S: Cell Project By: Soha and Rebecca
FC: Cell History and Structure | By: Soha Mumtaz and Rebecca Lee
1: The cell theory states: 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of life. 3. Cells only rise from existing cells. | Schleiden and Schwann were the founders of the cell theory.
2: Matthias Jakob Schleiden was a German botanist (April 1804-June 1881). He's a co-founder with Theodor Schwann in cell theory and came up with the first three cell theories. | Matthias Jakob Schleiden, concluded that all plant tissues are made of cells and that an embryonic plant arose from a single cell. He declared that the cell is the basic building block of all plant matter.
3: Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow was a German physiologist, physician, pathologist, and anthropologist who created the third cell theory, becoming the co-founder of cell theory. | Virchow was the first to demonstrate that the cell theory applies to diseased tissue as well as healthy tissue. Diseased cells derive from healthy cells of normal tissue. Basically he came up with the belief that disease originates in cells.
4: Robert Hooke was the first to study and record cells by microscope. He created the word cell and was the first to discover cells. When he looked at them under his microscope, he saw cell walls of dead cork. He's also well-known for his study of elasticity.
5: Theodor Schwann, another contributor to cell theory, was a German biologist. He's credited with the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, pepsin, the organic nature of yeast and he invented the term metabolism. He reached the same conclusions as Schleiden and Schwann decided to put his observations into a theory known as the cell theory.
6: Prokaryotic cells are the simplest unicellular organisms and the earliest cell to evolve, for example bacteria. Unlike eukaryotes, their genetic material floats in the cytoplasm and they have no nucleus.They always have a cell wall and some have a flagella (thread-like structures to help move the cell).
7: Eukaryotic cells are multicellular and are more complex than prokaryotes. They include plants cells, animal cells, fungi, and some unicellular protists. They are membrane bound, contain a cytoskeleton, and have several organelles prokaryotes don't have, like mitochondria and the golgi apparatus.
9: Plant cells are also eukaryotic cells which contain a large central vacuole, a cell wall, chromatin, nuclear envelope and chloroplasts. They also contain all the organelles animal cells have. Plant cells have a rectangular, boxy shape. | Animal cells are eukaryotic containing a cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, lysosome, ribosomes, rough and smooth ER, nucleolus, and cytoplasm. Animal cells have a round shape. Obviously, they funtction in living creatures.
10: The nucleus is round and surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. It houses the cell's DNA and the nucleolus. | The nucleolus is in the center of the nucleus and produces ribosomes. It also contains genetic information. | The mitochondria are organelles that harvest energy from organic compounds called ATP. They act as the power plants of cells, getting the energy from food.
11: Lysosomes are small spheres inside the cell. Their function is to hold and release enzymes into the cell. They also transport enzymes from cell to cell. | Ribosomes are the sites where the cell assembles proteins according to genetic instructions. Ribosomes attach to the endoplasmic reticulum. | Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes, therefore it looks smooth. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids and breaks down toxic substances.
12: The rough endoplasmic reticulum moves proteins and other substances within eukaryotic cells. The rough endoplasmic Reticulum has ribosomes constantly being bound and released from the membrane. | A flagellum is a tail-like projection that protrudes from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and functions in locomotion. The Flagellum enables movement by rotating or propelling the organism through its environment. | The central vacuole takes up most of the plant cell's volume. The central vacuole stores tons of water, can contain substances like: ions, nutrients, and waste. When the central vacuole is full, it makes the cell rigid and enables the plant to stand upright.
13: Cell walls provide support for cells with no internal skeleton. They also provide structure for cells with internal support. Cell walls are located outside of the cell membrane. | A cell membrane has a phospholipid layer that covers a cells surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and protects the cell.
14: Homeostasis is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, constant condition of properties like temperature or pH. It can be either a closed or open system.
15: The End :)