FC: THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
1: d | Welcome to my Mixbook technology curriculum project! The following pages are examples of work that students might create and publish following the directions of my Nervous System lesson plan found at the end of this Mixbook. Technology is a powerful motivator for students. They can create projects that are aesthetically pleasing and that can be published to share with other students, family, and friends.In addition to being viewed on the Web, a Mixbook creation can be printed out as a hard copy book that can be housed in the classroom, presented to the school library, or purchased by parents and guardians as a keepsake of their student's work. -Miss Bethany Gilliland
2: Your brain is made up of several parts working together! | What is the Nervous System? | Made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and an enormous network of nerves that thread throughout your body, it's the control center for your entire body. Your brain uses information it receives from the nerves to coordinate all your actions and reactions. Without it, you couldn't exist!
3: Your brain is in control! | It may seem as if your brain is always on the go. And it is. The brain not only controls what you think and feel, how you learn and remember, and the way you move and talk, but also many things you're less aware of — such as the beating of your heart, the digestion of your food, and yes, even the amount of stress you feel. Like you, your brain is quite the juggler.
4: ANATOMY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM If you think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. It does this via the spinal cord, which runs from the brain down through the back and contains threadlike nerves that branch out to every organ and body part. | When a message comes into the brain from anywhere in the body, the brain tells the body how to react. For example, if you accidentally touch a hot stove, the nerves in your skin shoot a message of pain to your brain. The brain then sends a message back telling the muscles in your hand to pull away. Considering everything it does, the human brain is incredibly compact, weighing just 3 pounds. Its many folds and grooves, though, provide it with the additional surface area necessary for storing all of the body's important information. The spinal cord, on the other hand, is a long bundle of nerve tissue about 18 inches long and inch thick. It extends from the lower part of the brain down through spine. Along the way, various nerves branch out to the entire body. These are called the peripheral nervous system. Both the brain and the spinal cord are protected by bone: the brain by the bones of the skull, and the spinal cord by a set of ring-shaped bones called vertebrae. They're both cushioned by layers of membranes called meninges as well as a special fluid called cerebrospinal fluid. This fluid helps protect the nerve tissue, keep it healthy, and remove waste products.
5: THREE MAIN SECTIONS OF THE BRAIN The forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain 1. The Forebrain The forebrain is the largest and most complex part of the brain. It consists of the cerebrum — the area with all the folds and grooves typically seen in pictures of the brain — as well as some other structures beneath it. The cerebrum contains the information that essentially makes us who we are: our intelligence, memory, personality, emotion, speech, and ability to feel and move. Specific areas of the cerebrum are in charge of processing these different types of information. These are called lobes, and there are four of them: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. 2. The Midbrain The midbrain, located underneath the middle of the forebrain, acts as a master coordinator for all the messages going in and out of the brain to the spinal cord. 3. The Hindbrain The hindbrain sits underneath the back end of the cerebrum, and it consists of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla. The cerebellum — also called the "little brain" because it looks like a small version of the cerebrum — is responsible for balance, movement, and coordination. The pons and the medulla, along with the midbrain, are often called the brainstem. The brainstem takes in, sends out, and coordinates all of the brain's messages. It is also controls many of the body's automatic functions, like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing, digestion, and blinking.
6: "Activity of the nervous system improves the capacity for activity, just as exercising a muscle makes it stronger." -Dr. Ralph Gerard | HOW THE NERVOUS SYSTEM WORKS The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain has billions of them, and they have many specialized jobs. For example, sensory neurons take information from the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin to the brain. Motor neurons carry messages away from the brain and back to the rest of the body. All neurons, however, relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making connections that affect the way we think, learn, move, and behave. The senses. Your spouse may be a sight for sore eyes at the end of a long day — but without the brain, you wouldn't even recognize him or her. Pepperoni pizza sure is delicious — but without the brain, your taste buds wouldn't be able to tell if you were eating pizza or the box it came in. None of your senses would be useful without the processing that occurs in the brain. * Sight. Sight probably tells us more about the world than any other sense. Light entering the eye forms an upside-down image on the retina. The retina transforms the light into nerve signals for the brain. The brain then turns the image right-side up and tells us what we are seeing. * Hearing. Every sound we hear is the result of sound waves entering our ears and causing our eardrums to vibrate. These vibrations are then transferred along the tiny bones of the middle ear and converted into nerve signals. The cortex then processes these signals, telling us what we are hearing.
7: # Taste. The tongue contains small groups of sensory cells called taste buds that react to chemicals in foods. Taste buds react to sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Messages are sent from the taste buds to the areas in the cortex responsible for processing taste. # Smell. Olfactory cells in the mucous membranes lining each nostril react to chemicals we breathe in and send messages along specific nerves to the brain— which, according to experts, can distinguish between more than 10,000 different smells. With that kind of sensitivity, it's no wonder research suggests that smells are very closely linked to our memories. # Touch. The skin contains more than 4 million sensory receptors — mostly concentrated in the fingers, tongue, and lips — that gather information related to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain and send it to the brain for processing and reaction. The brain is a beautiful and amazing part of our body! without it, we wouldn't survive!!
8: Introduction to Lesson Plan: This lesson is used to have the students become aware and be able to summarize the functions of the nervous system. Students will be able to recognize how the sending and receiving of messages works within the nervous system and how it serves as the bodies control center. They will also gain knowledge on the regulating of the body’s functions and the use of the five senses; emotions, speech, coordination, balance, and learning. (GLE Health Education, Functions and Interrelationships of Systems, Strand 1 Structure and Functions of the Body, Concept G-Grade 5.) (GLE Communication Arts, Writing, Strand 2, Compose Well Developed Text Using Standard English Conventions, Concept E-Grade 5.) (Performance Standards 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 3.5, 4.5, 4.6)
9: Nervous System MixBook Lesson Plan SECTION ONE Author: Bethany Gilliland Email Address: email@example.com Semester Created: Fall 2009 LESSON OVERVIEW Title: The Nervous System Brief Description: This lesson will allow the students to become familiar with the functions of the nervous system. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS/GENERALIZATIONS: The student understands that the nervous system is the bodies control center. ENGAGING QUESTION/SCENARIO: I would begin by asking the class these questions: What is the nervous system used for? What do all of its duties consist of? How many parts are there to the nervous system? Several or very little? Does it play a big role in your everyday life? Does it help protect you? SUBJECT AREA(S) (Put an X by all relevant subject areas.) ___ Math ___ Science X Reading X Writing ___ Social Studies/History ___ Foreign Language ___ Art ___ Music X PE X Information and Technology Literacy GRADE LEVEL (Put an X by all relevant grade levels.) ___ Kindergarten ___ Grade 1 ___ Grade 2 ___ Grade 3 ___ Grade 4 X Grade 5 ___ Grade 6 ___ K-12 Elementary ___ K-12 Middle ___ K-12 Secondary ___ Secondary DETAILED LESSON DESCRIPTION GLE #1: The SWBAT summarize the functions of the nervous system. (GLE Health Education, Functions and Interrelationships of Systems, Strand 1 Structure and Functions of the Body, Concept G-Grade 5.) (Performance Standards 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 3.5, 4.5, 4.6) GLE #2: The SWBAT list the functions of the nervous system and all that it’s responsible for using writing. (GLE Communication Arts, Writing, Strand 2, Compose Well Developed Text Using Standard English Conventions, Concept E-Grade 5.) (Performance Standards 1.4, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 3.5, 4.5, 4.6) STUDENT ASSESSMENT Students will be assessed throughout this lesson in their correct understanding of the function and importance of the nervous system. The teacher will assess students in their writing, listing, defining, photographs found, and the fluency of their slides throughout their Mixbook project. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA The Nervous System project COLLABORATION Other teachers that could be involved with this lesson could be the computer teacher or a school aide that has time to assist the children that need extra help with this particular lesson. Science teachers are also welcome to come and share any additional information they have on the human body in particular the nervous system. The special education teachers are also welcome to be included within this lesson for help. They may assist the students who need extra time or guidance. LESSON IMPLEMENTATION Length of Unit (hours, days): This lesson will be completed within three 50 minute sessions provided in class. Prerequisite Skills: Students will know how to use a computer, and use internet resources for the accumulation of pictures and information in regards to the nervous system. ACCOMMODATION OPTIONS ELL/IEP Students: These students will be able to have more time to complete the lesson if needed. They also have the choice to work with someone rather is be a special educator or another peer. Assistive Technology Needs: Students will be working in groups to complete their Mixbook lesson plan, this will allow for extra help any of the students might need while completing the assignment. MANAGEMENT/ORGANIZATION TIPS Students will be grouped into groups of three or four, which will be drawn out of a bucket that way it is fair. Each group will get a topic or a certain area of the brain to research and create a page on. This also allows for fairness and to avoid the repeat of something twice for the book. MATERIALS AND RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR UNIT Computer lab, Pencil, Paper, bucket, nervous system terms to be researched on TECHNOLOGY Web-based resources Mixbook- www.mixbook.com UNIT PLAN FLOW CHART/TIMELINE Identify and explain the activities, materials, resources, technology integration strategies, collaboration, and timeline for your lesson. A clear and easy way to complete this section is to identify what you’ll be doing for each step of the process. Day 1: The teacher will begin the Nervous System lesson by asking open-ended questions to the students. Some of those questions could be: What is the nervous system used for? What do all of its duties consist of? How many parts are there to the nervous system? Several or very little? Does it play a big role in your everyday life? Does it help protect you? After the class has had a decent discussion on the role and the functions the nervous system does then we will move on to split up in the groups. The teacher will draw out of a bucket the names of students to be grouped into groups of three or four. After the students have gotten grouped with their mixbook partners then the teacher will pass out the different topics and areas that each group is to research. They will then be led down to the computer lab where the first day out of two days of research begins. They are to look up pertinent information that relates to their specific topic on the nervous system. They will not only find information, but they will also look up photos that can be used to go along with their information they are going to share in the book. Day 2: On this day the students will start in the computer lab and finish up any research that did not get finished on the first day. They will complete their findings of facts and photos. The next part of the project they will begin is to log on to mixbook at www.mixbook.com. They will sign in as a group and decide the perfect layout for their page that is going to be added to the class book. Once they have picked the design, they will begin by adding and placing the information they think is most important regarding their topic that they were given the first day. They will add the information and facts and also add pictures that correlate to their information. Each group is to complete 2 half pages or a page spread, half information, half photos. During this time the teacher will be available to any questions the students may have regarding the program or the assignment. Day 3: The final day of the project is for the students to tie up all the loose ends and make sure everything they want is on their pages. They will check their spelling and grammar and placement of text boxes to photo boxes. Once every group is finished with their pages then the teacher will check over the whole book online a last time for any errors and then she will publish it online and order a copy for the class. Once the book is shipped to their class, each group will be given the opportunity to present their pages and tell about them, also tell what they learned that they may not have already known. The teacher will assess the children by the involvement in group work and the effort put into the book, and their completion of the pages. The book will also be used at parent teacher conferences to show the parent/guardian the type of work their children are capable of, and if the parents would like a copy the teacher will provide them with the website and directions of how to go about ordering one.