FC: Virginia History Created by Henry
1: In 1607,Captain John Smith and Christopher Newport came on three ships to Jamestown.The Susan Constant,the Godspeed,and the Discovery.
2: One of the reasons they came to Jamestown was the location.They could easily be protected from the Spanish.Another reason is along the shore,the water was deep enough for ships to dock.
3: One more reason they came was they THOUGHT, I repeat,THOUGHT,there was clean water,even though there wasn't any.Another is they THOUGHT,I repeat again,THOUGHT,there was gold & silver,even though it wasn't there either.
4: But there were these things we call hardships,which are bad things that happen.For instance,spilling milk is kind of like a hardship.There were many hardships, including... | starvation,no clean water, on page 3, remember? no riches, also on page 3, still remember? but most importantly,Indians.
5: The Powhatan Tribe was very,very successful.They had wiped out many tribes before the English came.They were in big trouble!
6: They captured John Smith,and he was about to die,but,just then,an Indian girl named Pocahontas saved him.This Indian princess was one of the most important people at Jamestown.Another was John Rolfe.He made tobacco a cash crop.He married Pocahontas,and they lived a happy life!
7: Another one was of course John Smith.He was the hero of this economic venture.One more was Christopher Newport.He was captain of all three ships. | All these people were very important,and we all know they are.You just need to look at it in the right direction.
8: We don't even know who supported this journey!The Virginia Company Of London did.They used all the money they had and they got this?!Not cool. | They also had a meeting place called The Virginia House Of Burgesses.It's now one of the oldest buildings for meetings in the world!This place is just like the places we have meetings today.
9: Around 1620 Jamestown became diverse. That means other groups of people came. Children,women,and most importantly,African Americans. They were labled indentured servants. They worked to make tobacco a big time cash crop.
10: American Revolution
11: The American Revolution had a lot of war. One of them was the Seven Years War,also known as the French and Indian War. Now the French HATED the British because they were getting all this new land. They joined the American Indians,and their reward, | the new land. It turns out that the British has the best army,the best armor,the best weapons,they turned out to beat the French & Indians,all that work turned out to cost a lot of money,and-wait....what? That's right. During the war,the national debt nearly doubled,rising from $72,000,000 in 1755 to nearly $130,000,000 by 1764.How does he pay? Well,he doesn't exactly do the paying.He makes the colonists pay for the war,even though they didn't even fight in it! And they didn't even have a representative! Now that's weird!
12: The first tax he made was the Sugar Act. On April 5th,1764,the king put a 3 cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee,indigo,and certain kinds of wine. Then he made another tax called the Stamp Act. On March 22nd,1765,The king made a law that every newspaper,pamphlet,and other public and legal document had to have a Stamp,or British seal,on it. The stamp,of course,cost money.
13: Finally,on June 29th,1767,The laws placed tax on glass,lead,paints,paper,and tea. This was known as the Townshend Act. Colonial reaction to these taxes was the same as to the Sugar Act & Stamp Act,and Britain eventually repealed all the taxes except the one on tea
14: The colonists refused to pay taxes,so they went to protest on some of the redcoats. Some people even threw things at them! Suddenly,nobody knows who fired the first shot,but the Redcoats thought somebody had shot one of them and missed. So the Redcoats started shooting. Once the smoke cleared,5 people lay dead or dying. | The colonists were furious,and they didn't do anything! The colonists wanted revenge! So,Samuel Adams called everyone to dress up as Indians and then they dumped 342 crates of tea into the Atlantic Ocean. That's a lot of money wasted by England!This happened in December 16,1773.
15: The Sons Of Liberty was made up of American patriots that wanted freedom from from England. They also fought in many of the wars in the American Revolution. A patriot is a person who is loyal or supports one's own country. The patriots fought in all the wars of the American Revolution. With everyone's help,they succeeded in getting freedom from England. Now,the U.S.A. and England are good friends.
16: The British redcoats were the best army in the world.Loyalists,who were loyal to King George III,king of England at the time,also fought in the war for England.Lord Cornwallis was the general of the redcoats.Patriots,who fought for North America and loved their country,really focused on him.
17: The Sons Of Liberty was kind of like the government of North America at the time.They decided the laws of the country,just like the president.The colonists were fighting,too,just like the patriots and minutemen.Oops.I haven't told you about that,have I? Minutemen were warned right off the back that the British were coming in their houses.Fathers,for example,were ready,thanks to Paul Revere.
18: The most famous patriots in the American Revolution were James A. Lafayette,George Washington,Patri-ck Henry,Thomas Jefferson,Jack Jouett Jr.,Paul Revere,and Benjamin Franklin.
19: James A. Lafayette was an African-American slave who gained his freedom by spying on the British Redcoats.George Washington was the Commander-In-Chief of the Continental Army and was elected the first president of the United States.He was also on the quarter and dollar bill.Patrick Henry gave his "Give me liberty or give me death" speech at St. John's Church in Richmond,Virginia.Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration Of Independence and is on the nickel.Paul Revere warned the people in Boston that the British were coming.Jack Jouett Jr. was nicknamed the "Paul Revere of the South" because he warned the house of representatives,including Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry,that the British were coming.They barely escaped.7 stayed because they didn't believe,and they got captured.Benjamin Franklin convinced France to join their side.The French HATED the British.France had the best Navy,and Great Britain had the best army,so it would be pretty hard to say who won.Benjamin Franklin also was put on the $100 bill.
20: You know what one of the weirdest times of the American Revolution? The African-Americans and the American Indians were forced to take sides in the war.Now THAT must have been hard.The African-Americans wanted freedom from slavery.The American Indians wanted land.Both of the sides promised them those things. Again,that must have been REALLY hard.
21: Women provided support in wars,such as farming,making clothes,caring for the sick,and other really helpful things that you may need in a war.
22: The battle of Lexington and Concord was the first battle ever fought in the American Revolution.It took 7-8 years!That's right! That was one long battle!The British Redcoats won,but believe me,the colonists will come back.
23: Did you ever see a big bridge on your way to the Chesapeake Bay or Atlantic Ocean?That was where the first American Revolution battle was fought in Virginia.This battle was called the Battle of Great Bridge.Great Bridge is 7 miles south of Norfolk,Virginia.The colonists actually won this time.There was another battle after that,the Battle of Saratoga.Here's where the French come in.Benjamin Franklin convinced France to join their side.This was the turning point of the war,so that means the colonists won AGAIN.Can you believe that?
24: The Battle of Yorktown was the last battle fought in the American Revolution.This was at night,so the colonists were sneaking up on them.Now,Germans joined the British,and they were scary looking,so George Washington took care of them.The British and Germans were forced to surrender and the colonists won again.
25: Now the Treaty of Paris would be signed.The colonists are now free from England!That ended the war,and also,the American Revolution.
26: George Washington's nickname was the Father Of Our Country. He was the Commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. He led our country to freedom. If he lost the war,then there wouldn't be any president! He was such a good leader,he was elected president of the Constitutional Convention and our 1st president. | James Madison was also part of the Constitutional Convention,but he played a different role. He was a great note-taker and also very good at compromising. His nickname is the Father of the Constitution because of his great note-taking skills. He played such a good role that he was elected the 4th president of the United States.
27: Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence and the VA Statute of Religious Freedom. The VA Statute of Religious Freedom stated that anyone could do whatever religion they pleased. | George Mason wrote the VA Declaration of Rights which inspired the Bill of Rights.
28: There are 3 branches of the government. The Legislative Branch is on your left,on your bottom is the Executive,and on your right is the Judicial.
29: The Legislative Branch writes laws. The Executive Branch is lead by the governor and oversees that the laws are carried out. The Judicial Branch sees if someone has broken the law or not.
30: As time passed,the tobacco started draining the minerals in the soil,so the the farmers started to move west and south,looking for new land. And boy,was there plenty! As people moved in,people moved out for a reason besides tobacco. High population. So people started making new states and they ended up to be the 50 United States of America. Also as people moved,they took their traditions,ideas,and cultures with them,and are being passed down from generation to generation.
31: What is an abolitionist? An abolitionist is someone who hates slavery.It can even be a white man! | Now,Harriet Tubman was a black woman and slave and she was an abolitionist. However,she escaped from slavery in 1849. Then she made another 19 trips to help over 300 black slaves escape to freedom using the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was in fact,not underground. It was a pathway that slaves traveled by on wagon.
32: Nat Turner was a slave as well as an abolitionist. In 1831,Nat Turner led a small band of fellow slaves that led a rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. For 2 days, they went from plantation to plantation, killing 60 men, women, and even children! Turner hid in the woods for 6 weeks before getting caught. | John Brown was also an abolitionist,but he was a white man instead of a slave. In 1859,he led a raid on the United States Armory,or Arsenal,at Harpers Ferry,Virginia. He planned to distribute the weapons stored there and start a slave rebellion. He was unsuccessful. As you can see,these 2 abolitionists led violent lives.
33: . | The Civil War has begun. It's the North vs. the South.The North was industrial,or used machines,while the South was agricultural,or used slaves.The North wanted the western states to be free,while the South wanted them to be slave states.
34: You might not believe this,but West Virginia was not created until 1863. This was when conflict grew between the eastern counties of Virginia that needed slaves,and the western counties that disliked slavery.This gigantic argument led to the new formation of West Virginia in 1863.
35: Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the Union in 1860. Now he hated slavery,oh he did,but he didn't just kick the door open and say,"You've got to stop using slavery!" He just said,"Okay,if you want | slavery,then you've got it,but all these new states we're about to purchase,they go into the Union." This purchase was a ton of states! The Confederacy scrambled when they heard this.Finally,they said,"If all those states are yours,we're seceding!" So they started their own country,called the Confederate States of America,or the Confederacy,or CSA for short.This made Lincoln the pres. of the Union.They chose Ulysses S. Grant,our 18th President,as their general.
36: Now for the South. Their President was Jefferson Davis. The generals were Robert E. Lee,perhaps the greatest general ever of the Civil War,Thomas "Stonewall Jackson,and J.E.B. Stuart.
37: There were a lot of important battles in the Civil War. The Civil War began at Fort Sumter,SC,in July of 1861. Monitor vs. Merrimack.That was a sea battle in March of 1862. The 4-hour battle was fought to a draw.Battle of Fredericksburg happened in December 1862. The South won that as well. The Union had had enough of this,so they attacked Petersburg,the main railroad city,in just 10 months,going 1864-1865.The Union was successful.
38: The Confederacy moved to Richmond,the Confederacy capital,and burnt it,so the Union could not steal the supplies there.They went to Appomattox Court House where Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Grant. When Jefferson Davis heard this,he went to hide. Soon,there was a rumor going around that he was hiding way out west,so the Union sent some troops there. They saw two women,and one was a lot taller and walked more like a man.They took his,I-I mean her clothes off,and it WAS Jefferson Davis! He became the laughing stock of the whole country.
39: The Civil War is over,and there's a big mess to clean up,especially in Virginia! This time was called the Reconstruction. There were many problems during this time.4,000,000 slaves needed homes,food,clothing,and jobs. Virginia's economy was in ruins.Money in the South had no value. Wait.Hold.Stop. Why,you ask? All right,here's the deal.The South had a different kind of money than the Union during the Civil War,but since they have to rejoin,then their money is useless.All right,back to the problems. Banks were closed.Railroads,bridges,plantations,and crops were destroyed.
40: What will the blacks do? Well,have no fear,sharecropping and the Freedmen's Bureau are here! Sharecropping allowed freed men and farmers to rent land from a landowner by promising to pay the landowner with a share of the crops when harvested.Congress created the Freedmen's Bureau in 1865. It provided food,medicine,and schools for freed African Americans.
41: After Reconstruction,the freedoms and rights promised to freed slaves slowly got taken away. The Jim Crow Laws were not fair.This series of unfair laws also made it hard for freed slaves to vote.Why? There were tests you had to pass and a tax you had to pay in order to vote. The laws also stated blacks had to use separate drinking fountains and schools.Plus,they weren't allowed to sit next to whites in restauraunts,buses,or trains.
42: segregation:separation of people,usually based on race or religion | prejudices:negative opinions formed about people without proof | discrimination:an unfair difference in the treatment of people | Jim Crow Laws:laws established segregation or separation of the races and reinforced prejudices held by many white people
43: After reconstruction,Virginia's economy began to grow again.After the Civil War,advances in technology was a really big part of the process to get things moving again. As more people traveled,Virginia became more popular. The need for more roads increased. Railroads were the key to the expansion of business,agriculture,and industry. They helped towns and cities grow larger. Other parts parts of Virginia grew as other industries developed. Coal deposits,for example,created new jobs for the citizens of VA. Also,the #1 cash crop from Jamestown,tobacco,recovered from the Civil War and once again became important in Virginia industry.