FC: Abolitionists During the Civil War by Kaya Baker
1: Cotton was once called "King Cotton" because Southern plantations often had several thousand acres devoted to growing cotton. Thanks to the cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney, a slave could clean fifty pounds of cotton per day. Cotton plantation had 5-25 slaves because plantations produced so much cotton. | Most people living in the South wanted slavery. Many southerners believed that the South's economy would fail without slaves helping to produce cotton.
2: The debate about slavery is one of the main reasons the Civil War started. Because only 2% of all African Americans living in the South during 1860 were free, many people in the North were passionately against slavery. These people were called abolitionists.
3: Abolitionists were just anybody who wanted to end slavery. Most abolitionists lived in the North, and were both white and African American. | Abolitionists had been trying to end slavery even before the American Revolution. Since most abolitionists lived in the North, the Northern states ended slavery by the early 1800's.
4: Thomas Jefferson was an early abolitionist who wanted to end slaver, and even put in the Constitution "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
5: The American Colonization Society, formed in 1816, was a group of white Virginians who worked to free slaves gradually by buying them from slaveholders and sending them abroad to start new lives. This society raised money from private donors, Congress, and a few state legislatures. They sent a few groups of slaves to the west coast of Africa where they started the colony Liberia in 1822. In Latin, Liberia means "place of freedom". | Most newly freed slaves didn't want to go to Africa, and would rather be free in American society. Some African Americans feared that the American Colonization Society aimed to strengthen slavery.
6: Abolitionists realized in the 1820's that the gradual approach to ending slavery was not working. Because of the cotton boom in the Deep South, the number of slaves had greatly increased. Beginning in around 1830, the American antislavery movement became the most pressing social issue for abolitionists and reformers. Abolitionism took on a whole new life during this time.
7: William Lloyd Garrison was an abolitionist who stimulated growth of the antislavery movement. In 1831, Garrison founded The Liberator, an antislavery newspaper. | William was one of the first white abolitionists to want to free the slaves fast and immediately. He also started the New England Antislavery Society in 1832, and the American Antislavery Society in 1833.
8: Sarah and Angela Grimke were abolitionists and sisters who lectured and wrote against slavery and women's rights. They were known to speak the sad truths about slave life; they weren't afraid to say anything. Angelina And Theodore Weld wrote American Slavery as it is. This book was one of the most influential abolitionist publications at the time.
9: Free African Americans in the North were often abolitionists, but were usually very poor, denied jobs, and attacked frequently by white mobs. These African American abolitionists actively took part in organizing and directing the American Antislavery society. | In 1827, Samuel Cornish and John Russwurn started the first African American newspaper, Freedom's Journal, that promoted abolition.
10: David Walker was born a free African American who wanted free blacks to rebel and overthrow slavery by force. David Walker lived in Boston. One of his more famous quotes is "America is more our country than it is the whites'-we have enriched it with our blood and tears." | David Walker is most famous for writing Walker's Appeal. He was born in 1785, and died in 1830.
11: Fredrick Douglass is considered one of the most widely known African American abolitionist.Fredrick Douglass was born a slave in Maryland, but escaped in 1838 to Massachusetts, and then to New York. He taught himself how to read and write, and traveled widely to address abolitionist meetings. Fredrick was widely known because he was a very powerful speaker. He was in the Massachusetts Antislavery Society. He wanted blacks to be equal to whites in American society. He also edited the North Star newspaper. In 1847, Fredrick Douglass officially became a free man when he and some of his friends purchased his freedom from his old slaveholder in Maryland.
12: Sojourner Truth used to be a slave. When she was a slave in Ulster County, New York, Sojourner Truth's name was Isabella Baumfree. She changed her name in 1843 because she wanted to "walk in the light of (God's) truth." | Sojourner Truth was an abolitionist and women's rights activist. In 1826, she gained freedom by escaping Ulster County, and then legally was free in 1827, when New York made slavery illegal. | She spoke at many antislavery meetings and was known to move the audience with her true personal experiences.
13: The Underground Railroad was a network of escape routs from the South to the North. Some abolitionists risked going to prison and even their lives by secretly being part of the Underground Railroad. Runaway slaves only traveled at night and often on foot, guided by the North Star. People followed rivers, mountain chains, and felt for moss on North side of trees.
14: Harriet Tubman was the most famous conductor of the Underground Railroad. Slaveholders offered a large reward for the capture or killing of Harriet Tubman because of her helpfulness to the runaway slaves. | Slaves still feared capture even after escaping to the North. The Underground Railroad only helped a very small fraction of the enslaved population. The Underground Railroad provided | hope to suffering slaves everywhere.
15: Most Southerners, even those without slaves, opposed abolitionism because they believed it threatened the South's way of life, which depended on slavery. | also opposed abolitionism, because they saw it as a threat to the nation's social order. Some Northerners feared of a destructive war between the North and the South, which eventually happened. Some also thought that, if freed, slaves would never blend into American society. | Many Northerners
16: Abolitionism caused many disputes about slavery, and is one of the contributing factors of the Civil War. | Abolitionism played a large part in the Civil War because it partly caused and fueled the war at the time. | Slaves benefited from abolitionism because many were freed during the Civil War. | If abolitionism hadn't been around during the Civil War, today the U.S. might still have slavery today.
17: If abolitionism hadn't been around during the Civil War, the North might not have won the war against slavery, causing slavery to maybe exist today. Yes, life would have been very different without abolitionism during the Civil War; less arguments on slavery. Abolitionism is not around today in the United States because the Civil War ended slavery, therefore ending abolitionism. We don't need abolitionism in modern society.
18: CITATIONS | Appleby, Joyce, Alan Brinkley, Albert Broussard, James McPherson, and Donald Ritchie. The American Republic To 1877. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005. 418-424. Print.