S: The Silk Road
FC: The Silk Road
1: Key Concept 2.3. Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange I.Land and water routes became the basis for transregional trade, communication, and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere. a.Many factors, including the climate and location of the routes, the typical trade goods, and the ethnicity of people involved, shaped the distinctive features of a variety of trade routes. i.Required examples of trade routes: 1.Eurasian Silk Roads 2.Trans-Saharan caravan routes 3.Indian Ocean sea lanes 4.Mediterranean sea lanes II.New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. a.New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes b.Innovations in maritime technologies, as well as advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds, stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia. III.Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange. a.The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques. b.The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires. c.Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread. i.Required examples of transformed religious and cultural traditions: 1.Christianity 2.Hinduism 3.Buddhism
2: What is the Silk Road? | - The Silk Road was a trade route that linked the lands of the Mediterranean with China, Iran, and Central Asia -It began around 100 B.C.E. and had several periods of heavy use.
3: -It extended over 4,000 miles of land. -The Silk Road influenced the exchange of people, technology, religion, crops, animals, and diseases from one area to another. -The Silk Road carried China's most treasured products to Central, South, and West Asia and the Mediterranean lands.
4: Origins of the Silk Road | The Silk Road was a route of friendly intercourse between the Chinese and foreign people. | It carried the great Chinese inventions of silk, gunpowder, papermaking and priniting to the West and brought Buddhism, Nestorianism, and Islam and their related arts and cultures into China.
5: Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, India, Egypt, Persia, Arabia, and Rome, and in several respects helped log the foundation for the modern world. | The ancient Silk Road linked Chinese culture to India, Greece, Rome, and Persia from one century to another. | Iranian people increasingly settled in the trading cities surrounding farm villages. | Silk road brought many new crops to Mesopotamia. Sasanid farmers pioneered in planting cotton, sugar cane, rice, citrus trees, eggplants, and other crops adopted from India and China.
6: New Technologies on The Silk Road | The stirrup was first a solid bar, them a loop of leather, then finally a device of metal and leather. It gave a rider stability on the saddle. It also helped mounted warriors stay balanced on a horse when in battle or using a bow and arrow.
7: Chariot warfare and the use of mounted bowmen also spread along the Silk Road. These originated in Central Asia and spread eastward and westward through migration of people and military campaigns.
8: Maritime routes | The Maritime trade route linked the East and the west and was nicknamed "Silk Road of the Sea"
9: The two most popular maritime routes were the East China Sea Route and the South China sea route. | Maritime routes opened the way for traveling to more distant destinations. | The maritime Silk Road promoted friendship between the Eat and West.
10: Diseases: Behcet's Disease(sometimes called Behcet's syndrome, Morbus Behcet, or Silk Road disease)-classically characterized as a triad of symptoms that including crops of mouth ulcers, genital ulcers, and inflammation of a specialized area that is around the pupil of the eye (the uvea). | Waterborne Diseases: They were caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Waterborne diseases can be caused by protozoa, viruses,or bacteria, many of which were intestinal parasites. Microorganisms measles, smallpox, and diphtheria, and plague were carried to the new lands as well.
11: Domesticated Animals: Domesticated pack animals were used to transport goods across longer routes. | Central Asian Nomads usually keep four or five kinds of animals-horse, sheep, goat, camel, and cow. | They prized horses the most, for they have a lot of value in terms their use and function.
12: Transformed Religious and Cultural Traditions | Christianity: Around 432 CE, Christianity began to make a brief appearance. During this time, the Roman Catholic Church banned the Nestorian sect of Christianity in Europe, so the Nestorian beliefs fled toward the East. The merchants helped transmit Christian beliefs along the Silk Road.
13: Buddhism: The image of Buddha was transmitted progressively through Central Asia and China until it reached Korea in the 4th century and Japan in the 6th century. | Hinduism: Hinduism is believed to have started in India. It spread to South East Asia when the emperor designated people as missionaries and they began to travel east.
14: Spread of Crops | The spread of crops encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques. | Chinese farmers adopted pistachios, walnuts, pomegranates, sesame, coriander, spinach, and other new crops. Chinese physicians used jasmine oil, oak galls, sal ammoniac, copper oxides, zinc, and precious stones for health care benefits.
15: Changes in Farming and Irrigation | The Silk Road spread farming technology throughout China. | People opened up large areas of wasteland and built irrigation works for expanded agricultural use. As land-use became more intensive and efficient, rice was grown twice a year and cattle began to be used for plowing and fertilization.
16: Nomads: Communities of people who move from one place to another, rather than settling permanently in one location. | Mongol: Central Asian ethnic group who live mainly on the Mongolian Plateau and share a common language and culture. | Nomadic hunting and gather, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest subsistence method. | Since the Mongol had dominated the trade routes, it allowed more trade to come in and out of the region.
17: Silk Ironware, gold and platinum, bronze mirrors Furs Medical herbs and drugs Farming and technology | Ceramics, lacquer and bamboo wares Chinese invention of gunpowder, paper making, and printing | Perfumes, ivory, jewels, and glassware Alfalfa, grapes, sesame, pomegranates, walnuts, cucumbers, carrots Lions, peacocks, elephants, camels , and horses Wines and spices | Western Items Brought Into China for Trade | T R A D E D G O O D S