FC: Science Unit Review | By: Alda
1: Sedimentary, Igneous, and metamorphic | Rocks | Rocks are made of several different minerals. The three most important rocks are sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic. Sedimentary rocks are made out of sand and really tiny rocks, such as clay, mud, rocks, gravel, and pebbles being compacted together. Igneous rocks are made out of from lava cooled on the crust, and magma cooling inside the crust. And metamorphic rocks are made through extreme heat and pressure, and then eventually turn back to Igneous rocks. But the most important thing about rock is that they are made up of several different kinds of minerals.
2: Minerals are pure, crystal-like substances. To tell if something is really a mineral, there are 5 ways to do it. First do the hardness test according to Moh's chart., one result is a 2, you can scratch with your finger nails. 3, you can scratch with a penny. $4 you can scratch with a iron nail. 5, you can scratch with a glass marble. And 7, you can scratch with a steel file.then look at the color, then luster, according to how the sunlight reflects off the mineral. In order to tell the streak color, you either have to use the minerals and scratch onto a paper, or you can use a nail failure to scratch off the colors. the last step to tell if something is really mineral, you can look at the cleavage/ fracture. You can do that by trying to drop it on the ground, it will either break into cleavage pieces ( 2 smooth pieces ), or fracture ( two jagged pieces ). But the most important thing is that minerals are pure, crystal-like substances. | Minerals
3: The rock cycle explains how Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were made. sedimentary becomes metamorphic through heat and pressure. Sedimentary becomes igneous by bing forced down into the mantle. Metamorphic becomes igneous by being forced down into the mantle. Metamorphic becomes sedimentary through weathering and erosion creating sediments and those compacting into rock. igneous becomes sedimentary through weathering and erosion creating sediments and those compacting into rock. igneous becomes metamorphic through heat and pressure. Also the rock cycle never ends. but the most important thing about the rock cycle is that it explains how Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks were made. | Rock | Cycle
4: The most important thing about continental drift is that the continents were once all together in one piece called Pangaea. Continental drift is a theory. the theory is that pieces fitting together like a puzzle. countries these days are still moving away 1 cm each year. Alfred Wagner had evidence that certain fossils were found in different areas that used to be connected . but the most important thing about continental drift is that it was all one piece.
5: The most important thing about plate tectonics is that they cause natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunami's. There are oceanic plates and continental plates. All of those natural disasters are right at the crack of the plates. That's why the plates are moving within the earth's crust. Plates can slide either apart from each other called diverging, or towards each other called converging. Tectonic plate split up, because of the convection currents that occur at the crust. Plate these days are moving all different kinds of directions. But the most important thing about plate tectonics is that they cause natural disasters.
6: The most important thing about earths layers is that it is made out of 5 different kinds of layers. The layers are in order. First the crust ( which is the shell of the egg ), it is 5-90km think, second is the upper and lower mantle ( which is the second layer of the shell. Protecting the inside of the egg ), it is liquid,but the upper mantle is a liquid/solid-with a taffy like consistency. The third one is the outer core ( which is metallic liquid layer that surrounds the inside of the egg ). and the last layer is the inner core (which is the inside of the egg ) the core is a solid, and also known as the hottest layer. But the most important thing about earth's crust is that they are made out of 5 different kinds of layers.
7: The most important thing about earthquakes is that there are three kinds of earthquakes. different kinds of earthquakes, have different kinds of damage. The thrust and the slip is the less damaging ones. The reverse is the most damaging one. If the magnitude is 1 then the shaking would be 10. If the magnitude is 2, then the shaking would be 100. earthquakes happen when energy has been building up in the earth's crust. Earthquake is a result of released energy in the earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Epicentre means earthquake origin above ground. Focus means earthquake origin below the ground. According to the shaking, the earthquake will be given a number by the richer scale. The seismograph is a device that measures the waves. There are p waves, means the first waves to hit. S waves, means the second waves to hit. Surface waves, means the last waves, up/down movement, most destructive. But the most important thing about earthquakes, is that they have 3 different kinds of earthquakes. | Earthquakes
8: The most important thing about volcanoes, is that they happen when lava is building up pressure inside it. It is the ring of fire, meaning volcanoes surrounding the pacific ocean. Magma means molten rock below ground. lava means molten rock above ground. There are over 500 active volcanoes in the world. 90% of the volcanoes occur at the plate boundaries. The lava inside the volcanoes are 2000 degrees Celsius. " glowing clouds " made out of gas, ash, and acid.22000 people died from the Columbian volcanic eruption called Nevado del Ruiz. Volcano is an opening in the earth's crust. It is also responsible for creating new crust. But the most important thing about volcanoes is that it happens when lave pressure is build inside it.
9: The most important thing about tsunamis is that it can happen in many different ways. The first way is when earthquake starts shaking underneath the sea, causing the water to rise. The second one is when land-based volcanoes break down forcing large amounts of ashes and debris to go into the water. the last way is landslides. Land slide are similar to volcanoes that avalanche into the sea. As rock falls into the sea, gigantic boulders are loosened, and send tsunamis out. The last way is that when meteor hitting the ocean. These waves are called harbour waves. But the most important thing about tsunamis is that they can happen in many different ways.
10: The most important about mountains is that they are formed when extreme heat and pressure is applied. When they are softened by heat and pressure from within the earth's crust, they can be bended. sometimes faults are so deep that we can't see them, but sometimes they can also be visible. As you climb higher, there will be less oxygen. it grows 1cm each year. Fault block mountains occur at converging/subducing boundaries. Anticline means top of fold, and syncline means bottom of fold. But the most important thing about mountains is that they are formed when extreme heat and pressure is applied. | Mountains
11: The End! Hope you enjoyed looking at my book!