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Bull Run

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Bull Run - Page Text Content

S: Bull Run by Paul Fleischman

FC: To accompany Bull Run by Paul Fleischman | Primary Sources from the Library of Congress

1: On July 21, 1861, the first Battle of Bull Run--sometimes called Manassas--took place. It was the first meeting of the armies of the North and the South. The Northern army of 33,000 men was led by General McDowell; the South's 28,000 men by General Beauregard.

2: Fleischman recounts how the news of the firing on Fort Sumter rippled through America with differing results. He writes each short chapter from the viewpoint of a character, repeating that character's observations as the story progresses. For the South, Fleischman's characters include: Colonel Oliver Brattle--retired military, joined Gen. Beauregard's staff Shem Suggs--illiterate, good with horses Flora Wheelwright--3 sons-in-law joined the Confederate Army Toby Boyce--11, and joined a band Virgil Peavey--walked 40 miles to join up Dr. William Rye--doctor, volunteered Judah Jenkins--joined up as a courier Carlotta King--black slave who came from Mississippi with her master The chapters generally contrast a Southern viewpoint with the next chapter revealing a Northern view. The book shows the South, in the person of character Flora Wheelworth, assured that they will easily win, with her sons in law in beautifully tailored uniforms. http://youtu.be/nnS9M03F-fA--"The Night they Drove Old Dixie Down," sung by Joan Baez

3: This song captures the beginning--and the end--of the South's euphoria: http://youtu.be/nnS9M03F-fA The characters from the North include: Lily Malloy--Minnesotan, brother Patrick runs away to join the Union Army Gideon Adams--black man, joins the Union Army James Dacy--reporter/illustrator for the New York Illustrated News Nathaniel Epp--photographer Dietrich Herz--German, joined Union Army General Irvin McDowell--the Union General A.B Tilbury--from Maine, joined the Union Army Edmund Upwing--drove spectators to see the battle

4: After 5 hours of battle, the Union first had the Confederates in retreat, except for the area commanded by General "Stonewall" Jackson, which allowed a reinforcement of 9,000 Confederate soldiers to join the battle. These reinforcements soon had the Union army running back to Washington, D.C. In the first major battle of the Civil War, the South persevered. | Company A, 8th New York State Militia, 1861

5: Cavalry horses--both armies relied on horses for their couriers | General Beauregard's headquarters. Fleischman's character Colonel Oliver Brattle joined Beauregard's staff. The Colonel shows the disarray of the staff which resulted in the Confederate failure to follow the retreating Union army and perhaps win the war.

6: General McDowell and his staff | A young Union soldier | Among those who speak in the book about the prelude to and the first battle of the War are General McDowell and several young men who joined both armies.

7: A young Confederate soldier, holding a book | A Union courier

8: Assignment 1--part 1 Choose one of the three photos of young soldiers on pages 6 and 7. Examine the photo with a magnifying glass and fill out this form with only what you SEE. Primary Source Analysis Tool OBSERVE Start with finding the answers to these questions, then add any other details you notice: Describe what you see. What do you notice first? What people and objects are shown? How are they arranged? What is the physical setting? What, if any, words do you see? What other details can you see? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

9: Assignment 1--part 2 Primary Source Analysis Tool REFLECT Now, start making connections to what you already know. Reflect on the following questions and add other inferences you make. Be certain that you can back up your inferences with evidence from the picture. Questions : Why do you think this image was made? What’s happening in the image? When do you think it was made? Who do you think was the audience for this image? What tools were used to create this? What can you learn from examining this image? What’s missing from this image? If someone made this today, what would be different? What would be the same? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

10: Assignment 1--part 3 Primary Source Analysis Tool QUESTION After reading over your reflection column, what questions do you still have? What would you like to know? What do you have to know to make sense of the picture? Consider these questions as you re-examine the photo and fill in the column: What do you wonder about... who? what? when? where? why? how? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

11: Assignment 1--part 4 Go back to the book Bull Run and find a character in the book who could be the person in the picture you chose. On this page, rewrite the caption for the picture you examined. Then write a paragraph about the photo, using the facts from your observations, your ideas from your reflections, answering some of your questions.

12: Drummer boys | Fleischman's chapters are short, and in each, a character shows the reader the events and the resulting emotions leading up to and during the 1st Battle of Bull Run. For example, 11-year-old Toby Boyce tells about joining a Confederate band, wanting to join the battle once it began, and was horrified by reality. Once on the battlefield, confronted by the wounded and the dying, Toby grabs an Arkansas toothpick from the ground and runs away to "Georgia and Grandpap" (96). | Arkansas Toothpick

13: Female slave | A company of Black soldiers | The point of view of two Blacks, or Negroes, the term used then, is also present. Gideon Adams, who joined the Union forces, is disappointed by the overt racism he finds among the soldiers. A southern slave, Carlotta King, accompanied her master to the battle, and she was told that Yankees would return runaway slaves to their masters. She later runs off when her master is killed in the battle.

14: A painting of the battle. Soldiers with German rifles. Newly arrived German immigrants sometimes served in the Union army. | An ambulance crew on the battlefield. Often, Zouaves manned these wagons.

15: Zouaves were named after a volunteer French force. During the Civil War, volunteers who served as Zouaves wore the same distinctive uniform as the French volunteers did. They usually served as ambulance crew members. These two soldiers are wearing the short jackets with the trim, but the distinctive hat is not in this photo. | Confederate Colonel J.E.B. Stuart pursued the fleeing Union army as it headed back towards Washington, D.C.

16: Confederate president Jefferson Davis made an appearance on the battlefield. | As a result of the 1st Battle of Bull Run and the high number of the casualties on both sides of the conflict, America realized that it was in for a long, costly war. | Unidentified soldier of Company G, 147th New York Infantry Regiment, with amputated arms

17: Fleischman's book shows how both sides of the conflict came to the conclusion that the Civil War was not going to be easily won. Through the stories, told believingly from multiple viewpoints, we watch the public's reaction to the war shift from wild certainly to abject horror. Fleischman's voices ring true, and the characters' abrupt loss of their idealistic views of war show parallels the loss of innocence experienced by the entire country as the long and deadly war continued. This book provides an excellent introduction to the Civil War for the mid-to-upper elementary student through young adult readers. The characters speak to any level as Fleishman brings the onset of serious conflict to life.

18: Assignment 2 Map 1: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3884m.cw0566000 Sketch of the country occupied by the Federal & Confederate Armies on the 18th & 21st July 1861 Taken by Capt. Saml. P. Mitchell, of 1st Virginia Regiment Map 2: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.ndlpcoop/gvhs01.vhs00099 Plan of the second Battle of Bull Run Va. Showing position of both armies at 7 p.m. 30th Aug. 1862. You have been provided copies of two maps of the battlefield of Bull Run. One of those maps is from the first battle in 1861; the second shows the troops' positions for the second battle in 1862. On the next few pages, fill in the primary sources analysis tool. Remember that you are closely observing both maps side by side. All your observations, reflections, and questions will be considering both maps at the same time.

19: Primary Source Analysis Tool OBSERVE Start with finding the answers to these questions, then add any other details you notice: Describe what you see. What do you notice first? What people and objects are shown? How are they arranged? What is the physical setting? What, if any, words do you see? What other details can you see? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

20: Primary Source Analysis Tool REFLECT Now, start making connections to what you already know. Reflect on the following questions and add other inferences you make. Be certain that you can back up your inferences with evidence from the picture. Questions : Why do you think these images were made? What’s happening in each image? Who do you think was the audience for thiese images? What tools were used to create these? What can you learn from examining these images? What’s missing from them? If someone made these today, what would be different? What would be the same? How is image 2 changed from image 1? What or who might have caused those changes? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

21: Primary Source Analysis Tool QUESTION After reading over your reflection column, what questions do you still have? What would you like to know? What do you have to know to make sense of the pictures? Consider these questions as you re-examine the photos and fill in the column: What do you wonder about... who? what? when? where? why? how? ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

22: Assignment 3 Go back and re-examine your paragraph from Assignment 1. You will write a paper about your character's future, after the events of the book Bull Run took place. Consider which side of the Civil War your character supported. Then look over your analysis tool for the two maps and think about your character's reactions to the changes you discovered in those two maps. Then write a 2-3 page paper about your character's actions, feelings, and movements after the events reflected in Map 1, leading up to and including the events reflected in Map 2. You will refer to the book, your analysis of the picture of your character, and your analysis of the two maps for your paper, and your prior knowledge of the events of the Civil War.

23: Fleischman, Paul. Bull Run. Illus. David Frampton. New York: HarperCollins, 1993. All primary source documents used are owned by the Library of Congress: Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.

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  • Title: Bull Run
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