FC: Genocide in Rwanda By Annie Carew and Becca Curtis | In 1994, a brutal genocide reminiscent of the Holocaust erupted in Rwanda.
1: Table of Contents page 2-3............................How it Began page 4-5...............Living Through the Horror page 6-7............................the Aftermath page 8-9..........................Quotes/Quotable page 10-11................................Citations | Row of skulls of people that were killed during the genocide
2: Most of the dead were Tutsis--and most of those who perpetrated the violence were Hutus. Even for a country with such a turbulent history as Rwanda, the scale and speed of the slaughter left its people reeling. The genocide was sparked by the death of the Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, when his plane was shot down above Kigali airport on 6 April 1994. A French judge has blamed current Rwanda President Paul Kagame--at the time the leader of a Tutsi rebel group--and some of his close associates for carrying out the rocket attack. Mr Kagame vehemently denies this and says it was the work ofHutu extremists, in order to | How It Began | In 1994, a genocide reminiscent of the Holocaust took place in the small African country of Rwanda. Racial tension in that country had existed for decades, but things finally came to a bloody head in April of 1994. Rwanda's president was slowly losing popularity, and prejudice did not help the situation. | A brutal scene from a Tutsi massacre
3: provide a pretext to carry out their well-laid plans to exterminate the Tutsi community. Whoever was responsible, within hours a campaign of violence spread from the capital throughout the country, and did not subside until three months later. But the death of the president was by no means the only cause of AFrica's largest genocide in modern times. Ethnic tension in Rwanda is nothing new. There have always been disagreements between the majority Hutus and the minority Tutsis, but the animosity between them has grown substantially since the colonial period. The two ethnic groups are actually very similar--they speak the same language, inhabit the same areas and follow the same traditions.The Belgians considered the Tutsis to be superior to the Hutus. Not surprisingly, the Tutsis welcomed this idea, and for the next 20 years they enjoyed better jobs and educational opportunities than their neighbours. Resentment among the Hutus gradually built up, culminating in a series of riots in 1959. When Belgium relinquished power and granted Rwanda independence in 1962, the Hutus took their place. Over subsequent decades, the Tutsis were portrayed as the scapegoats for every crisis. This was still the case in the years before the genocide. The economic situation worsened and the incumbent president, Juvenal Habyarimana, began losing popularity. At the same time, Tutsie refugees in Uganda--supported by some moderate Hutus--were forming the Rwandan Patriotic front, led by Mr Kagame. Their aim was to overthrow Habyarimana and secure their right to return to their homeland.
4: Living Through the Horror | "How can I forgive people who are trying to kill me, people who may have already slaughtered my family and friends? It isn't logical for me to forgive these killers. Let me pray for their victims instead, for those who've been raped and murdered and mutilated. Let me pray for the orphans and widows...let me pray for justice. God, I will ask you to punish those wicked men, but I cannot forgive them--I just can't." Immaculee experienced people murdering, raping, and mutilating her friends and family. She saw how others people treated people they saw as inferior.Like in All But My Life, Night, and All Quiet on the Western Front, Immaculee saw the inhumanity men showed their brothers.
5: A group of people gunned down during the genocide.
6: The Aftermath | After the murder of President Habyarimana, mayhem ensued. Hutus began to kill, ruthlessly, not only Tutsis but moderate Hutus as well. Meanwhile, the Rwandan Patriotic Front used the chaos to try and recapture their country. After three months of slaughter, they succeeded. | In July, the RPF captured Kigali. The government collapsed and the RPF declared a ceasefire. As soon as it became apparent that the RPF was victorious, an estimated two millions Hutus fled to Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). These refugees included many who have since been implicated in the massacres. At first, a multi-ethnic government was set up, with a Hutu, Pasteur Bizimungu as president and Mr Kagame as his deputy. But the pair later fell out and Bizimungu was jailed on charges of inciting ethnic violence, while Mr Kagame became president.
7: Although the killing in Rwanda was over, the presence of Hutu militias in DR Congo has led to years of conflict there, causing up to five million deaths. Rwanda's now Tutsi-led government has twice invaded its much larger neighbour, saying it wants to wipe out the Hutu forces. And a Congolese Tutsi rebel group remains active, refusing to lay down arms, saying otherwise its community would be at risk of genocide. The world's largest peacekeeping force (the UN) has been unable to end the fighting. | A girl after the genocide has ended.
8: Quotes/Quotable | "There are no hearts. All hearts are dead.How does one bury a heart?" (Klein 70) Immaculee worte about in her book that her entire family died in the genocide in Rwanda. Her heart was broken just like so many other. Their hearts were murdered with their families and loved ones. | A Memorial for the people killed during the genocide.
9: "I was alone, so terribly alone. Oh, why was I always alone?" (Klein 205) Every family was torn apart with death and distruction, not one Tutsi family was spared the lose of a loved one. Some people ended up with no one left from their family. They two were alone | "We are on the threshold of death." (Wiesel 36) Like the Holocaust the Rwanda genocide was a massacre of many people. Everyone who was a Tutsi was in danger of being murdered. They were all on the threshold of death just like the Jews in the Holocaust.
10: Citations "Rwanda: How the Genocide Happened." BBC NEWS. BBC, 18 Dec 2008. Web. 14 Apr 2010. Ilibagzia, Immaculee. Left to Tell: Discovering God in the Rwandan Holocaust. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House, Inc., 2006. Print.
11: "rwanda-genocide-bodies." Web. 20 Apr 2010. "Rwanda Reconstruction." Web. 20 Apr 2010. Weissmann Klein, Gerda. All But My Life. Expanded ed. Santa Monia, CA: Hill and Wang, 1995. 261. Print. Wiesel, Elie. night. 1st ed. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006. 120. Print. | A map of Rwanda.