FC: 2012 | AFRICAN SLAVERY | WORLD CULTURES
1: How African Slavery Started | The African slave trade has been alive for centuries. While most of us associate slavery with 18th and 19th century America, the truth is that the African slave trade started long before America became involved. It is still alive today in certain parts of the African continent.
2: African Slavery | The Beginning | Trade Ships
3: The African slave trade inside Africa itself was common in Ghana and Nigeria in the 18th century, where the countries' economies depended largely on the selling of hand labor to neighboring estates. Slavery inside Africa was often not for life. Slaves had the option of buying their liberty, and were normally paid enough that they could do it after a certain number of years. In the rest of the world, the African slave trade became common in Europe first, starting with Portugal, who took slaves to Brazil to mine the mountains.
4: African Slavery | The Caribbean soon followed, and then other countries of South and Central America. The US African slave trade was far smaller than that managed by other countries. Of all slaves to reach America, only 4.4 percent ended up in North America territory.
5: African Slavery | The earliest records of the African slave trade in America date back to the beginning of the 17th century, when racial slavery was a punishment for servants who broke the law. In the 18th century, slaves were mostly used in the South to work in plantations and farms, especially by rich landowners who could afford the extra expense in order to maximize their profits. By the start of the Civil War in 1860, there were approximately four million slaves of African origin in the US. The African slave trade was abolished around the world at different times. Britain stopped slavery in 1807, although slaves were not officially declared free until 1833, when the Slavery Abolition Act was passed.
6: The rest of Europe followed close behind, with certain African countries forbidding slavery early in the 20th century. The African slave trade remains alive in certain parts of Africa, Nigeria is notable for selling sex slaves to certain European countries, and for trafficking on children inside African boundaries.
9: KRABI, SOUTH END | November 9
10: WEST KRABI COAST | November 10
11: We spent the day with elephants!
13: "I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey work of the stars." Walt Whitman
14: AT THE START of the Rattanakosin or Bangkok period in the late eighteenth century, when the capital was finally settled at Bangkok, an elephant kraal was established in Krabi by order of Chao Phraya Nakorn (Noi), the governor of Nakhon Si Thammarat, which was by then a part of the Thai Kingdom. He sent his vizier, the Phra Palad, to oversee this task, which was to ensure a regular supply of elephants for the larger town. So many followers emigrated in the steps of the Phra Palad that soon Krabi had a large community in three different boroughs: Pakasai, Khlong Pon, and Pak Lao. x | In 1872, King Chulalongkorn graciously elevated these to town status, called Krabi, a word that preserves in its meaning the monkey symbolism of the old standard. The town's first governor was Luang Thep Sena, though it continued a while as a dependency of Nakhon Si Thammarat. This was changed in 1875, when Krabi was raised to a fourth-level town in the old system of Thai government. Administrators then reported directly to the central government in Bangkok, and Krabi's history as a unique entity separated from the other provinces, had begun.
15: ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL SUNSET OFF KRABI POINT | November 11
16: ELEPHANTS AT PATARA FARM | November 12
17: LONGTAIL BOATS OFF THE COAST OF MAYA BAY | November 13
21: SWALLOW CAVES BY MAYA BAY | November 14
22: "The entire ocean is affected by a pebble." | Blaise Pascal
23: "I believe a leaf of grass is no less than the journey work of the stars." | Walt Whitman