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About Cells.

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About Cells. - Page Text Content

FC: Cell theory by: Mi'Kala Abbott & JaniceCha

1: SCHWANN CELLS Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann, Schwann cells (also referred to as neurolemnocytes) are a variety of Glial cell(nervous system) that keep peripheral nerve fibres (both myelinated and unmyelinated) alive. | HOOKE CELLS Hooke's Law: relating the force pulling back on a spring is inversely proportional to the distance pulled from rest. Invented the compound microscope and gregorian compound telescope. He is credited with the invention of the wheel barometer, hydrometer and anemometer. | SCHLEIDEN CELLS Schleiden was German Botanist the viewed plant parts under a microscope and discovered that plant parts are made of cells. He is considered to be the co-founder of cell theory together with Schwann, with whom he consulted. | VIRCHOW CELLS Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) He is referred to as the "Father of Pathology," and founded the field of Social Medicine. He gave important sentence in cell theory- OMNIS CELLULAE E CELLULAE.

2: 3 principles of cell theory 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2. The cell is a basic unit of life. 3. New cells arise only from cells that already exist.

3: Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic cells What they have in common: Both have DNA as their genetic material (it’s DNA that tells cells what kind of cells they should be). Both are covered by a cell membrane. Both contain RNA. Both are made from the same basic chemicals: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, minerals, fats and vitamins. Both have ribosomes (the structures on which proteins are made). Both regulate the flow of the nutrients and wastes that enter and leave them. Both have similar basic metabolism (life processes) like photosynthesis and reproduction. Both require a supply of energy. Both are highly regulated by elaborate sensing systems ("chemical noses”) that make them aware of the reactions within them and the environment around them. The differences: Scientists believe that prokaryotic cells (in the form of bacteria) were the first life forms on earth. They are considered “primitive” and originated about 3.5 billion years ago. That's 2 billion years earlier than eukaryotic cells and billions of years before our e

4: 1 Cells can be found in all living things. There are several types of cells. They are usually separated into prokaryotic (pronounced "proh-KAR-ee-AH-tik") or eukaryotic (pronounced "yoo-KAR-ee-AH-tik") and are either plant or animal cells. An "animal" cell could be anything from a tiny, one-celled microorganism like an amoeba to a nerve cell from your brain. Plant cells are cells found in any plant that uses photosynthesis to make its own food. 2 The first classification of cells is whether they are prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are simpler cells. They were probably the first cells on earth. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus or any membrane-covered organelles. The only cells on earth that are prokaryotes are bacteria. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane covered organelles. Things that have eukaryotic cells include animals, plants, protists, and fungi. Organelle means "little organ." Organelles are the parts inside a cell that have specific functions or jobs. Just as the human body has organs that do specific jobs, cells have organelles, or little organs, that do specific jobs in the cell. In the human body, the heart is an organ whose job is to pump blood. In a cell, the mitochondria are organelles whose job is to convert food into energy. 3 Plant cells and animal cells have many of the same characteristics, but they are different in some ways. Plant cells are easier to identify under a microscope because they have a rigid cell wall made of cellulose outside the cell membrane. This gives the plant, and the cell, structure and support. Animal cells do not have a cell wall.

5: - The Golgi Apparatus is an organelle found in mostly Eukaryotic cells. (Plants, Animals, + Fungi) It controls the import and export of proteins, lipids...etc - Lysosomes are basically the cell's digestive system. Inside them are digestive enzymes that break down waste materials of the cells when the Lysosomes eat them (Phagocytize). - Ribosomes are composed of ribonucleic acid (abbreviated as RNA) and proteins, in nearly equal amounts. - Mitochondria are rod-shaped structures that are enclosed within two membranes - the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The membranes are made up of Phospholipids and proteins. The most important function of the mitochondria is to produce energy. - the ER functions as a packaging system. It does not work alone. The ER works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes, RNA, mRNA, and tRNA. It creates a network of membranes found through the whole cell. - Smooth ER has its purpose in the cell. It acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of steroids. It also stores ions in solution that the cell may need at a later time. - Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells. These organelles contain the plant cell's chlorophyll, hence provide the green color. They have a double outer membrane. Within the stroma are other membrane structures - the thylakoids and grana (singular = granum) where photosynthesis takes place. | - The cytoskeleton is composed of a wide variety of proteins. These proteins often form long twisted strands that look like electrical wire or the cables used to hold up bridges. Another critical cytoskeletal fiber is the microtubules. They are also polymers, and are comprised of the protein tubulin. - The structure of a cell nucleus consists of nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope), nucleoplasm, nucleolus and chromosomes. Nucleoplasm, also known as karyoplasm, is the matrix present inside the nucleus. - Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell. For single cells, such as sperm, this enables them to swim. For cells anchored in a tissue, like the epithelial cells lining our air passages, this moves liquid over the surface of the cell (e.g., driving particle-laden mucus toward the throat).

6: CELL MEMBRANE | The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents. Its function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into the cell, while keeping other substances out.

7: HOMEOSTASIS | The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, usually by a system of feedback controls, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditionsn humans, homeostasis happens when the body regulates body temperature in an effort to maintain an internal temperature around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. For example, we sweat to cool off during the hot summer days, and we shiver to produce heat during the cold winter season.

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