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FC: WESTWARD EXPANSION By: Leah Eastman

1: IDEAS

2: Thomas Jefferson | Thomas Jefferson led to the idea of expanding West by first sending Lewis and Clark to explore the Western Territory.

3: John Adam's wanted a stronger navy and more money for the scientific expeditions which scared those who wanted little direction from the federal Government. | John Adams

4: Andrew Jackson!

5: He had the idea for equal protection and equal benefits for all American white men. He also had the idea of the Indian Removal Act which allowed the federal Government to pay the Native Americans to move West. iN 1834, Congress created the Indian Territory for Native Americans from the Southeast.

6: National/Geographic

7: Canals Steamboats could not travel very efficiently with the current water systems. So business and government officials came up with a plan to link New York City with the Great Lakes region. A canal is a waterway that uses a series of locks to allow steamboats to travel places that were previously impossible to get to.

8: California Gold Rush

9: More than 80,000 people went the California in search for gold in 1849, those who arrived in 1849 were known as "forty-niners." Many of the gold seekers came over sea, others came on either the Oregon Trail or the Santa Fe Trail. People came from Mexico, South America, Europe, and Australia. San Fransisco quickly grew from a tiny village to a city of about 20,000 gold seekers and their families. New communities, called boomtowns, were quickly built overnight. Most of the miners found little or no gold at all.

10: Social

11: The Sauk chieftain, Black Hawk, led a group of Sauk and Fox people back to their hometown in Illinois. They wanted to get it back after given up in a treaty. The Illinois State militia gathered many men and responded with force. They chased the tribe to the Mississippi River and slaughtered most of the Native Americans as they tried to flee to Iowa.

13: Adams-Onis Treaty John Adams negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain. In the treaty the Spanish agreed to set limits of their territory. Mountain Men The first American's to reach the Oregon Country were fur traders. The British established many trading posts in that region, as well did merchant John Astor. of New York. In 1808, Astor organized the American Fur Company, which soon became one of the most powerful fur companies in America.

14: Politics

15: The candidates for the election were Jackson as the Democratic Candidate and Adams as the Republican Candidate. Jackson received most of the votes cast by voters in the new frontier states. Also, he received most of the votes in the South.. Jackson won the election in a landslide, with 56 percent of the popular vote and 178 electoral votes. | Democrats- Favored states' rights and mistrusted strong central governments. They were usually people from the frontier, immigrants, or laborers. Republicans- Wanted a strong central government and supported central measures that would help shape the nations economy. Most were merchants or farmers. | Election of 1828

16: McColloch v. Maryland

17: The Supreme Court was involved in sectional and states' rights issues. Maryland imposed a tax on the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the United States. The bank refused to pay the tax, and the case McColloch v. Maryland went the Court in 1819. John Marshall said that Maryland had no right to tax the Bank because it was a federal institution. The Supreme Court declared the Maryland tax unconstitutional. This decision established the foundation for expanded Congressional authority.

18: Economics

19: Shortly after Van Buren's election, the country entered a severe economic depression. It began with the panic of 1837 when values of items dropped at great amounts. investments declined, and banks even failed. Thousands of businesses went out of business and | thousands of people lost their jobs. Cotton prices were at a very low price, which is not so common and farmers plunged into debt and lost their land.

20: During the colonial era people had to use different and new inventions to be more efficient. The cotton gin helped the economy by producing more cotton, which made more people buy it, which ended in making more money. Also, having more factories created more money income for all workers and factory owners because it was more efficient and people got what they wanted quicker. Stocks became important because when people have money, they just want to make more to add to their fortune and spend on necessities. Banks have always been important but they started to expand when people started to make more money and need a place to keep it, so banks were also making a profit.

22: Cultural

23: African Americans that had ran away to escape slavery joined with Seminole and together they attacked white settlements along the Florida coast. They used Guerrilla Tactics, making surprise attacks and then retreating back into the forest and swamps. | Davy Crockett had great frontier skills, good sense of humor, and shrewd common sense he showed in politics. When he lost his spot in Congress in 1835, he did not go back to Tennessee, but went southwest to Texas. He wanted to help the Texans win their independence from Mexico and maybe start something new there. He didn't think that what he did in Texas would make him more famous than he was before when in Congress. Conflict occurred in Texas after the Louisiana Territory was purchased from France. Americans said that the land of what is now Texas, was part of the purchase. But Spain didn't agree. The Adams-Onis Treaty made it so the United States would agree to drop any claim to that region.

24: Technological

25: The Cotton Gin was one of the biggest inventions at this time. It would quickly and efficiently remove seeds from the cotton fiber. It made it so 1 person could clean cotton as fast as if 50 were doing it by hand. | In 1970, Congress passes a patent law, which gives the inventor a right to the invention and all the profits it makes. One of the first patents wen to Jacob Perkins for a machine to make nails.

26: Interchangeable parts were another great invention. They were identical machine parts that could be put together in a short matter of time to make a complete item. Because all the parts were the same it didn't require as much manufacturing and made machine repair simpler. Interchangeable parts lowered the price of goods greatly.

27: The Industrial Revolution began in the United States around 1800. New England's soil was poor for farming, so people were willing to leave their farms to find work in other places. New England also had many streams and rivers which provided water power good enough to run the machines in new factories. The location of New England was also very good because they were nearby to coal and iron from Pennsylvania. There were many ports in New England which passes the cotton shipped from Southern states to New England factories. The United States economy is known as Capitalism, where people invest their money into a business and hope it does well in hopes of making a profit.

28: Citation | Appleby, Joyce. The American Republic. Columbus: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005.

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