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S: Math World

BC: Three cheers for Math World! It definatly deserves a place on the top ten magazine list!- John, Sanfrancisco Times I love Math World and I get so excited when a new issue comes out! - Louise, 11, Ohio To all the writers of Math World: " You Rock! - Greg, 10, New Jersey Math World opens up my child's mind to math! Thanks so much! - Alice, 42, California | Reviews | 20

FC: Math World

1: Table of Contents | Table of Contents............................................................ pg. 1 Biographical Sketch of a Great Mathematician............... pg. 2 Math Challenge Problem................................................ pg. 4 Decoder Puzzle........................................................... pg. 5 Women in Mathematics.............................................. pg. 10 Advertisement............................................................. pg. 13 Careers in Math........................................................ pg. 14 Answers...................................................................... pg. 16 1 | TOP SECRET READ ON ONLY IF YOU LOVE MATH! | 1

2: On April 30, 1777, Carl Friedrich Gauss was born in Brunswick, Germany. Gauss was a child prodigy, by the age of 3 he had taught himself how to read and count. Identifying Gauss’s intelligence, the Duke of Brunswick gave him money to pursue his education. He attended Caroline College for three years and during | this time he formulated the least-squares method and an assumption about the distribution of primes. When Gauss came to Gottingen in 1795 he discovered the fundamental theorem of quadric residues. He developed the notion of complex numbers. He was given a Ph.D. by University of Helmstedt in 1799 | for his thesis on the fundamental theorem of algebra. He published “Disquisitiones arithmeticae" when he was twenty-four, it was about his theories of numbers. In addition he calculated the orbits of the planets Ceres and Pallas. He found the orbits by using his least-squares method. Because | "A German Genius" | 2

3: of this, he was offered a position as an astronomer with the Gottingen Observatory. The heliotrope which Gauss invented in 1820; it was an instrument that had mirrors that reflected the suns rays. The instrument was used in geodesy; which is a branch of earth science. With Wilhelm Weber in the late 1820’s, Gauss | Gauss studied electricity, magnetism, mechanics, acoustics, and optics. He invented the first telegraph in 1833. He took interest in the | stock exchange and made a fortune out of it. He died on February 23, 1855 in Gottingen, Germany. He died a very smart, rich man. | Written by: Claire Soules | 3

4: 4 | 5 | Challenge of the Month | St. Gabriel's is considering starting a swim team and would like to build an outdoor racing pool (in place of the baseball field). The standard size racing pool is 5 racing lanes wide (each lane being 2 meters wide) by 50 meters long by 2.5 meters deep. The school would like to have more than just 5 racing lanes, but can not afford a larger pool. The cost is based upon total volume. If the pool were to be only 1.5 meters deep, how many additional lanes can be added without increasing the cost ? BONUS QUESTION: What exact depth can the 8-lane pool be to have the exact same volume as the standard size pool ?

5: Decorder Puzzle Solve each multiple choice problem and then insert the letter (correct answer) into the corresponding number to decode this message: Put the number on a separate sheet of paper in this order corresponding with the letter: 13, 3, 15, 4, 2, 1, 14, 15, 17, 6, 9, 12, 10, 7, 16, 8, 11 1. 8 is what percent of 32 ? T. 2.5% E. 24% V. 25% R. 40% 2. 16 is what percent of 5 ? C. 16% F. 31.3% M. 3.2% L. 320% 3. 30 mi / h = ft / min A. 264 H. 2112 C. 2640 K. 880 4. Express fraction as a percent. 21 / 13 E. 161.5% G. 1.6% J. 0.6% B. 61.9% 6. Express each percent as a decimal. U. 0.0063 D. 0.63 A. 0.063 K. 0.063% 7. -1/5 x 3/7 R. -7/15 V. -3/5 B. 1/6 O. -3/35 8. 7/15 divided by 3/11 F. 5 2/15 E. 7/55 K. 1 32/45 G. 5/13 9. How long does it take a bus traveling 40 mph to go 130 miles ? W. 3 hours T. 3 1/4 hours Y. 4 hours O. 3 1/2 hours 10. 5/7 + ( -1/7 ) = ? V. -6/7 S. -4/7 P. 6/7 R. 4/7 11. -6/7 - 3/5 = ? K. -4 1/2 U. 9/35 C. - 9/35 S. - 1 16/35 12. Tell which expression is a monomial. E. -1(a - b) V. 6/gh H. 22ef P. 4(n - m) 13. Find the product or quotient. Express using exponents. 53 x 58 R. 2511 F. 524 T. 255 M. 511 14. Factor the expression. 2 = 16y X. 2 + (1 + 8y) G. 2(1 + 16y) Y. 2(1 + 8y) D. 2y(1 + 8) 15. Evaluate x3 - y0 if x = 2 and y = 7 A. 1 H. 5 S. 7 W. 8 16. The number of books Joy read each month for the first 6 months of the year were 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, and 5. Find the average number of books she read per month. C. 4 books H. 18 books Y. 5 books B. 24 books 17. The difference of 22 and a number is 8. (also solve) W. y - 22 = 8; y = 14 H. y - 22 = 8; y = 30 F. 22 - y = 8; y = 30 M. 22 - y = 8; y = 14 | 5

6: 5. Express decimal as a percent. 1.88 Z. 188 S. 188% N. 1.88% W. 18.8% 6. Express 6.3% as a decimal. U. 0.0063 D. 0.63 A. 0.063 K. 0.063% 7. -1/5 x 3/7 R. -7/15 V. -3/5 B. 1/6 O. -3/35 8. 7/15 divided by 3/11 F. 5 2/15 E. 7/55 K. 1 32/45 G. 5/13 9. How long does it take a bus traveling 40 mph to go 130 miles ? W. 3 hours T. 3 1/4 hours Y. 4 hours O. 3 1/2 hours 10. 5/7 + ( -1/7 ) = ? V. -6/7 S. -4/7 P. 6/7 R. 4/7 11. -6/7 - 3/5 = ? K. -4 1/2 U. 9/35 C. - 9/35 S. - 1 16/35 | 6

7: 11. -6/7 - 3/5 = ? K. -4 1/2 U. 9/35 C. - 9/35 S. - 1 16/35 12. Tell which expression is a monomial. E. -1(a - b) V. 6/gh H. 22ef P. 4(n - m) 13. Find the product or quotient. Express using exponents. 53 x 58 R. 2511 F. 524 T. 255 M. 511 14. Factor the expression. 2 = 16y X. 2 + (1 + 8y) G. 2(1 + 16y) Y. 2(1 + 8y) D. 2y(1 + 8) 15. Evaluate x3 - y0 if x = 2 and y = 7 A. 1 H. 5 K. 7 W. 8 | 7

8: 16. The number of books Joy read each month for the first 6 months of the year were 3, 5, 4, 5, 2, and 5. Find the average number of books she read per month. C. 4 books H. 18 books Y. 5 books B. 24 books 17. The difference of 22 and a number is 8. (also solve) W. y - 22 = 8; y = 14 H. y - 22 = 8; y = 30 F. 22 - y = 8; y = 30 M. 22 - y = 8; y = 14 | 8

9: 9 | Look for the next issue of which is hitting the stands on June 7th!

10: Throughout history there have been some incredible, major discoveries in the math department, many of these being discovered by women mathematicians. One woman Maria Gaetana Agnesi was born in Milan on May 16, 1718, to a wealthy family. | this formula was y=a*sqrt (a*x-x*x)/x. She thought the y axis being the vertical line and the x axis being the horizontal line. Her original drawing of the Witch of Agnesi is pictured below. Agnesi died in the year 1799. Another woman famous for her mathematical talents is Agnes Baxter. She was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, | She was the oldest of 21 children and her father was a professor. Agnesi believed that all women should be educated, and she wanted to become a mathematician just like her father. Through the years she studied and came up with the Witch of Agnesi, in the year 1748. This was a curve that Agnesi had wrote an equation for, | "A Number of Amazing Women" | 10

11: Canada and was a student at Dalhousie University where she won the Sir William Gold Medal. In 1892 she got her MA (masters) in mathematics, and went on the Cornell University where she won a fellowship, and was awarded the degree of Ph. D in 1895. Baxter was the second Canadian woman to get her Ph. D in | mathematics in North America. Baxter died at age 47 after being ill. Mary Litzinger was born in Bedford, Pennsylvania. She received her B.A. degree in 1920 and her M.A. in 1922 (both were in mathematics). These degrees were obtained from Bryn Mawr College.She was awarded a fellowship on her graduation day and she used that | to study at the University of Rome from 1923-24. She then received her Ph. D in 1934 from the University of Chicago and her thesis was on "A Basis for Residual Polynomials in n Variables." This was published in Transactions of the American Mathematical Society in 1942. Just ten years later Mary Litzinger died in 1952. All these women are very | 11

12: important to the discoveries in the mathematical world today. By: Chandler Diedrich Maria Gaetana Agnesi | Agnes Baxter Mary Litzinger | 12

13: Can you predict the outcome?! F.Y.I.'s newest game has just come out and it will keep you guessing! Probability Mania consists of a spinner, bag of different colored marbles, and 6 pairs of die. The game can have a minimum of four players to a maximum of eight players. A score board, and deck of cards is included for even more probability fun!! The purpose of the game is to try to guess the outcome using the formulas on the formula cards inside the box; the person who gets the right answer or is at least close to it will get a point. Once you start playing you won’t want to stop!!! | 13

14: For all the Mathematicians out there have you ever thought about having a career in math? Well for those of you who find the wonders of math interesting, there are many jobs out there that are practically tailored for you. One career to consider is banking.A banker’s job is to help companies grow and expand their business. . ! | Another career to try is architecture. An architect designs all kinds of buildings. An architect needs to be artistic and creative in order to create new and exciting designs. Along with being good at art in drawing pictures and plans of their building designs, an architect must also be good at math. The primary math an architect uses is geometry to calculate the building’s dimensions, area, volume, and perimeter. | A part of this is the banker helping the company decide how to pay for expanding its business, like selling stock in the company, or borrowing money. The primary type of math a banker uses is algebra. A banker will write algebraic formulas with many variables to analyze different business strategies and to determine the most cost effective way to pay for it. | “Put your love of math to work!” | 14

15: Depending upon the building’s designs and complexity, sometimes an architect uses trigonometry. A final career to think about is engineering. For one, there are many kinds of engineering. Some examples are: civil engineering, structural engineering, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering. In civil engineering you build roads, highways, and train tracks.I | In structural engineering an engineer would work with the architect on the structure that is going to hold up a building. If you choose to be and electrical engineer you work on the electric components of a building. This includes lighting and such. A final type of engineering is mechanical. If you are a mechanical engineer you design heating, air- conditioning, and plumbing systems. | Basically, if you are an engineer be prepared for very advanced math! By: Catherine Moore | 15

16: Answers Math Challenge Problem 1. Calculate the volume of the standard size pool: Length x Width x Depth = Volume 50 x ( 2 x 5) x 2.5 = 1,250 cubic meters 2. Write the algebraic formula to solve for the number of lanes ("L"): Length x Width x Depth = Volume 50 x ( 2 x L ) x 1.5 = 1,250 | 16

17: 3. Solve for "L" 50 x 2 x 1.5 = 150 150 L = 1,250 L = 1,250 / 150 L = 8.33 So, if the depth is 1.5 meters, the pool can have 8 racing lanes. 4. Solve for the exact volume of the 8-lane pool: 50 x ( 2 x 8 ) x 1.5 = 1,200 cubic meters Because the 8-lane pool requires less volume, it would cost less than the standard size pool | 17

18: Answers Continued.... | BONUS QUESTION: 1. Write the algebraic formula to solve for the depth ("D"): Length x Width x Depth = Volume 50 x ( 2 x 8 ) x D = 1,250 50 x 16 = 800 800 D = 1,250 D = 1,250 / 800 D = 1.5625 So an 8-lane, 50 meter pool, 1.5625 meters deep, has the exact volume of a standard size pool. What exact depth can the 8-lane pool be to have the exact same volume as the standard size pool ? Answer 1. Write the algebraic formula to solve for the depth ("D"): Length x Width x Depth = Volume 50 x ( 2 x 8 ) x D = 1,250 50 x 16 = 800 800 D = 1,250 D = 1,250 / 800 D = 1.5625 So an 8-lane, 50 meter pool, 1.5625 meters deep, has the exact volume of a standard size pool. | 18

19: Mckelvys Math Rocks | Answers Continued.... Decoder: | 19

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