BC: Created by Corrine Kroeker 2010
FC: Second Language Acquisition Edgewood College 2010
1: Table of Contents | Purpose of this book .....................................2-3 English Language Learners that I serve ................ 4 My Instructional Environment ........................... 5 ACCESS for ELLs scores grid ............................. 6 First and Second Language Acquisition Theories ..... 7 Narrative on First and Second Language Acquisition.. 8 Persuasive arguments to use WIDA CAN DO............ 10 Profile and Task cards using the "COOL TOOl"......... 11 Building Background Knowledge and Websites ....... 12 Building Background Knowledge graphic organizer... 13 Supporting Academic Reading graphic organizer ..... 14 Differentiation CAN DO reading domain grid .......... 15 Supporting ELLs in Writing narrative and tips......... 16 Scaffolding Writing Genres graphic organizer ......17-19 Writing Graphic Organizer specific to Genre......... 20 Creating Learning Rich Environment narrative...... 21 Differentiation CAN DO speaking and listening ...... 22 K5 Specific ELL strategies ........................... 23-31
2: This book is intended for the use of informing and refreshing the thought processes of teaching EL learners in the K5 Program. This book is specifically focused to our Hmong students at Hmong American Peace Academy. This book will be shared with teachers at ELL in service meetings and with the ELL teacher specifically. | My Second Language Acquisition Book
4: English Language Learners | I teach at Hmong America Peace Academy in Milwaukee. My student population consist of all Hmong students. According to my family survey that I sent out at Meet your Teacher Day, the strongest home language present is Hmong. Many of the older family members have come to the states within the past few years from the countries of Laos and Thailand. Many of them have been refugees as oppose to immigrant peoples. These older family members do not speak English and are in need of interpreters and translators when they are involved in school activities. The children of these families grow up at home speaking Hmong. There are many kinds of dialect in Hmong. Green Hmong and white Hmong language dialects are the most popular in our school system. When learning Hmong it is more an oral language and has only been in written form within the past 20 years. Many older family members can only speak Hmong and not write Hmong. All of my students are able to speak Hmong and they are not able to write in Hmong. This is a major concern for the Hmong families that their language would be a lost art not only in speaking but in writing as well.
5: My Instructional Environment | Here at Hmong American Peace Academy (HAPA), we are mainly an English immersion school. The students speak Hmong at home and in the school setting all academic language is in English. Students during their free time will choose to use Hmong as their social language Programming for the younger grades is just total immersion concept. Some of the older grade level students will have a pull out program to help with homework through the use of native language interpretation of concepts to reinforce the content. A special class called the shelter class is provided for those students who have newly entered the states as a refugee. This helps to aid in the transition back into the classroom as soon as possible. Total English immersion concept in Kindergarten looks similar to a regular Kindergarten. Many things are labeled in the room as well as visuals are ever present. A safe risk taking environment is provided to aid in learning at their own level and pace. Many times students will be repeating phrases that they hear me say. It might be a noisier environment but there is intentional learning taking place for verbal practice of our English language.
6: The Purpose of ACCESS for ELLs 1. The ACCESS test monitors the progress of the ELL's English language proficiency. 2. The test informs for better classroom instruction and assessment. 3. The ACCESS test establish criteria when ELLs have attained English Language Proficiency.
7: 3 Main Theoretical Positions 1. Behaviorist - Skinner states that if students have an environment of stimulus they learn. 2. Innatist- Chomsky states that student are biologically programmed for language. They have an innate ability to do tasks and the environmental concept has less importance. 3. Developmental- Piaget and Vygotsky states that students language is build on their cognitive development and language experience. | 5 Second Language Acquisition Theories 1. The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis- This theory is a balanced approach between teachable moments and purposeful academic language intent. 2. The Monitor Hypothesis- This is a theory the initiates speaking and then it is inspected and corrected for errors. 3.The Natural Order Hypothesis- This theory states that language is acquired through a predictable order. It is a process of gradual ease of concepts to more complex. 4. The Input Hypothesis- This hypothesis states the subject matter should be a level above so they can progress and be active learners. Do not simplify curriculum. 5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis- This theory states that an emotionally safe environment allows learners to feel motivated and become active in the process. | First and Second Language Acquisition
8: The understanding of the many theories on how language is acquired is significant to my teaching style because it gives me a balanced perspective. There is no one right theory. It is a balance of all theory parts put together to make sense of how each students learning takes place. | First and Second Language Acquisition Impacts Teaching of ELL's
9: Teacher: "A teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary. " | Student: " If you find yourself saying ' But I can't speak English...' try adding the word 'yet...'
10: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors: A Cool Tool | Why use the Cool Tool? 1. The "cool tool" is a great support to classroom instruction. 2. The "cool tool" supports classroom instruction though the use of guidelines for differentiating language instruction. 3. It is useful for teachers in that it provides information of the students current level of language understanding and production in the classroom. 4. The "cool tool" is useful for educators to inform parents of students academic progress in reading, writing, listening and speaking.
12: Building Background Knowledge for ELLs | The importance of building background knowledge in students is the foundational piece for students to begin to understand new concepts. Activating students knowledge of the content through classroom talk, experiences and activities helps students see what they already know in terms of content and the everyday language of the subject. The students are then actively engaged and then can proceed to building more academic knowledge about the subject. Activating this background knowledge gives them "hooks" to hang new learning on. | www.everythingESL.net | www.coloringcolorado.org | www.eldstrategies.com | www.ncrel.org
14: Supporting Academic Reading for ELLs
15: Supporting ELLs with Reading strategies before, during and after reading. In the reading of Gibbons I have found that before reading activities give student opportunities to find out what the text is about before they read. During reading activities help students focus on text while they are reading. And after reading activities aim to help the students focus on a deeper level on the text information that they read. All of these activities have an intentional purpose and are need for the student to gain the full understanding of the reading text. Some of the activities used for before, during and after reading are included in the back of this book.
16: Supporting ELLs within Writing | Giving the ELL students supports in writing allows them to be successful writers. The supporting system is a sequential foundation with special activities in each level. The first level is to incorporate foundation structure of words through word walls, picture word associations etc.. Another layer is modeling the writing that is to be taking place. While modeling students may interject and make the writing piece a joint effort in construction. Independent writing is the goal and will be obtained when the strong foundation is formed. Tips: 1. Start with a story starter or writing framework to give students guidance. 2. Give students pictures to sequence and then write a sentence under each picture. 3. It is important to model the use of graphic organizers. This repetition allows the students to hear the academic language needed for writing.
20: Graphic Organizer for Life cycles
21: Creating a Learning Rich Environment Creating a learning rich environment requires intentional planning and active engagement at all times. It is important in the learning environment to allow students to have processing time which means appropriate amounts of time to think about the information and respond. This extra emphasis on allowing time lets the students know that they are worthy contributors to the class conversation no matter how long it takes to respond. A learning rich environment would also include the teacher being a listener and not just a hearer of the students thoughts. As the students are speaking concentrate on content and slowly work on grammatical errors in speech. This will allow them freedom to try the language without fear. Modeling appropriate skills needed for each subject enhances the learning environment. Modeling gives the students strategies to build upon and a framework to obtain and build knowledge upon. Designing specific thinking sheets or graphic organizers according to subject area taught would also be a beneficial support to the ELL learning rich environment. Students need to be encouraged to engage themselves, communicate, think and have a clear outcome for a task to be a learning rich environment.
22: Listening and Speaking CAN DO descriptors for K5 Students are to listen to a story and then retell the story with details.
23: Kindergarten English Language Learner Strategies
25: Semantic Web or "Bubble Map" Definition: It is a tool used to collect, record and organize information. | How to: 1. Choose a topic and write it in the middle of some writing space. (board, chart paper etc...) 2. Students then brainstorm or recall what they know about the topic. The ideas are written as bubble thoughts coming out from the main idea. 3. Extension activities may include teacher adding her own words for students to remember about the topic. Making the "bubble map concepts into a poster for a writing activity.
27: Word Walls and Vocabulary Walls Definition: It is a bank of words displayed on the wall of the classroom. These words are necessary for organizing ideas and/or connecting words and meaning to a unit or topic. High frequency words are used for reference to encourage independent work. | How to: 1. Teacher picks out words relevant to the topic and displays the words. 2. A Vocabulary word wall would display the word along with a picture to allow the student to have clear understanding. 3. Extension activities: The vocabulary word wall could be made into individual books. Students make their own Vocabulary book by copying the word and then illustrating it according to their understanding.
28: Split Dictation modified to fit K5 Definition: It is a game that students fill in the words or phrases that are missing. How to: 1. Whole group activity: Choose a poem or text students are familiar with. 2. Teacher begins reading the text and stops at certain points and students must fill in the missing words or phrases. 3. Extension activities: Use this format when giving directions for activities. State the directions and then restate the directions stopping at intervals for students to fill in the missing word. Also, use this with learning nursery rhymes.
29: Traditional Cloze Strategies Definition: It is a text with some words deleted. How to: 1. Choose a phrase or definition to be learned. 2. Choose word deletions appropriate to the content or vocabulary that is most important. 3. For extra support a word list can be provided for students to pick from. Extension activities: use definitions for Science and Social Studies terms for assessing. Use the book titled, The Important Book to help determine phrasing for each unit. See example in the picture.
30: Swat the Word Game How to: 1. Teacher makes vocabulary cards with pictures of words depending on the level and objective of the content. 2. Teacher spreads the cards on a flat surface. 3. Teacher states a question or adjective or clue for student to find the word or picture. 4. The student swats the picture or word with a fly swatter when they know the answer.
31: Partner Puzzle Vocabulary How to: 1. Using vocabulary words, give students 2 matching puzzle pieces. 2. On the one half students write the word. On the other half students illustrate a picture to match the word. 3. Teacher will pick up all the cards and mix them up. 4. Each student will take a puzzle piece and try and find the matching partner to their word or picture. Ideas: Match color words and the appropriate color. Match number words with number symbols.