FC: Changing America
1: "The axe here... is a combination axe, wedge, and sledgehammer; what an accomplished woodchopper can do with this instrument! There are some among them who can chop and split five and one-half loads of wood a day, including stacking them." - A European observer " Do you know that European birds have not half the melody of ours? Nor is their fruit half so sweet, nor their flowers half so fragrant, nor their manners half so pure, nor their people half so virtuous." - A letter from Abigail Adam's sister in Massachusetts.
2: The Industrial Revolution | It began in the early 1800s in the the United States. People started leaving their farms and worked in the bigger cities. The factories they worked at started developed new technologies such as the spinning jenny (picture on at the bottom) and the power loom. These new inventions helped start mass productions of products like clothing. Since so many inventions were being made, Congress passed a law to protect the rights of the developers which is called a patent. | Rumor has it that the spinning jenny's idea came from accidentally knocking over a spinning wheel. It spun thread to make clothing and clothes. This machine increased the the need for labor which was good for people who wanted to leave their farms.
3: Other Useful Inventions | The power loom wove thread into cloth. This was much faster than individual sewing. | The water frame worked with the Spinning Jenny to spin thread into the power loom. | The mechanical reaper was used to cut grain on fields, and then it swept the grain onto a platform that would be later picked up.
4: I d e a s | Census The first census in the U.S. started in 1790 and turned out to be almost four million residents. Canals Since New York was the business capital of the world, it needed to be accessible from the Great Lakes. Their solution was to build an man-made water way to connect the two. The American System This was a program that improved America. Things like building roads, canals, and controlling inflation. They used tariffs to provide money for the government. | Turnpikes Many people were moving out west to find adventure and new resources. Turn pikes charged fees for travelers to help pay for construction. Locks When boats needed to be raised due to changes in water level, they built series of locks that raised the boats. There were separate compartments where the water was raised or lowered. Morse Code A man by the name Samuel Morse started Morse Code. It was a way to transfer information through wires using dits (dots). It was an effective way to communicate secretly for wars later in time.
6: T h e T r a i l o f T e a r s | Many American Indians inhabited the southern states which were excellent farming lands. West of the Mississippi River was too dry so few Americans settled there. The settlers wanted the Indians' land because it was rich and fertile. | In 1830 Congress decided to pass the Indian Removal Act. It enabled the government to give compensation to Indians if they moved west. They created the future state Oklahoma to be their territory. | The American Indians were outraged and sued the state government. They ignored it and started convincing a few to sign a treaty. The treaty gave up their land but 17,000 still refused to move. They wrote a letter of protest saying, "We are aware that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to move beyond the Mississippi... Our people universally think otherwise... We wish to remain on the land of our fathers."
7: The letter didn't persuade Andrew Jackson. So in 1838 7,000 soldiers enforced the Cherokee and four other tribes to leave their land. They all started to move to their new home out west. A man in Kentucky wrote that there were old people about to die, and many were barefoot on the snow. The Cherokee referred to their agony as the Trail Where They Cried. Now days we call it the Trail of Tears. It took them over a year for them to arrive to Oklahoma. They lived in the eastern half of the state. The tribes lived in peace there, and even had governments, police forces, and schools. | "We told them to let us alone and keep away from us; but they followed." -Black Hawk
8: The | Oregon | Trail | Settlers heard about the fertile land that was in the Oregon Country. A Christian family had a mission to spread Christianity to the American Indians. Some settlers went along gave measles to the group. It spread to the American Indian children and killed them. The Cayuse killed off some of the mission. | A depression hit the Mississippi Valley. Thousands of people started moving to Oregon to get away from the bad economic situation. It was a 2,000 mile journey, so they packed well with their wagons. By 1845 5,000 settlers lived in the Oregon Country. 700 British settlers lived there too which caused a debate on who's country it was.
9: The Oregon settlers and many Americans wanted the United States to own their country. In the 1845 presidential election the Democratic Party's James K. Polk supported the Oregon settlers. He came up with the slogan "Fifty-four Forty or Fight." A newspaper editor from New York named John O'Sullivan wrote a national mission for the U.S. He wrote, "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us." He thought America was destined to own the land all the way to the Pacific Ocean. The Republican Party's Henry Clay didn't support the Oregon Country. Polk ended up winning because the Liberty Party represented most of his votes. The Manifest Destiny finally happened in June 1846. Britain agreed that the boundary line was at latitude 49 degrees N. To continue the Manifest Destiny, America started looking at the territory of Texas from Mexico. | James K. Polk | Henry Clay
10: Social | Rush-Bagot Treaty In 1817 the U.S. and Britain limited the amount of naval vessels each country could have on the Great Lakes. | Convention of 1818 The 49th parallel was the boundary of the Louisiana Territory that separated the U.S. and Canada. | Adams-Onis Treaty Spain claimed to have West Florida, but that was part of the Louisiana Purchase. In April 1818 Andrew Jackson took over two forts in East Florida. Even though Secretary of State John Quincy Adams didn't give Jackson orders to do that. Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. It gave up East Florida and Texas to America. | General Andrew Jackson
11: Political | By 1828 America divided into to parties. The Democratic Republicans and the National Republicans. The Democrats usually came from the frontier, immigrants, or laborers. The National Republicans wanted a strong central government. They wanted more road building and banks. Usually the National Republicans were merchants or farmers. To destroy the opponents reputation, they did mudslinging which was an insult to each other. When America split to two parties, Jackson was a Democratic and Adams was a Republican. Jackson won from receiving mos his votes from new frontier states. America used to run on the caucus system. They political candidates were chosen by committees made from members of Congress. Jackson got rid of it as president and replaced it with nominating conventions. Delegates chosen by their represented state chose the party's presidential candidates.
12: Economics | Businesses became so big in the cities became corporations in the 1830s. They started selling stocks to pay for improvements and developments. | When the First Bank of the United States expired in 1811, Congress started the Second Bank of the United States in 1816. Unlike other banks, this one had the power to make huge loans to businesses and corporations. People complained that it became too much of a monopoly.
13: Cultural | Levi Strauss originally made jeans for miners and farmers in 1873. Now everyone wears them everyday. | The banjo was a popular instrument during this time. Some of the most popular songs were "America", "The American Flag", and "Annie Laurie". The genre of the time was mostly folk music and blues was starting to develop.
14: Conclusion How did events affect people's lives, community, and the world? When the Trail of Tears happened, they lost many people from their community. An individual may have started with 8 people with them, but when it ended more than half of them died. Parents lost their children or their parents. This didn't really have an affect on the world. who has benefited from change and why? The Americans had a richer economy with the more fertile land they had for farming. Without it, they wouldn't have done so well in that area. The excellent economy they had helped the nation grow stronger. What can we learn from the past? We know now that it's cruel to make people move against their will. We gave them reservations and their own land now but they'll always have a grudge against us. How did decisions or actions significantly transform people's lives? The settlers that go to settle down south made lots of money from their farming. It made better lives for people who were struggling in the big cities. How did their world view affect their choices and actions? Americans thought they were better than the American Indians because we had better manners, education, and Christianity. With those thoughts they thought they had the authority to change people who weren't like them.
15: Works Cited "Morse cod History." White River Valley Museum, n.d. Web.