1: By: Haven Clippinger and Allie Compton
2: Roots of Leprosy | Leprosy is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. | M. Leprae is an aerobic bacillus (rod-shaped) surrounded by a waxy coat that is unique to mycobacteria. | Mycobacterium leprae ranges in size from 1-8 nanometers in length and 0.2-0.5 nanometers in diameter.
3: M. Leprae appears in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side under a microscope.
4: Types of Leprosy | The form of leprosy obtained depends on a one's immune response to M. Leprae. | Interdeterminate Leprosy: a transitory form of leprosy in which immunity is not yet formed; may persist or turn into another form of the disease | Tuberculoid Leprosy: lesions become dry and hairless and loss of sensation can occur in them; nerves may lose function and become tender | Borderline Tuberculoid Leprosy similar to regular tuberculoid leprosy, but lesions are smaller and greater in number; the disease may stay in this stage or turn into tuberculoid
5: Borderline Borderline Leprosy: many red, odd-shaped lesions; hair growth and sensation are not stalled | Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy: many different kinds of lesions; lesions may look like saucers; feeling and hair growth usually is not impaired in infected spots | Lepromatous Leprosy: many lesions of all types; early symptoms are nasal stiffness, discharge and bleeding, and swelling of legs and ankles; if this type is not treated, many problems will occur (internal organ damage, skin thickening, blindness, hoarse voice, slow scarring of nerves causing sensory loss)
6: History of Leprosy | Leprosy is one of the oldest diseases. It is well-known in the oldest civilization of China, Egypt, | Leprosy is believed to have existed in Egypt in 4000 BC and in India and Japan earlier than 1000 BC | It later spread to Europe and by the 13th century it reached epidemic proportions.
7: Where is Leprosy Found? | Leprosy is believed to begin as one single bacteria, slowly mutating over the years. | Leprosy is believed to have originated in East Asia and the Middle East.
8: Victims of Leprosy | Leprosy is only found in humans. It has affected humanity for over 4,000 years. | It was well-recognized in the civilizations of ancient China, Egypt, and India.
9: Prevalence of Leprosy at the beginning of 2011, was 192,246 cases and the number of new cases in 2010 was 228,474 (excluding a few cases in Europe.)
10: Symptoms of Leprosy | The symptoms of leprosy occur slowly. It takes about five years for incubation, so it may take twenty years for symptoms to develop. | A symptom in the early stages are decreased ability to determine hot and cold temperatures.
11: As the disease progresses, the sense of touch slowly decreases. The victim can eventually lose the feeling of pain and deep pressure. | A leper can eventually get painless ulcers, pale areas of the skin, and damaging of the eyes. This could build up to large ulcers and facial disfigurement. | Untreated leprosy can cause permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. | Leprosy is usually not deadly. In rare cases, victims of Leprosy with low immune systems have died.
12: The Spread of Leprosy | It is believed that Mycobacterium leprae is spread from person to person through respiratory droplets .
13: Researchers believe that infected droplets reach other peoples' nasal passages and start the infection there. | However, there is a possibility that it can enter through breaks in the skin.
14: Treatment of Leprosy | Most cases of Leprosy can be treated with antibiotics. | In advanced cases of Leprosy, surgery may be needed to remove the disease. | The dosage and length of administration of antibiotics depends on the form and severity of the Leprosy.
15: Prevention of Leprosy | The best way to prevent the transmission of leprosy is to not contact with droplets from nasal and other secretions from patients with untreated leprosy.
16: http://health.dailynewscentral.com/content/view/754/0 http://www.medicinenet.com/leprosy/page2.htm http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50C12FE345A12738DDDAE0A94DF405B868CF1D3
17: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leprosy http://www.who.int/lep/en/ http://dermnetnz.org/bacterial/leprosy.html http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/medhealth/PMH0002323