshevik Revolution The Bolshevik Revolution was in mid to late 1917. Czar Nicholas II dragged more than 11 million people into WWI. The Russian people became very discouraged with him, so they chose to overthow him. The Provisional Government was opposed right away by the Soviets, council of workers, and peasants of the vilages.They wanted to be able to make their own decissions. That is when Vladimir I. Lenin arrive from exile in the Spring if 1917. He joined the Bolshevik Party in Russia whose goal was to overthrow the Government. In early October, Lenin convinced the Bolsheviks to form an immediate insurrection against the Provisional Government. Adam F.
11: War Efforts at Home The United States faced a challenge like never before in its history. They must quickly get together an army, train and mobilize a nation to support a war, and extend heavy support to our allies in Europe. Like no other time in our nation's history, America rose to the challenge. We banned together to supply the allies and their people with food, supplies, and resources. We raised an army in record numbers faster than ever before. We reorganized our industrial strength to meet the needs of war. America was unified in its mission. Every man, woman, and child was a part of this massive effort. This war took place in Europe, but was won by the determination of the citizens of the United States of America. This story of American determination follows. This Section Includes: Selective Service Act - Kevin Peters Espionage, Sabotage, Sedition Acts - Derek Patrick War Industries Board - Shelby Brown Liberty Bonds - Clint Maddox Victory Gardens & "Hooverizing" - Cody Butler Committee on Public Information - Michael Growden Anti - War Efforts at Home - Cassie Crowe, Alex Edwards
12: Selective Service Act The Selective Service Act, or draft act, was passed by Congress on May 18, 1917. This allowed President Woodrow Wilson to raise a volunteer army. When the US first entered the war, the army had no more than 110,000 men. This made it clear that more troops were needed. First, President Wilson only wanted volunteers, but with only 32,000, Wilson knew he would have to start a draft. By these guidelines, all men 21 to 30 were required to register for military service. By the end of World War 1, some 24 million had registered and about 3 million had been drafted giving the US more than enough men to win the war.
13: Espionage Act The federal law passed after entering World War I, June 15, 1917. It made it a crime to give aid to the enemy, give false reports, or otherwise interfere with the war effort. Sabotage Act Expanding the Espionage Act by making illegal any public expression of opposition to the war. Over 1,500 prosecutions and 1,000 convictions were generated from this act. Sedition Acts of 1918 Amendment to the Espionage Acts 1917, the Sedition Act was passed at the urging of President Woodrow Wilson to prosecute those criticizing the war or the president. The theory of this act was upheld in Schenck v. U.S., allowing the government to curb an individual's freedom when a clear and present danger exists.
14: The War Industries Board A United States Government Agency that was established on July 28, 1917 and was reorganized by Bernard Baruch. It encouraged companies to use mass production to increase the companies efficiency and then to standardize products to reduce waste. The WIB made quotas for production and chose | who needed the raw products the most. The WIB conducted the psychological tests to determine jobs for people. They dealt with disputes within labor management resulting from the increased demand for products. The government couldnt negotiate prices and couldn't handle worker's strikes the WIB regulated the two so it would decrease tensions by stopping the strikes with wage increases to prevent a shortage of supplies going to the war in Europe. With the WIB industrial production increased by twenty percent. However, WIB only applied the price controls at the wholesale level which in return made the retail prices soar, they almost doubled between 1914-1918. The board was decomissioned on January 1, 1919. Shelby B.
15: According to the Massachusetts historical society, because the first world war cost the federal government more than 30 billion dollars by way of comparison, total federal expendentures in 1913 were only 970 million. | Liberty Bonds Liberty bonds were issued in 1917 to support the war. An aggressive campain was created by secretary of the treasury William Gibbs MaCadoo to raise money from war- supporting Americans by selling bonds. The government used famous artists to make posters, and used movie stars to host bond rallies.
16: Victory Gardens Victory gardens were part of Herbert Hoover's "Hooverizing" plan. These gardens were vegetable, fruit, and herb gardens grown by the general public. People grew these gardens to help relieve stress on the major | crop growers. These gardens provided nearly forty percent of all the vegetables in the nation. 40% of what we saved was used to build tanks, airplanes, and bombs. The victory garden plan was supported by the Boy Scouts of America. They would go around and help people till up and plant their gardens. These gardens where planted in peoples backyards, in vacant lots, and even on top of apartment building roofs. In all, the victory gardens where a big help in the war not only by feeding the troops and supplying money to build better weapons, but it help to unite the nation as a whole.
17: Committee on Public Information The purpose of the CPI to urge the American public to support U.S intervention in World War I and the efforts to succeed. Led by Denver journalist, George Creel, the committee published posters, urged the public to buy liberty bonds, sponsored contests, encouraged the creation of patriotic films, songs, and literature, and kept the public informed of the successes on the battlefields as well as the homefront.
18: Jane Addams foresaw World War I. In the year 1915, in an effort to avert the war, she organized both the Woman's Peace Party and the International Congress of Women. This organization would meet at the Hague and made serious diplomatic attempts to thwart the war. When these efforts failed and the U.S. war in 1917, criticism of Addams rose. | Mark Twain was Vice President of the American Anti-Imperialist League from 1901-1910 . The American Imperialist League opposed annexation on economic, legal, and moral grounds. Twain became the most influential anti-imperialist and the most dreaded critic of the White House that the country contains.
19: World War I The Weapons, Generals, Soldiers, Battles, Enemy, Treaty of Versailles, and the Aftermath
20: This was the first war that planes were used for fighting. The British had small scout planes and the Germans had large zepplins. | Tanks were a big help in the WW I. They were used to run over things and go places that we couldn't reach. They were hard to destroy and they were very deadly. They had a machine gun and a cannon on them.
21: Machine Guns Machine guns were first used in the civil war to devastating effect but during World War I their effectiveness reached frightening levels. They fired up too 600 bullets a minute. This artillery was new and upgraded. Duncan, Matt, BJ, Bradley
22: General John Pershing General "Black Jack" Pershing was the leader of the American Expeditionary Force. He was a beloved leader and tactical expert. The success of our military efforts was due, in large part, to his superb leadership skills and organizational abilities.
23: Eddie Rickenbacker/Ace of Aces Eddie Rickenbacker is considered to be the most succesful U.S. pilot in WWI. He served in the Army Air Service and was instrumental in bringing modern warfare to the skies. Before the war, Richenbacker was a race car driver. He brought the passion and determination of a high pressure competitor to WWI. Mark V.
24: Sergent Alvin C. York Sergeant Alvin C. York was known as one of the greatest American heroes of World War I. He won twelve medals including: | Congressional Medal of Honor , Distinguished Service Cross, and the French Croix de Guerre. He won all of these medals because on October 8. 1918 Sergeant York took out a German machine gun, and then led a small detachment who captured 132 German prisoners. In his honor an Institute in Jamestown, Tennessee was established and named after him. Lani B.
25: Major Charles Whittleysey Commander of the Lost Battalion of WWI A "New York Lawyer" from New England among Regular Army Officers! Derisevely nicknamed "Galloping Charlie" at Camp Upton because of his slender figure and long legs! His unit was trapped from October 2-7, 1918 in the Argonne Forest mini-Lost Battalion on Sept 28th. Led this Lost Battalion, saving the lives of over 200 men. He received Congressional Medal of Honor. After war a national hero who: Was declared one of the "three outstanding heroes of the AEF" by General Pershing. A pall bearer for the opening of the "Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and Chairman of Red Cross Roll Call. He was burdened by war memories, request for help from soldiers and widows, and his "hero" status, commited suicide 11/29/21! I
26: Battle of the Somme The Battle of the Somme was planned as a joint French and British operation.
27: Something of a moral victory for the allies as represented by Belgium, the Batlle of Liege ran for twelve days from 5-16 of August in 1914. Afterwards it resulted in a heavy lose upon the German Invasion forces then they were outnumbered by the Belgians. The battle of Liege Signified the first land battle of the war, as the German Second Army crossed the frontier into Belgium. After so much trouble through out the war German couldn`t get Belgium to surrender like they wanted so the war exceeded into next stage of the Schlieffen Plan.
28: Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany The contemporary British reference to the First World War as "the Kaiser's War" in the same way that the Second was "Hitler's War" is not wholly accurate in its suggestion that William was deliberately responsible for unleashing the conflict. "He may not have been 'the father of war' but he was certainly its godfather' He abdicated the throne in November 1918 and died in exile in 1941.
29: THE RED BARON By Alley Smith Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen was a German fighter pilot known as the "Red Baron". He was the most successful flying ace of WWI. He was credited with 80 confirmed air combat victories and died whilst attempting to cleaim his 81st kill over his enemy territory. Von Richthofen was born in Kleinburg, near Breslau, Silsia. When he was 9 years old he moved with his family to Schweidnitz. Von Richthofen enjoyed riding horses and hunting. After he completed his cabinet raining in 1911 he entered a calvary unit (Ulanen-Regiment Kaiser Alexander des III von Russland.) Von Richthofen was killed just after 11 a.m. on April 21, 1918. At the time the Baron had been pursuing a Sopwith Camel, piloted by a novice Canadian pilot, Lieutenant Wilfrid "Wop" May, Royal Air Force. In turn, the Baron was spotted and briefly attacked by a Camel, piloted by a school friend (and flight Commander) of May, Canadian Captain Arthur "Roy" Brown, who had to dive steeply at very high speed to intervene, and then had to climb steeply to avoid hitting the ground. Richthofen turned to avoid this attack, and then resumed his pursuit of May. It was almost certainly during the last stage of this pursuit that Richthofen was hit by a single .303 bullet, that caused such severe damage to his heart and lungs that killed him instantly. In the last seconds of his life, he managed to make a hasty but controlled landing in a field on a hill near the Bray-Corbie road, in a sector controlled by the Australian Imperial Force (AIF). His Fokker was not badly damaged by the landing, but it was rapidly demolished by souvenir hunters. One witness, Gunner George Ridgway, stated that when he and other Australian soldiers reached the plane, Richthofen was still alive but died moments later. Another eye witness, Sgt. Ted Smout of the Australian Medical Corps, reported that Richthofen's last word was "broken" immediatly before he died.
30: This map shows Europe before World War I. Boundaries changed during and after this war. This map has some of these boundaries.
31: This is a map of Europe after World War I. It shows changes in the boundaries in certain countries. It involves land changing hands between Austria-Hungary, England, Germany, and Russia.
32: Treaty of Versailles | The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28,1919, and it ended World War I. It was a peace treaty between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. It was signed 5 years after the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Although the treaty that ended the actual fighting was signed on November 11, 1918, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to create an actual peace treaty.
33: While at the Paris Peace Conference, President Woodrow Wilson presented the "Fourteen Points." In this program Wilson stated: -He did not want any more secret diplomacy. -Germany was to reduce the size of their army. -He wanted other nations to do the same, limiting the risk of war altogether. -The most important and controversial provisions required Germany and all its allies to accept full responsibilty for causing the war and make territorial concessions and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Allies.
34: Woodrow Wilson was elected as the 28th President of the United States in 1912. He was the first Democrat elected into Presidency. He proved highly successful in in leading a democratic congress. He passed many major legislation including the Federal Trade Commission, the Clayton Anti-trust Act, the Underwood Tariff, the Federal Farm Loan Act, and the most known the Federal Reserve System. His second term of was centered on the World War I. Woodrow Wilson tried to negaotiate the peace in Europe, but Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare. So, he wrote many notes to Germany. Wilson called on Congress to declare war on Germany when the factors that lead to a good time to enter the war built up. He ignored the military affairs. Wilson began the first effective draft in 1917. He paid surprisingly little attention to military affairs, but he supplied the funding and food supplies that helped make allied victory in 1918 possible. During the latter stages of the war he took personal control of negotations.
35: Many new nations emerged after the war. Poland came back as an independent country. Yugoslavia and Czechoslavakia were entirely new. Russia became the Soviet Union, and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Lativa. The Ottoman Empire was replaced by Turkey. | The United States allowed Germany to borrow funds to pay for war reparations. Allies imposed peace treaties on the Central Powers. The Ottoman Empire was supposed to be split by the Treaty of Sevres, but it was never passed. This led to the Turkish Independence War and ultimately the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. Austria-Hungary was also split by ethnic reasons. | The optimism of the 1900's began to decline. Those who fought in this war were known as the lost generation. Many people felt increased nationalism, or pride for their country, at the end of the war. Support for the League of Nations grew.
36: Older men declare war. But it's the youth who must fight and die. Herbert Hoover You cannot stimulate and prepare for war. Albert Einstein Either war is obsolete or men are. R. Buckminster Fuller | In time of war, when truth is so precious, it must be attended by a bodyguard of lies. Winston Churchill After a long, hopeless war, people will settle for peace, at almost any price. Salman Rushdie We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the world. Woodrow Wilson
37: It should have been the War to end ALL Wars! Shelby Brown I don't think the war changed anything. Kevin Peters It didn't serve its purpose. Clint Maddox President Wilson was the right person to serve during the war. Jacob Barrand The military stratiges were well thought out. Cameron Shaw Maybe we should bind together like they did during World War I and we wouldn't have as many problems today. Cayla I think the war was interesting with all the weapons used to fight battles. Coty Pelfrey