S: Cold War 1945-1991
FC: Cold War Russia VS. United States of America
1: I dedicate this book to all the people who worked hard to end the Cold War. Jack Vance Elmwood Franklin School Monday, April 26, 2010
2: The Cold War was a battle between the United States and Russia. "Cold War" is a term that was started by famous author George Orwell, who wrote many books like Animal Farm. The Cold War was a state of conflict between nations that did not involve direct military action, but was pursued primarily through economic and political actions. It started with Truman and Stalin and ended with Reagan and Gorbachev.
3: Truman – 1945 – 1953 Harry Truman was the first American president to fight the Cold War. In March 1947 he asked Congress for $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey. The Truman Doctrine was a plan to give money and military aid to countries threatened by communism. This stopped communists from taking control of Greece and Turkey. In April 1948 the Marshall Plan provided financial aid to countries in Western Europe. This helped make these countries stronger and the popularity of the communist party declined.
4: March 2, 1948 - Truman’s Loyalty Program was created to catch Cold War spies. Under Truman, Joe McCarthy began the Communist witch hunt. Because of this 9,500 government employees were fired; 15,000 quit; 600 teachers lost their jobs and many actors were unable to work. In 1954 McCarthy was forced out of the government and he died 3 years later.
5: Cold War cartoon
6: March 2, 1948 - Truman’s Loyalty Program was created to catch Cold War spies. Under Truman, Joe McCarthy began the Communist witch hunt. Because of this 9,500 government employees were fired; 15,000 quit; 600 teachers lost their jobs and many actors were unable to work. In 1954 McCarthy was forced out of the government and he died 3 years later.
7: In June 1948 the Soviets blocked all transportation to West Berlin. Truman ordered planes to fly coal, food and medicine to the city for over a year. Between France, Britain and the United States there were more than 280,000 flights. The blockade was lifted in May 1949.
8: Stalin – April 3, 1922 – March 5, 1953 1st General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union February 9, 1946 – Stalin gave a speech that Communism and Capitalism were incompatible. Stalin worked to make the Soviets a huge military power and by 1949 they had an atomic bomb. This caused the U.S. to hurry and work on a more powerful hydrogen bond that was tested in 1954. The Soviets made one too and the nuclear arms race began.
9: Nikita Khrushchev – 1953- 1964 1st General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Khrushchev visited Dwight Eisenhower at his holiday home near Washington and the visit was friendly. Eisenhower was supposed to visit the Soviet Union in the summer of 1960 but in May an American military plan was shot down over the Soviet Union.
10: Eisenhower admitted that the Americans had been sending these planes to spy on the Soviets for the past 4 years. Khrushchev went to the United Nations and was so mad that during his speech he took off his shoe and banged it on a table. All further peace trips were cancelled. For several years after that some big problems developed.
11: John F. Kennedy – January 20,1961-November 22 1963 Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuban Missile Crisis, Building of Berlin Wall Berlin Wall – many of the people living in East Germany were going to the west. In August 1961, East Germany’s communist government decided to stop them and built a wall separating the eastern and western part of Berlin. Guards shot and killed anyone trying to escape or climb over the wall.
12: Bay of Pigs- 1500 Cuban exiles that the CIA trained to try and take Castro out of power. JFK on April 17, 1961 ordered the attack on Cuba. It turned out to be a complete failure and many people died and the rest were captured by April 19, 1961. Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for 53 million dollars worth of food and medicine. The attack made Castro believe that the U.S. would have another invasion. This made the relationship of Cuba and the Soviets very close.
13: The closest we came to a war – the Cuban Missile Crisis: Soviet Union secretly built missile installations in Cuba. President Kennedy was shown photos of the missiles in Cuba and he announced on October 22 that the U.S. discovered the installations and told everyone that if there was any missile attack from Cuba it would be considered a direct attack from the Soviets. He also imposed a quarantine on Cuba to prevent further Soviet shipments of weapons from arriving there. Eventually the U.S. promised not to invade Cuba and to remove some missiles from Turkey and The Soviets took their missiles home from Cuba.
14: Because of this crisis, Khrushchev and Kennedy signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963 which no longer allowed bomb tests that spread radiation in the earth’s atmosphere. Soon after Kennedy was assassinated and Khrushchev was removed from office.
15: The final two leaders in the Cold War were Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. Gorbachev was the General Secretary of the Communist Party. He ruled from March 15, 1985 to August 24, 1991. He wanted to have a more open government. Gorbachev held four meetings with Ronald Reagan. Gorbachev agreed to withdraw Soviet troops from Afghanistan. He signed an agreement with the U.S. to destroy all intermediate range nuclear missiles and short-range missiles.
16: Ronald Reagan was the last to be president during the Cold War. He was president from 1981-1989. Reagan was famous for giving the speech on June 12, 1987 saying: “General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization tear down this Wall!” Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as the “evil empire” seeking world domination . Then there were a number of issues between 1988 and 1991. On November 9, 1989, the border police opened the Berlin Wall. People could leave for the first time in 28 years. On June 13, 1990, the East German government began to take down the wall. In 1991, a newly elected Soviet Parliament dissolved the Communist Party and the Soviet Union broke into parts.
17: This is a map of the world and shows who was with the U.S. , the U.S.S.R., or neither. The Blue is the U.S. and there allies, red is U.S.S.R. and there allies and yellow is the other communists country. http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/russia/images/coldwar.gif
18: Durning the Cold War, fought mostly by the USA, England, and USSR Million were killed and the rein of communism ended with the fall of the USSR in 1991 but many say it ended with the Berlin was taken down in 1989.
19: Work Cited berlin wall. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2010.