S: Ancient Greece k. Roehl
BC: In this book you will learn about Ancient Greece. The classes are the Upper Class, Middle Class, Lower Class, and Slaves. Do you know who Alexander the Great and Aristotle are? Do you like learning about government, Laws, Rules and consequences? The manger cities are Sparta, Athens and Corinth. You can learn about all of these and lots more in this book Ancient Greece. | About this book
FC: Ancient Greece | By K. Roehl
1: Table of Contents | Upper Class......................................page 2 Middle Class.....................................page 3 Lower Class...................................page 4-5 Slaves..........................................page 6-7 Alexander the Great...........................page 8 Aristotle..........................................page 9 Government................................page 10-11 Laws and Rules................................page 12 Consequences if laws were broken........page 13 Sparta Men.......................................page 14 Sparta..........................................page 15 Athens......................................page 16-17 Corinth......................................page 18-20 Extra........................................page 20-21
2: They could not have a job. You'd have slaves or others to attend to his material concerns.The Athenians believed there must be a upper class, or there would be no good tastes, no encouragement of the arts, no civilization. The aristocrats of Athens felt that no man in a hurry is quite civilized. This elite class was quite small. They had about 300 families. Ancient money during this time period was called talents. To be considered wealthy, you needed about 20 talents. | Upper Class
3: Middle Class | The middle class in Athens had a large number of non citizens. Most of them were professional men-merchants, contractors, manufacturers, managers, tradesmen, craftsmen, and artists. These men were willing to give up their right to vote because they could not make as good a living in other cities. Men who owned between one talent , that is a third of a talent, were liable to service as foot soldiers, and the wealthiest 1,000 of these 9,000 rode horses during battle. | FUN FACT! | The first inhabitants of Crete were probably farmers, who settled there around 2000 BC. Why? Because it was close to the sea.
4: Lower Class | The lower class was partly made up of freedmen, who at one time in their lives had been slaves. Most of the time these people were not citizens of Athens, so the highest they could ever be was middle class. There are different ways that a slave can gain their freedom. The slave may be freed by their ransom being paid off by a relative or friend. If a slave ever earns enough money he can buy their own freedom, which is difficult because slaves do not get paid for their services. They would have to work at a second job. If a slave fights in a war there is a small chance that he would be released. Two of the most common ways to gain freedom, are for the master to die, or if the master feels the job the slave was bought for has been completed. If a slave was bought in order to tutor a child through school, upon the child's graduation, it's more than likely that the slave will be set free. | Upper Class | Middle Class | Lower Class | Slaves
5: The Greeks in general felt that all men were not created equal. To an Athenian, there was no greater disgrace than being stripped of his citizenship. Some families had lived in Greece for generations, but they still were not considered citizens. The middle and lower classes outnumbered the upper class by an enormous number, but in the 600's B.C. only the upper class citizens who owned land could vote. This meant that all the decisions were made by the few, even though the rules they made up (law) applied to all. This might look like an evil system, this oligarchy- which was the rule of the few- but it was an improvement over the traditional style of leadership, which consisted of only one person making the political decisions for everyone. By the 400's B.C., Athens had ademocracy and all of the men in the three upper classes could vote (everyone but the slaves and the metics).
6: The slaves of Athens were prisoners of war, victims of slave raids, infants rescued from exposure, and criminals. Only a very small number of slaves were Greek, the rest were considered barbarians because they were from a different place. The cost of a slave ranged from 50 to 1,000 dollars. Even fairly poor citizens often had a slave or two, while a rich home could have as many as fifty. The Athenian government employed a number of public slaves as clerks, attendants, minor officials, or policemen. | Slaves | Whip
7: Many slaves were women who worked in the home. If a slave misbehaves they were whipped; when they were hit in the face by a person whose rank is higher than a slave, the slave couldn't defend himself. If a slave were going to testify in court, they could only testify legally under torture, to make sure the slave told the truth. In no case can a citizen legally go as far as to kill their slave. Owners were often kind to their slaves, but other slaves were very badly treated. In these earlier times slavery was legal, but not all people agreed with it.
8: Alexander the Great | Alexander was born in Macedonia in July 356 BCE. Macedonia was not a Greek city-state. It was a country in the north of Greece.When Alexander became king, even though Alexander allowed the Greeks to manage their own city-states, they hated him as well. As he did with the Greeks, he allowed conquered people the opportunity to run their own country as long as they were loyal to Alexander. Those people who refused to be loyal were killed. Alexander never lost a battle. Before his death, he had built over 70 cities, and had conquered the ENTIRE known world in the Mediterranean region. His empire stretched all the way to the Indus River. He was only 32 years old. Alexander died in June 323 BCE, about a month before his 33rd birthday. | Alexander the great coins
9: Aristotle was born in ancient Macedonia. He was a philosopher who lived over 2000 years ago. He spent much of his time in Ancient Greece. Aristotle admired the Greeks and the Greek way of life. He had a huge influence on the prince of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. Aristotle was one of Alexander's teachers. Aristotle taught Alexander to also love the Greek way of life. | Aristotle
10: There were three main forms of government in ancient Greece: Monarchy: Rule by a king. One city-state whose government was a monarchy was the city-state of Corinth. Democracy: Rule by the citizens, voting in an assembly. One city-state whose government experimented for about a hundred years with democracy was the ancient city-state of Athens. | Government | Oligarchy: Rule by a small group. One city-state whose government was an oligarchy was the city-state of Sparta.
11: A King
12: Athens - All citizens had to be willing to take an active part in government. One man, one vote, majority ruled. Murder was a tort law, Not to rape, Solon contributed some of these laws. He wrote laws that required that people who lived a certain distance from public wells needed to dig their own, laws that forbade the export of agricultural goods except olive oil, laws that restricted the amount of land a man could own, laws that allowed venders to charge any kind of interest rate they wanted to, and even laws that prohibited dealing in perfume. | Laws and Rules
13: consequences if laws were broken | Athens - punishment by death or punishment by payment. Example - When Socrates was tried, the prosecution's suggested punishment was death. Socrates suggested punishment was free meals for life. The court gave him another chance to choose a punishment. Socrates suggested his punishment be a cash fine of one piece of silver. Socrates did not leave the jury a lot of choice. Out of the two choices facing the jury – punishment by death or punishment by payment of one piece of silver, the jury voted overwhelming for death. If Socrates had suggested something more severe, the jury probably would have voted for it. Murder was a tort law, and the punishment was exile as set by Draco. Fine for rape was 100 drachmas. The penalty for theft depended on the amount stolen. Some of the laws were determined by Solon.
14: Sparta Men | Life was very different in ancient Sparta than it was in the rest of ancient Greek city-states. The Spartans were proud, fierce, capable warriors. The Spartans, both men and women, were tough, and the Greeks admired strength. Sparta's government was an oligarchy. The people were ruled by a small group of warriors. The Spartans spoke Greek, wrote Greek, thought of themselves as Greeks, but they were different. In most of the other Greek city-states, the goal of education was to create a strong citizen of that city-state. In Sparta, the goal of education was to create a strong warrior. All of the ancient Greeks were warriors, but Sparta's warriors were legendary. In Sparta, boys were taken away from their parents at age 7. They lived a harsh and often brutal life in the soldiers barracks. Younger children were beaten by older children who started fights to help make the younger boys strong. Children were often whipped in front of groups of other Spartans, including their parents, but they were not allowed to cry out in pain.
15: Sparta | Girls went to school too, to learn how to fight. They lived at home during training. Their training was not as harsh and the boy's, but it was harsh. Sparta women were warriors. Children, during their training process, were given very little food. They were encouraged to steal food. If caught stealing, they were beaten. Spartan children learned to be cunning, to lie, to cheat, to steal, and how to get away with it! As adults, Spartan men did not live with their families. They visited their families, but men lived in the soldiers' barracks. As adults, Spartan women, unlike women in the rest of Greek world, had a great deal of freedom. Sparta women were free to move about and visit neighbors without permission from their husbands. How would they get permission? The men were often off fighting.
16: Athens | Athenians thought of themselves as the shining star of the Greek city-states. They were famed for their literature, poetry, drama, theatre, schools, buildings, and government. Before the Greek dark ages, Athens was a small village, home to a tribe of Ionian people. After the Greek dark ages, Athens grew rapidly until Athens was one of the two most powerful city-states in the ancient Greek world. (The other was Sparta.) The Athenian were very different from the ancient Spartans. The Greeks believed that each city-state in ancient Greece had a god or a goddess in charge of it, their special patron. For Athens, the patron was Athena, goddess of wisdom. Perhaps because Athena was their patron, Athenians put a great deal of emphasis on education. Girls learned at home from their mothers. They learned how to run a home, and how to be good wives and mothers. Boys were educated quite differently. Until age 6 or 7, boys were taught at home by their mothers. From 7-14, boys attended a day school outside the home. There, they memorized Homeric poetry and learned to play the lyre. They learned drama, public speaking, reading, writing, math, and perhaps even how to play the flute. After middle school, they went to a four year high school and learned more about math, science, and government. At 18, they attended two years of military school. There was just cause for Athens to be proud of its system of education for its citizens.
17: Boys were educated quite differently. Until age 6 or 7, boys were taught at home by their mothers. From 7-14, boys attended a day school outside the home. There, they memorized Homeric poetry and learned to play the lyre. They learned drama, public speaking, reading, writing, math, and perhaps even how to play the flute. After middle school, they went to a four year high school and learned more about math, science, and government. At 18, they attended two years of military school. There was just cause for Athens to be proud of its system of education for its citizens. Each city-state chose its own form of government. Most Greek city-states were ruled by kings. In Athens, citizens met each week to discuss problems. They worked on solutions. The men of Athens experimented with government. For about 100 years, Athens was a direct democracy.Each year, 500 names were drawn from all the citizens of Athens. Those 500 citizens had to serve for one year as the law makers of ancient Athens. All citizens of Athens were required to vote on any new law that this body of 500 citizens created. One man, one vote, majority ruled. Women, children, and slaves were not citizens, and thus could not vote.
18: Corinth | Corinth had a glorious history as a cultural and trade center. Corinth was a monarchy. The people were ruled by a king. The king had many advisors. Together, Corinth's government solved many problems that face cities today. For example, Corinth had a problem with unemployment. To solve this, they created a huge and successful public works program. This gave people work, like building new aqueducts, while solving other city problems, such as the need for an additional source of drinking water. To solve the problem of foreign money pouring into their polis, the government of Corinth created its own coinage. They forced traders to exchange their coins for Corinth's coinage at the bank of Corinth, for a fee of course. | Corinthians were very good with money. Although Corinth's schools were not as fine, perhaps, as those of Athens, their boys were educated in the arts and the sciences. As a child, kids were taught at home. From age 7-14, boys attended a nearby day school, where they studied poetry, drama, public speaking, accounting, reading, writing, math, science, and the flute. Boys attended a higher school if their parents could afford it. All boys went to military school for at least two years. Literature, culture, art, and businesses thrived in Corinth.
20: Important Events Rome took over Greece in 136 BC. In 585 BC Thales correctly predicts a solar eclipse that occurred on May 28, 585 B.C. 443 BC Herodotus begins to write the first book on history. It began in Mycenaean. Resources Water, fish, Mud, Mountains, rocks/stones, trees/wood, flowers, herbs, seafood, a wealth of vegetables. City-state After the Greek dark ages, Villages started to band together to form strong trading centers. These groups of villages that banded together were called city-states. Soon, hundreds of city-states had formed in ancient Greece. Groups of villages that came together were called city-states | Other
21: How Did it End Some of the Greeks decided to help the Carthaginians fight the Romans, because the Greeks were afraid of the Romans. But the Carthaginians lost. The Romans were very angry at the Greeks, and they began to take Greece over as well. At first the Romans pretended to let Greece be independent, but by 146 BC the Romans destroyed Corinth and made Greece into a province of the Roman Empire. Why - more land and more power. Corinth-narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.