S: American Revolution Scrapbook
BC: The End
FC: American Revolution Scrapbook | Mrs. Winkie's Georgia Studies Class A | By: Caroline Abbey
1: Section 1: People 2 Section 2: Causes 12 Section 3: Events 17 Section 4: A New Beginning 22
2: Button Gwinnett Mr. Gwinnett was born in England in the year 1732 but the exact day of his birth is unknown. He moved to South Carolina and then Georgia where he lived for the remainder of his life. He was on the Colonial's side, though he didn't partake in any combat. Gwinnett was one of the three Georgians to sign the Declaration of Independence. This is what he was best known for. Later on he was in a duel with General McIntosh, and this cost him his life. He died three days later on May 19, 1777. This being do he was not able to witness the beginning nor end of the war.
3: Lyman Hall Mr. Hall was born in New England in the year 1724 but the exact day of his birth is unknown. He moved to Virginia and then Georgia where he lived for the remainder of his life. He was on the Colonial's side, though he didn't partake in any combat. Hall was one of the three Georgians to sign the Declaration of Independence. This is what he was best known for.
4: George Walton Mr. Walton was born in Virginia in the year 1741 but the exact day of his birth is unknown. He moved to Georgia in 1769. He was on the Colonial's side during the war even though he didn't partake in any combat. Walton was the last of three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence. This is how we know him here in Georgia. After the war, he still played a large role in Georgia. He was elected governor in October 1779, this term only last two months, and again in 1788. He also served as a congressman, Senator, and the Chief of Justice for Georgia.
5: Abraham Baldwin Mr. Baldwin was born in Connecticut in the year 1754. In 1783 he was compelled to study law and within a year moved to Georgia. He was on the Colonial's side during the war. He was sent to the Constitutional Covention and anded up solving on of the many crisises, the Big State Small State crisis. Walton was the last of three Georgia signers of the Declaration of Independence. This is how we know him here in Georgia. After the war, he still played a large role in Georgia. He was elected governor in October 1779, this term only last two months, and again in 1788. He also served as a congressman, Senator, and the Chief of Justice for Georgia.
6: William Few Mr. Few was born on June 8, 1784 in Maryland and moved to Georgia in 1776. During the years of the war, he contributed by joining a militia. Clearly he was on our side during the war. After the war he made his most well known tribute, signing the Constitution as a representative of Georgia. He later served as one of the two original Georgia senators and as a judge and a member of the Georgian Legislature. He died at age 80 on July 16, 1828.
7: George Washington Mr. Washington was born on what we know as February 22, 1732.However when England converted to the Georgian calender and lost 11 days of this month, his original birth date, February 11, 1732, was changed accordingly. He supported the colonials both in combat and politically. The two things he is best know for are being the general of the colonial army and being the first president of the the United States. As general, he provided a solid sense of leadership and successfully aided the struggling colonists in achieving their victory. On April 30, 1789, George Washington's inauguration took place an he was now the president not only in the United States, but ever in the world. He died on December 14, 1799.
8: Paul Revere Mr. Revere was born on December 21, 1734. During the war, he served as a soldier of the colonies. This well known Patriot is famous for making the Midnight Ride. This ride was made to warn the people in Concord that the British troops were on their way and to prepare for battle. After the war he returned to the silversmith business making bells for church houses. He died on May 10, 1818.
9: Thomas Jefferson Mr. Jefferson was born April 13, 1743 in Virginia. He was on the Colonial's side during the war even though he didn't partake in any combat. He is famous for his work on writing the Declaration of the Independence. He completed this historical document on June 11 through June 28 1776. On July fourth his work is adopted by the congress. He also served as the first Secretary of State and in 1801 be was elected the third president. He passed away on July 4, 1826.
10: Betsy Ross Mrs. Ross was born on January 1, 1751. She showed her support for America through sewing. She is best known for designing and making the American flag. George Washington asked her to make the flag on January 21, 1776 because the current flag had to close of a resemblance to the British flag. By 1777, it was made the official flag of the United States. Her design included 13 alternating red and white stripes and a Union of 13 stars on a blue field. Betsy died on January 30, 1836, not living to see the end of the war.
11: General Cornwallis Cornwallis was born on New Years Eve of 1738. This British general is the one who is considered to have "lost America". One the most important battles that he fought was the Battle of Yorktown. In August 1781, he was waiting on more troops that were on their way over, when the French and Americans trapped them and forced their surrender. This was the biggest loss of his career. After the war, he left America ad became the governor of India and the Viceroy of Ireland. Cornwallis died in 1805.
12: The French and Indian War This was the war that had the British with some Native Americans fighting against the French and other Native Americans. The war itself did cause some problem but the affects of the war were the main issue. After the war, Britain imposed taxes on the colonies to pay of its war debt. I will talk more specifically about the Sugar Act later on but a few others were the Stamp, Quartering, Intolerable, Tea and Townshend Acts.
13: The Proclamation of 1763 This ruling forbade the colonists to settle the land west of the Appalachian Mountains and forced those already living there to leave. This particularly enraged the settlers because this was the land that they had just fought for and won in the French and Indian War. Instead Britain gave this land to the Indians that had helped them fight. The settlers chose to ignore this ruling and claimed being deprived of their rights to live where they pleased.
14: The Sugar Act Also called the American Revenue Act, this is act was passed on April 5, 1764. It raised the tax on foreign refined sugar, banned foreign rum or alcohol from being imported and set harsh punishments for anyone who broke these regulations. The colonists of Georgia were especially worried due to their lumber trade with sugar producing countries. Since the tax was being raised it would make these trade relationships more difficult and consequently have a negative impact on the economy.
15: The Boston Massacre This is the event that Mrs. Winkie refers to as "a snowball fight gone bad". What started out as rowdy patriots trashing a British guard outside the House of Commons, ended with five colonists dead. When the guard called for backup, the crowd intensified and they taunted the soldiers to shoot, thinking that they wouldn't. We don't know if the soldiers were commanded to shoot or if they were giving into the taunts when they did so. This event was the victim of major propaganda and when this spread through the colonies, the citizens were baffled and enraged. This was the factor that changed the minds of many loyalists.
16: The Tea Act This act was brought on by the foreseen bankruptcy of the East India Company. Since this company contributed greatly to England's economy, they were allowed to sell directly to the merchants in America. This new ability to sell directly allowed the company to increase their profits. The colonists however found this threating in that the company now had the power to regulate their tea prices as they pleased. In retaliation colonists refused to by tea and some took more extreme measures such as the Boston Tea Party.
17: The Siege of Savannah This event involved the British and their opponents, the colonists supported by the French. During this time, Savannah was the capital of the Georgia colony. In the fall of 1778, 3500 British troops attacked the town to take it from the Patriots. They succeeded and only lost three men. From their new base, the British attempted to capture Charleston, South Carolina but failed. The Patriots attempted to retake Savannah in October of 1779. The Patriots had counted on the element of surprise but thanks to spies, the British were ready. Though the siege lasted a few more days, it ended in defeat and the British maintained control of Savannah for three and a half more years.
18: The Battle of Kettle Creek The Battle of Kettle Creek, fought on February 14, 1779, was one of the most important battles of the Revolutionary War for Georgia. At this time, Georgia was almost completely under the control of the British. Approximately 340 Patriots, led by Colonels Andrew Pickens, John Dooly and Elijah Clark tried to take on 600 British in present-day Elbert County. A desperate battle broke out and 20 Loyalists were killed and dozens more captured or wounded. It was one of the most severe defeats the Tories ever received in Georgia. The victory boosted the morale of the colonials.
19: The First Continental Congress In 1774, all the colonies except Georgia held the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. They met to discuss how to respond to the "Intolerable Acts" and how to assert their rights with the British government, without seeking independence from Britain. The congress set out to create a statement asserting their rights, document violation of those rights, and to present a plan that would persuade Britain to restore those rights. The members decided to boycott British goods and then agreed to meet again in May 1775, if the British did not change their position.
20: The Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was one of the most important government meetings in the history of the United States of America. Many of the most significant ideas that the colonists fought for in the Revolutionary War were formed here. It was at this meeting that the members decided to completely break away from Great Britain and formally put the colonies in a state of defense. The delegates formed an army called the American Continental Army and unanimously elected George Washington as commander-in-chief of the army. The Congress voted to start printing paper money, and began printing it later that year. It was at this meeting that members of the Second Continental Congress wrote and signed The Declaration of Independence.
21: The Declaration of Independence The decision was made to write a letter to King George declaring independence. The group chose John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, and Thomas Jefferson to write the “letter”. Thomas Jefferson actually wrote the document because he had such good penmanship. The Declaration of Independence contained three central points. First, the documents outlined what they believed made good government. Secondly, it described which rules and taxes the representative thought were unreasonable. The last statement the representatives included was to declare the colonies free and independent from Britain. This final statement effectively declared war against King George and Great Britain and gave birth to what is now The United States of America.
22: The Articles of Confederation This was the original document that governed or country. It ultimately failed because it granted hardly any power to the federal government which made it hard for the states to act as one country. It did not give the federal government the power to: force the state's to follow its laws, enforce laws, tax, or create a military. It allowed the states to each have their own type of money and impose tariffs on other states. The Article of Confederation lacked a system for federal courts and a leader.
23: The US Constitution This is the document that governs our nation today. It was written at the Constitutional Convention which started on May 25, 1787 and ended on September 17, 1787. There were several arguments and compromises made during this time. One main conflict was deciding how the big | and small states would be fairly represented in the legislature. This was settled with the Great Compromise with help from our very of Abraham Baldwin. It stated that the legislature would have two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate. There would be an equal number of senators from each state (2) and the representative for the House of Representative would be based on the state's population. Another controversy was if slaves should be counted in the population. The southern state wanted them to be but the northern ones opposed the idea. The compromise stated that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted in the population for each state. The constitution was ratified first by Delaware on December 7, 1788 and after a Bill of Rights was added the last two states, North Carolina and Rhode Island, finally signed.
24: Georgia's Constitution Our constitution is set up very similarly to the US constitution. It consists of three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The legislative branch is divided into two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. This first constitution also abandoned the parish system and adopted the county system. The forsts eight counties were Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Wilkes, Richmond, and Liberty. Our first governor was John Truteland.