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Westward Expansion

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FC: Westward Expansion By Colin Cottingham

1: IDEAS

2: Indian Removal | During Westward Expansion in the 1830s, large groups of Indians still lived in the eastern part of the United States. Because the land in the west was dry and seemed unsuitable for farming, few white Americans wanted to live there. They had an idea of moving the American Indians out of their land and to the west of the Mississippi River. Andrew Jackson, the president during this time, supported this idea. This caused future problems for many Indians including The Trail of Tears.

3: Factory System In 1814, a man by the name of Francis Lowell started a textile plant. All the stages of making cloth were done in the same place for the first time. Francis's mill started the factory system, a system bringing manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency. | Francis Cabot Lowell

4: Interchangeable Parts During the time of the Industrial Revolution, an inventor by the name of Eli Whitney had a wonderful idea. His idea was interchangeable parts. These were identical machine parts that could be put together to make a complete product. This invention was a massive improvement to the old way of creating products. This way things could be made a lot quicker, with less skilled-labor, and repairing was easier. | interchangeable parts | Eli Whitney

5: NATURAL/ GEOGRAPHIC

6: River Travel | River travel had major advantages over traveling by horses or wagons. Usually, the ride was a lot less rough and more comfortable. Also, pioneers could load all of their items on to river barges if they were heading in the direction of the current. | River travel also had a couple of disadvantages though. First, most rivers in the eastern US flowed in the north-south direction not the east-west direction. That was a problem for expanding to the west. A second disadvantage was that traveling upstream was very difficult and slow.

7: Canals | Even though steamboats were a huge improvement in transportation, they still couldn't effectively travel between the East and the West, Business and government officials led by De Witt Clinton came up with a solution to this problem. That plan was to build canals. These used locks to rise and lower water levels to transport boats. The first one created was the Erie Canal, and it connected Albany to Buffalo. Canals helped lower the cost of shipping. They also brought prosperity to towns, and they helped unite different parts of the country.

8: Social

9: Battle of the Alamo | The Mexicans and Texans were fighting over the land in Texas. The Mexican troops came to a Texan force inside a mission called the Alamo. The Texans were defending themselves quite well, but they ended up losing. They lost some great men in this battle including Davy Crockett and William Travis. This battle gave the Texans the needed time to help win their dependence. | "The power of Santa Anna is to be met here, or in the colonies; we had better meet them here than to suffer a war of devastation to rage in our settlements," warned Travis during the fighting.

10: Natives Fight Back | During westward expansion, many Native Americans were being removed from there land. Not all Indians wanted to go peacefully to the west. Some like Black Hawk's group of the Sauk tribe fought back. Unfortunately his group had been defeated by Illinois state militia. The Seminole people succeeded a lot more than Black Hawk's tribe. They used guerrilla tactics with African Americans to fight for their land. Finally in 1842, the government gave up and gave the Seminole people some land in Florida. | Black Hawk, Sauk Leader

11: Trail of Tears | After the Indian Removal Act was passed in 1830, the American Indians had to move west of the Mississippi River. Their journey was hundreds of miles long, and many people died along the way from hunger, cold, or disease. This movement was then known as the Trail of Tears because it was a very sad journey.

12: Political

13: Census | The first US census, official count of the population, was in 1790. This showed that the population was approximately four million, and most of the people lived east of the Appalachian Mountains and close to the coast. Thirty years later in 1820, there was another census. This revealed that the population of the US more than doubled to about ten million, and about two million people were then living in the west.

14: Andrew Jackson | Andrew Jackson, born on March 15, 1767, was one of this country's greatest presidents. He strongly believed in supporting the union, and he didn't think that the wealthy people should have all the power. Andrew also supported the removal of Indians, and he had the Indian Removal Act be passed by Congress. He is also on the twenty dollar bill.

15: ECONOMY

16: Industrial Revolution | In the middle of the eighteenth century, the way products were being made was changing. These changes started in Great Britain. British inventors came up with machines that would help make cloth, and they used hydro power to make them work. When these ideas got to the US, they started in New England. Because there wasn't that much fertile land there, people stopped working on farms and worked in factories. There were many rivers and streams in this area so it was a good place for factories. There were also a lot of new technologies during this time such as interchangeable parts or the cotton gin.

17: Panic of 1837 | Martin Van Buren | After Martin Van Buren became President, the US went in to a major economic depression. The depression started out with the Panic of 1837. Land values dropped, investments declined, and banks failed. Businesses started to close, and hundreds of thousands of people lost their jobs.

18: CULTURE

19: Lacrosse | Lacrosse was a game played by Native Americans for fun. Each team of about 300 people had their goal that was made with two wooden posts. Everyone had a stick with nets on the end of them, and these were used to pass a ball between teammates. The objective of the game was to pass the ball between the opponents goal posts. The first team that did that 100 times was the victor.

20: Jeans | Levi Strauss, a dry goods merchant from San Francisco, and Jacob Davis, a Nevada tailor, created jeans. These were denim pants reinforced with small copper rivets. They are known for their durability and quality. That explains why their ads were aimed at miners and farmers. | thats hot

21: TECHNOLOGICAL/SCIENTIFIC

22: Cotton Gin | Eli Whitney is the man responsible for making this machine, The cotton gin made cotton making a lot easier. Before this invention was created, farming cotton required hundreds of hours of labor to separate the cottonseed from the cotton fiber. The cotton gin could make up about fifty pounds of cleaned cotton a day, This invention made cotton a profitable product in the southern US. | Eli Whitney

23: Steamboat | Steam engines were being used in the 1780s and1790s to power small boats. However, none of these boats were strong enough to withstand rough waters and wind in big rivers and open bodies of water. In 1802, Robert Fulton was hired to design a steam boat that could navigate these waters and carry cargo. In 1807, Clermont, his boat, was finished. It made the trip from New York to Albany. Steamboats made transporting goods and passengers better. Shipping goods was faster and easier this way. Lastly, the steamboat helped cities grow. | Robert Fulton

24: Conclusion | Cause and Effect: Because the Americans expanded to the West, we have many changes. We own the Louisiana Territory, which is now many middle states. The West is civilized in the United States. We also have the land in Texas because of the Battle of the Alamo. Lastly, many Indians died from the Trail of Tears and battles for land ownership. Change and Continuity: Many people did not benefit from Westward Expansion. American Indians died and lost their land because of this. That isn't fair. Also, Mexicans did not benefit because they lost Texas to the Americans when they were claiming independence.

25: Using the Past: The past has many similarities to the present. We still our coming up with new ideas for future technologies. Before, they came up with the steam boat, and now we are coming up with new cars. We still have battles and wars today. Before, it was for independence and land. Now, we are having a war in Iraq. During Westward Expansion, we had Presidents, and we still have them today. Turning Points: Many decisions and actions significantly transformed people's lives during Westward Expansion. Because Americans wanted to move west, many settlers got cheap land to settle on. Because of this, Indians lost their land and many died. Because Texans wanted to fight for their independence, Davy Crockett and other men lost their loves. Because Robert Fulton came up with a good steamboat, it was easier for settlers to move to the West.

26: Through Their Eyes: During Westward Expansion, settlers saw the West as a new place to civilize and become their homes. Leaders saw this land as something they needed to make them feel like their country would have more power if they had it. American Indians saw the land as everyone's land, and they thought it should be shared not owned.

27: Works Cited

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