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Museum of the Ancient World

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S: MUSEUM OF THE ANCIENT WORLD

FC: MUSEUM OF THE ANCIENT WORLD | Written By: Arefin Alam, Amanda Binder, Aaron Fowler, and Shelby Wells

1: MESOPOTAMIA | *Origins: -5500 B.C.E - 1200 B.C.E *Geography: -Tigris River -Euphrates River *Monarchy Government *Cuneiform *Polytheistic | *Famous architecture: -Ziggurats *Cultural achievements: -Wheel -Sail -Used bronze -Created the number system

2: ANCIENT EGYPT | *Origin: -2500 B.C.E - 1200 B.C.E *Geography: -Nile River *Government: -Monarchy (Pharaoh) *Writing System: -Hieroglyphics *Religion: -Polytheistic | *Famous architecture: -Pyramids *Cultural Achievements: -Papyrus (paper) -Irrigation systems -Mummification

3: INDUS VALLEY | *Origin: -2500 B.C.E - 1200 B.C.E *Geography: -Indus River -South Asia -Himalayas *Government: -Centralized *Writing System: -Symbol Writing (not deciphered) *Religion: -Polytheistic | *Famous Architecture: -Oven baked bricks *Cultural Achievements: -Plumbing system -Irrigation system -Grid cities

4: ANCIENT CHINA | *Origin: -2000 B.C.E - 1200 B.C.E *Geography: -The Yellow River *Government: -Monarchy (Dynasty) *Writing System: -Character Writing (Based on oracle bones) *Religion- -Polytheistic (Ancestor worship) | *Famous architecture: -Timber framed homes *Cultural achievements: -Irrigation System

5: JUDAISM | *Origin: -Israel in 2,000 B.C. -Mesopotamia *Important People: -Abraham (founder) -Moses (led the Jewish from Egypt) -The Rabbi (Spiritual leader of the Jewish people) *Holy Sites: -Wailing Wall -Ganges River (Pilgrimage here is very important) *Famous Writings/Books: -Torah (Jewish Bible) -Talmud *Holy Days: -Yom Kippur -Passover -Rashashnah

6: CONFUSCIASIM | *Origin -China -571-478 B.C.E. *Founder: -Confucius | *Basic Teachings: -Harmony starts at home -The Five Key Relationships -Respect for parents (Filial Piety) -Support the Golden Rule *Famous Book -The Analects *Ideas about order and society: -Order began at home -Stressed proper behavior -Leaders should rule by example -Education helps bring order to society

7: DAOISM | *Origin: -China -551-469 B.C.E. *Founder: -Laozi *Basic Teachings: -Follow the rules of nature -let the universe take its course -Non-action *Famous writing: -The Tao-Te-Ching *Ideas about Order in Society: -Anti-war -Anti-taxation -Anti-Social programs

8: LEGALISM | *Origin: -China -350-275 B.C.E. *Founder: -Hanfeizi *Basic Teachings: -Rejected Confucianism -Can't trust people -Practical -Rule of Law is supreme: Strong laws and harsh punishments. *Ideas about order and society: -Government should only do projects that benefit the majority of people. -The position of leader is more important than that of the man. -Strong laws bring order

9: *Government: -Emperor -Feudalism *Economy: - Agriculture -Small scale trade *Beliefs: -Relied on mandate of heaven *Culture: -Constant threat of war -Wrote poetry -Built roads and canals | ZHOU

10: *Government: -Monarchy -Centralized use of Bureaucracy *Economy: -Agriculture improved trade with China *Beliefs: -Legalism *Culture: -Built roads, canals, the Great Wall of China. -Burned Confucianism's books | QIN

11: HAN *Government: -Emperor -Civil service system -Highly centralized government use of Buraeucracy *Economy: -Built silk roads -Traded with rome and other parts in Asia *Belief: -Confuciansm *Culture: -60 million people education -Promoted large cities, invented paper, Chinese literature, made and traded silk farming inventions

12: *Origins: -India -Indus river Valley -Aryans *Holy Books/ Writings: -Vedas -Upanishads *Holy Days: -Divali (Hindu New Year) -Holi (Celebrates Spring Equinox) *Holy Places: -Ganges River (Pilgrimage there is very important) *Practices: -Sacred Thread Ceremony -Arranged Marriage -Cremation/Ashes in the Ganges -Non-violent -Cows are sacred | HINDUISM

13: *Origins: -Northern India (Modern Nepal) *Important People: -Siddartha Gautama (Founder) -Dalai Lama (Spiritual Leader of Tibetian Buddism) *Holy Books: -Three Baskets of Wisdom (Tripitaka) *Holy Days: -Buddha's Birthday (Hana Mastsuri) *Holy Places: -Nature (temples, shrines) (stupa) *Practices: -Meditation -Prayer -Temples, Shrines -non-violence -Theravada -Mahayana | BUDDISM | *Key Beliefs: -Seek enlightment or Nirvana -4 Noble Truths -Eightfold Path -Rejected the Caste System

14: GUPTA | *Origins: -Northern state of Magadha *Important People: -Chandra Gupta (founder) *Religion: -Hinduism *Cultural Achievements: -Literature (Poems) -Plays -Medicine

15: MAURYA | *Origins: -established in 185 B.C. (was later on unestablished in 322 B.C.) * Government: -Powerful Army *Cultural Achievements: -Built Roads *Religion: -Buddhism -Promoted religious tolerance

16: ROME *Geography: - fertile land, midpoint of Mediterranean Sea Government- republic, imperial Rome Economy- agricultural Cultural accomplishments- the arch, roman roads, art, literature Religion-Polytheistic

17: GREECE *Geography: -mountainous, rugged, rocky, warm climate Government- city-states, Athens-direct democracy, Sparta-oligarchy Economy- sea trading economy within the Mediterranean region, a lot of cultural diffusion *Important People: -Socrates -Aristotle -Plato *Cultural Accomplishments: -Drama -Sculptures -Olympics -Astronomy -Math *Religion: -Polytheistic

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