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FC: World History (The short version) By Jillian C. and Arin O. | (The short version) By Jillian C. and Arin O.

1: Table of contents Ancient River Valley Civilization.............................................................................................2 What if?.................................................................................................................................................................................3 Classical Greece/Rome...................................................................................................................................4 What if?...............................................................................................................................................................................5 Post-Classical Africa/Asia.....................................................................................................................6 What if?...............................................................................................................................................................................7 Post-Classical (Medieval) Europe..............................................................................................8 What if?..............................................................................................................................................................................9 Renaissance/Reformation.....................................................................................................................10 What if?.............................................................................................................................................................................11 Enlightenment/Revolutions...............................................................................................................12 What if?...........................................................................................................................................................................13 WWI.......................................................................................................................................................................................14 What if?............................................................................................................................................................................15 WWII...................................................................................................................................................................................16 What if?...........................................................................................................................................................................17 Cold War........................................................................................................................................................................18 What if?..........................................................................................................................................................................19

2: The Ancient River Valley Civilizations got that name because they were the first known well-functioning communities. They founded the ideas of farming so they could settle in one place instead of following animal herds. They settled around rivers so they could dig irrigation ditches (above) that carried water from the river to their crops. | In this time period they usually worshiped many gods instead of just one. This is called polytheism. Their religion usually controlled the way they lived or the decisions their ruler would make for their empire. | Hammurabi, ruler of the Babylonian Empire, came up with a law system called Hammurabi's code. It basically said "If you steal from me you'll get your hand chopped off"; an eye for an eye.

3: What if? | What if Hammurabi did not write his code of laws? | If Hammurabi had not written his code of laws then the Ancient River Valley Civilizations would have been chaotic. I think this because if there were no laws then everyone would do what they want, and since this code of laws was so strict it made everyone live in fear, which wasn't necessarily a bad thing, because it made everyone follow the rules and make sure they behaved. Another possibility that could come from him not writing his laws is that we may not have the same laws today, but, there is also a chance that if he didn't make those laws or any laws at all then someone else would have.

4: Classical Greece/Rome Way back when Greece thrived on success in every way. In Sparta they were experts war and strategy whereas Athens focused more on democracy and philosophy. | Since Rome didn't want a king they became a republic. A republic is a form of government in which the power rests in the citizens who have the right to vote for who they want in power. However, in times of crisis they would pick a dictator -a leader with absolute power. | Julius Caesar (above) was one of these dictators. He tried to restore the republic when it began to crumble in civil war, conflict between groups in the same country, but it only got worse. Eventually Rome fell.

5: What if? | What if Rome did not fall? | If Rome had not fallen then there is a good possibility that the empire would have just grown and grown into an even bigger and more powerful empire. There's also a good possibility that, through that growth, there would be a lot more Roman influences in the world.

6: Post-Classical Asia/Africa In Asia there were the Huns, the Turks, and the Mongols. They were clans, or groups of kinship, that were a nomadic peoples (people that moved with herds of animals). The Mongols, one of the most brutal clans, lead by Genghis Khan (right), sought to conquer all land possible by killing any and every enemy. The Mongols had also created a long road across Asia that would be open to trading and traveling called the Silk Road. | In Africa they sort of had the same thing as the Mongol clans except they were called lineages which are families that are organized into groups that, in some societies, take place of rulers. Those societies are known as stateless societies. They don't have a central government so they balance the power between lineages.

7: What if? | What if the Mongols had not opened the Silk Road to safe travels? If the Mongols hadn't let people travel safely on the Silk Road then trading would've been very difficult. The whole purpose of the Silk Road was to make trading easier. There would be little influence from different countries if the road had been closed off. However, on the road they weren't just trading goods. They would also be trading diseases; some lives might have been saved if the road was closed.

8: Medieval Europe The Medieval period was also known as the middle ages that followed the gradual decline of the Roman empire. A great leader of this time was Charlemagne (right) who, through his many conquests, helped spread Christianity. Christianity wasn't the only thing spreading at this time. The Black Plague was a terrible disease that spread all over Western Europe that killed a crazy amount of people. | During this time there was a feudal pyramid that basically showed who had more power. First was the King, then came the nobles and the church officials. 3rd were the knights who swore to defend their lord's, or landowner's, land. Lastly, there were the peasants who worked in the fields.

9: What if? | What if the Black Plague had not attacked Western Europe? If the Black Plague didn't attack Western Europe then there would have been a lot more great thinkers and leaders during the middle ages. It's just that simple. Who really knows? The course of history could have been changed completely. If certain people didn't die because of this disease there might have been someone else to run Charlemagne's empire after his death instead of one of his sons who didn't do so well.

10: Renaissance/Reformation From 1300-1600 there were bursts of creativity all over Europe that people called the Renaissance, which means "rebirth", that spread north from northern Italy. The Renaissance brought new ways of thinking, learning, and new ways of creating art. During this time, Johann Gutenburg invented the printing press, a machine that presses paper against a tray full of inked movable type, which was used to print the Gutenburg Bible, the first full-size book printed with movable type. This bible encouraged people to learn to read and from there new ideas spread like wildfire. | Not only did this time bring new ideas, it brought change. At this time some friars were selling indulgences, or pardons, to those who had sinned. A man named Martin Luther (above) thought this was wrong. To express his anger he wrote the 95 Theses, or formal statements, saying why the friars shouldn't be doing that and stuck it on a church door. But it didn't stop there! Luther had started a full Reformation, a movement for religious reform.

11: What if? | What if Gutenburg hadn't inventing the printing press? If Gutenburg hadn't invented the printing press I have no doubt that someone else would have eventually. The only this is that Gutenburg's inventing of the printing press couldn't have come at a better time. Since it was a time of "rebirth" of learning they really needed the printing press to learn from the books Gutenburg printed. If there was no printing press the Renaissance probably wouldn't have had the same impact on the world as it did.

12: Enlightenment/Revolutions The Scientific Revolution (started a new way of thinking about the natural world) kicked off the era of revolutions. The only problem was that the church didn't accept these revolutionists and their ideas, even thought they were right. The Scientific Revolutions paved the way for a movement known as the Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason. Many philosophers, like John Locke (right), came up with better ideas of how life should be and how people should be treated. It was he who said that all people are born equal and free with 3 things: life, liberty and property (these are also called natural rights). | Baron de Montesquieu also had a wonderful idea of seperation of powers so that no one person or group would get too much power. These ideas were basically gold because even Thomas Jefferson used John Locke's ideas in the Declaration of Independence during the American Revolution. The founding fathers also used Montesquieu's ideas; that's how we got the 3 branches of government.

13: What if? | What if the Enlightenment ideas were not embraced by the colonists? If the colonists hadn't embraced the Enlightenment ideas then America wouldn't have the same kind of government that we have today. I'm sure at some point or another the colonists would have realized what great ideas they were but that probably would have meant another revolution. That probably wouldn't have gone over so smoothly.

14: WWI The Great War started on a fateful day in 1914 when Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungrian throne, was assassinated by Serbians. Soon after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. Serbia and Austria- Hungary called on their friends for help. They split into two sides. The Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy, and the Allies: Russia, Great Britain, and France. | Russia had to drop out towards the end of the war to deal with their own revolution and tagged the United States to take their place. The heart of the fighting took place on what was called the Western Front. It was a deadlocked region in Northern France. | They used trench warfare where soldiers fought each other in the miles of dug out trenches along the Western Front. On November 11 WWI ended. Both sides signed an armistice, or a promise not to fight. Germany ended up getting blamed for the whole thing! They had to pay all of the damages which sent them, as well as many other countries, into an economic slump.

15: What If? | What if the Germans had not been solely blamed for WWI? | If the Germans had not been solely blamed for WWI then I think the Serbians would have been. I believe this because they're the ones who assassinate the Arch Duke Franz-Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary which is what "sparked" the war in the first place. Another thing is that someone else would have had to of cleaned up all of the damage that was done during the war. Also, if Germany wasn't blamed, then they might not have gone into such an economic depression therefore, possibly, preventing WWII.

16: WWII WWII started when Germany invaded Poland in 1939, using a new military strategy called Blitzkrieg or "Lightning War". The two sides of the war were fought by the Axis powers: Germany,Italy, and Japan, and the Allied powers: U.S., Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. | The U.S. was brought into the war on December 7, 1941 when Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japanese. The U.S. lost 8 of 9 battle ships in the attack and 2,402 American lives were lost. The U.S. responded by dropping an atomic bomb on the major city of Iroshima, Japan. | Adolf Hitler, leader of the Nazis and dictator of Germany, enforced his "Final Solution", a system for getting rid of everyone who Hitler deemed impure, such as Gypsies, homosexuals, the disabled and mostly Jews. Hitler used concentration camps and death camps to "get rid" of them. This horrible event killed about 11 million people and was known as The Holocaust.

17: What if? | What if the U.S. had not dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan? | If the United States had not dropped the Atomic Bombs on Japan then we may have suffered another attack from them. I believe this because, well, it's common sense if we didn't do something drastic then we were most likely going to be struck by their military again in some shape or form.

18: The Cold War lasted from 1945 to 1991. It was called the Cold War because there wasn't any physical fighting going on. It was more constant fear of one country dropping a bomb on another country at any given time. | When communism started to spread through Russia the Berlin Wall was put up to divide Europe into east and west and keep communism from spreading to other countries.To help out the starving people on the communist side of Europe there was the Berlin Airlift which was a bunch a planes that flew over Berlin and dropped food and other provisions.

19: What if? | What if the Soviet Union had landed on the moon first and not the United States? | If the Soviet Union had landed on the moon before the United States then they would have won. That's the only way to put it, they would have won. Who knows, maybe they would have put moon bases on the moon by now, maybe they would have made it but the mission could have gone bad. The answer to this question could go a million different directions.

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