FC: THE COLOMBIAN REVOLUTION
3: Table of Contents: Prologue Entries: -Male Rebel "Unknown Llanero" -Male Rebel "Name" -Male Rebel "Pablo Picante" -Female Rebel "Carolina" -Female Rebel "Name" -Revolutionary Leader "Simón Bolívar" -Revolutionary Leader "Simón Bolívar" -Disenfranchised Person "Name" -Disenfranchised Person "Kayin" -Government Official"Roberto" -Government Official "Alejandro" Epilogue Picture Credits | II
4: Prologue The Colombian Revolution all began with the time period of conquest and colonization. Over time there was a wide variety of rebellious movements against the Spanish. However, most of these rebellions were macerated because they were too weak or those who were involved didn’t know how to adapt to these situations in order to make the correct decisions. In the center of the country, the kingdom of New Granada (present day Colombia) was a key area for colonization engaging many Spaniards fanned out from Bogota searching for gold and paying their tribute to the colony. The New Granada started to break apart and become more independent. However, a variety of culture and people were settling in Colombia at the time of the Spanish invasions. The Colombian population began to decrease, leaving most of Colombia’s population to be European. Between 1717 and 1751 the Viceroyalty of New Granada was in action on and off. They were mainly given the job to govern a particular section of territory on behalf of Napoleon Bonaparte. But, in 1778 Charles III sent a general of his to Bogota as a “visitor.” Sent with orders to increase tax yields and force the government to be more responsive to central command, led to the most strongest opposition.
5: This was the process leading up to the Comunero Revolt. Having over 20,000 Colombians discontent and short-tempered resulted in the rebellion being the main movement and indication of the fight for Colombian independence. Once the Napoleonic Wars reached Spain and King Carlos IV was forced to give up his throne, the downfall of Spain became very distinct. Revolutionary leaders are moving very quickly into Spain and are traveling towards Colombia, reaching the end of the fight for independence. However, in 1810 citizens of Bogota, the capital city of Colombia revolted successfully against the Spanish, when Simon Bolivar captured the city after his victory at the Battle of Boyaca. In 1821, with their new found independence Bogota was made the capital of Gran Colombia (which includes present day Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, and of course Colombia). Although the confederation was dissolved in 1830, Bogota has remained the capital of Colombia. The outcomes of the revolution include a number of civil wars, due to Creole’s trying to centralize their power over the new government. The Congress of Angostura began the process of the creation of the Republic of Colombia (also known as Gran Colombia). The republic was decisively arranged by the Congress of Cucuta in 1821. Gran Colombia did not last long, only for 11 years during the war.
6: Later military competition for public office and regional conflicts led to a rebellion in Venezuela in 1826, which was led by Jose Antonio Paez. Thus causing Bolivar to return and revive unity. But no group was content, so in 1829 Bolivar cut up the land in four areas which would be under Venezuelan generals who had civil and military power. At the same time the convention of Ocana was not able to reorganize the republic and Bolivar was dictator for a short time, but unsuccessfully. Bolivar called for a convention in 1830, where a constitution was made for New Granada (which included only Colombia this time, and a bit of Panama). At the convention Bolivar resigned and left for the northern coast of South America, where he later died on December 17th. By then Venezuela and Ecuador had left from the confederation of Gran Colombia, thus leaving New Granada all alone. Colombia’s revolution for independence correlates with many characteristics included in Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a Revolution. To begin, one characteristic of Crane Brinton’s outline states that the government does not respond well to the needs of its society. One major cause of the need for independence in Colombia was that Spain had the first right to colonial goods and resources, and the economic policy was set for Spain’s maximum benefit,
7: rather than the benefit for the other Latin American nations. Additionally, Brinton included that people are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for. Colonists in the New World were originally promised a life of prosperity, but under the Spanish monarchy they were oppressed socially, politically, and economically. Another characteristic states that people are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes. The new “pure-blood” Spanish colonists had clashing ideals and privileges in comparison to the natives of the land. This clash led to severe hostility between classes and overall social instability. Colonists were originally promised a life of prosperity, but under the Spanish monarchy they were oppressed socially, politically, and economically. Furthermore, Crane Brinton states that the government does not respond to the needs of its society. Spanish colonists had already made it known that they were infuriated with the Spanish monarchy but their claims were completely ignored. As an effect the colonies
8: desperately began to fight for complete independence. Moreover, Crane Brinton said that during a revolution, a strong man emerges and assumes great power. In this case, Simon Bolivar emerged as a leader as he liberated Colombia from Spain through a series of battles and then became the first president of Colombia. Brinton also included that extremists try to create a "heaven on earth" by introducing their whole program and by punishing all their opponents. Simon Bolivar, an extremist as well as a leader, delivered the speech Guerra a Muerte, which stated that Spanish royalists who refused to change sides would be killed. Additionally, Brinton believes that in a revolution, the moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes. He also states that power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control. Spain regained control of New Granada in 1816. But the fight for independence continued, until Bolívar defeated Spanish royalist forces at the Battle of Boyacá in 1819, which resulted in the liberation of New Granada. Lastly, according to the Anatomy of a
9: revolution, unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. Spanish royalists attempted to suppress the rising strife for independence, but only through brutal and merciless warfare that terrorizes the colonies. (General Pablo Morillo began a reign of terror in Bogota in 1816) ______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 1: "Bogotá." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 28 Oct. 2010
10: Paragraph 2: Brinton, Crane. The Anatomy of Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1957. Print. "Colombia." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2010.
13: Columbia revolution time-line explanation In the 1700’s Spain combined Colombia with neighboring territories into one large colony called the Viceroyalty of New Granada. The Viceroyalty of New Granada consisted of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. Venezuelan General Francisco Gabriel de Miranda was active in the major political events. In1810 the territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada set up their own independent governments.This lead the king of Spain to be overthrown by Napoleon. Also, on July 20th 1810 (now known as Columbian Independence day), the Florero de Llorente (Llorente Flower Vase) incident occurred which was when Luis | Rubio went to borrow a vase from Llorente but he declined being a merchant. This caused fights against the Spanish even though, the mayor of Santa Fe, José Miguel Pey, tried to calm the people attacking Llorente (they accused him of discrimination), while Jose Maria Carbonell encouraged people to join the protest. In 814, Spain sent troops to South America to quell the uprising of the colonists. Also, at this time, José Luis Álvaro Alvino Fernández Madrid, was president of the United Provinces of the New Granada.. Throughout the year of 1815, many new presidents came and went. Custodio García Rovira starts off as president of the United Provinces of the New Granada, but he a was executed one month later by Pablo Marillo.
14: josé Miguel Pey de Andrade then takes power of the the United Provinces of the New Granada followed by Antonio Villavicencio and then Camilo Torres Tenorio. In 1819 General Simon Bolivar defeated royalist forces in the Battle of Boyaca on August 7th, and the Republic of Colombia (also known as Gran Colombia) is proclaimed on December 17, consisting of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. This battle was lead by Simon Bolivar and this Battle is known as New Granada, and it was when Columbia officially acquired its independence. The battle occurred in the Andes Mountains, in a place known as Casa de Teja. | This battle was obviously a very important event in Columbian history, also it occurred right after Bolívar succeeded at the Vargas Swamp Battle.
16: Important Battles of Colombia Battle of Boyacá On August 7, 1819, Simon Bolivar bravely commanded a battle in which Colombia and many other Latin provinces were able to finally gain its independence from the Spanish Monarchy. Through this battle Gran Colombia was created. And even though it was clearly outnumbered as the strength was about 3430 against about 2940 loyalist soldiers. In the end there were deaths and captures, but in the long-run, this battle left a legacy that will be remember not only through Colombia's history, but also the worlds'. Battle of Vargas The Vargas Swamp Battle occurred on July 25, 1819 where Simon Bolivar tried to prevent Spanish forces from arriving at Santafe de Bogota. Even though it was before the revolutionary battle in Boyaca, the battle of Vargas had more causalities and losses in the end. Uprising at Bogota On July 20, 1810, there was an uprising in Bogota. This uprising which was commanded by Antonio Nariño would be the start to a revolution that would continue 9 years more. | http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/colombia/l/blcitiesmap.htm
17: Citations: "Battle of Boyacá." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 17 Nov. 2010
18: January 31, 1810 Dear Journal, This will be my story of how I freed South America. Although I have not achieved this yet, it is my life goal to make it happen. When I first traveled to Europe, Maria and I were captivated by Napoleon’s grandeur. We had just met, and everything was beautiful. We returned to my homeland, Venezuela, yet my Maria fell ill with yellow | fever. My beautiful Maria has now passed, and I will never marry again for no one can replace her. I returned to Spain, to find that the once great Napoleon has conquered the Iberian peninsula, and appointed his incompetent brother Joseph, as the ruler of Spain. I saw firsthand the changing political scene from empire to monarchy. It was here that I first said that I would be the one to free the people of South America. Still, appalled and disgusted, I journeyed back to Venezuela where I was presented with three options. I could merely refuse to recognize Joseph as the new ruler, but that wouldn’t cause any action! I also could of opted to remain loyal to the deposed King. But that would be surrender! So I decided that I would j
19: join this revolutionary group. They wanted to expel the Spanish governor from Venezuela. Needless to say, it was a perfect fit! Now I am here in my quarters, packing for a long journey. The ruling junta wants to send me to England in search of assistance! Isn’t it exciting?! They want me! However I feel that England might not be so helpful. After all, it would take a lot of work on their part. Maybe I can seek out Francisco de Miranda, the Venezuelan nationalist. Who knows? Maybe he will want to come home and help the rebellion. I cannot wait to help my country, like I said before, I want to free South America. I want to defeat the Spanish until they shake in their pointy boots! I want them to cower like horses during a thunderstorm! | I will show them! Joseph will not defeat me. And I will die before I see South America crumble at the hands of the Spanish! Sincerely, Simón Bolívar | ______________________________ Diary Entry Based on Information Gathered from: "Simón Bolívar." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
20: June 28, 1821 Dear Journal, It has been much too long since I wrote to you. And I’m deeply apologetic. I have been so busy over these last eleven years. But to catch you up, here’s what has been occurring. Miranda revealed to be a terrible choice for the revolution, so I, of course delivered him to the Spanish. Years later, I was defeated by the Ilaneros, and fled to Jamaica. Here I wrote, “The Letter to Jamaica”, expressing my master scheme to free all of the countries and to establish republics. I can finally say that this plan is in action. hings began to look up for me. The Ilaneros shifted their loyalty to us, the revolutionaries. And thousands of adventurers arrived from England to help. Finally! And after all of this, I audaciously formed a new state not too | long ago. It is named the mighty Gran Columbia and consists of Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador.long ago. It is named the mighty Gran Columbia and consists of Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. And most recently, actually it was just a few days ago, I marched my men and won at Carabobo! This battle decided the fate of the Spanish settlements. What happened was that about a year ago, a new liberal government in Madrid ordered the royalist Gov Morillo to make peace with me because I had gained control of Columbia in 1819. I smartly broke this agreement and marched to Maracaibo. Behind me I had 6,500 men, that consisted of some Irish and British veterans, as well as some Ilaneros. I won the battle with no problem! If Maria could see me now!
21: They were so overwhelmed by my huge army.You should of seen their faces! They practically ran for cover! My Gran Columbia has now been liberated. It encompasses Venezuela, my beautiful homeland, Columbia, Panama, and Ecuador! What a joy to see them all free from Spanish rule! Sincerely, Simón Bolívar | ______________________________________________________________________________________ Diary Entry based on information gathered from: "Simón Bolívar." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
22: May 2, 1830 Dear Journal, Again, I know it’s been a while since I’ve written. But, my people have failed and abandoned me. All I wanted from them was a united South America. They could not even give me that, after everything I have done for them. My policies apparently started to irritate some of the leaders. And some separatists movements sprang up. And of course civil wars started to erupt and my beloved Gran Columbia began to break apart into separate countries. I tried to restore them, but no one respected me anymore. This was made perfectly clear when Vice-President Santander tried to assassinate me. But they failed. So two years ago, I decided it would be best for me to resign my office. After that I felt | _______________________________________ Diary Entry based on information gathered from: "Simón Bolívar." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
23: betrayed and I hated my people, and I resorted to withdrawing myself from public life. I devoted my entire life and fortune to the cause of liberty, and there wasn’t even a thank you. Still, I have been exiled to Europe, and I leave tomorrow, but I fear I will not make it. For I have come down with tuberculosis, and I dread that I may die soon. But hopefully, I will be reunited with my dear, dear Maria. This may be my last entry that I write, and however mad I may be at my people, I would just like them to know that I forgive them. I urge them to follow my principles and hope that my death will ease the trouble and unite the country. And with that I bid the farewell and hope for all of the countries in South America to make peace with themselves. Sincerely, Simón Bolívar
24: My diary, this is who I am: I was born in New Granda. My father was a llanero. He knew much about everything it seemed. He taught me how to walk how to ride and how to herd cattle. We worked to feed ourselves, often working very hard to move a rancher’s herd from high grounds before the flooding and back down in the spring. It was hard work but we were proud to wear the signature llanero straw hat.
25: Simon Bolivar Letter From Jamaica: “With respect to heroic and hapless New Granda, events there have moved so rapidly and the devastation has been such that it is reduced to frightful desolation and almost absolute indigence, although it was once among the fairest regions that are the pride of America. Its tyrants govern a desert, and they oppress only those unfortunate survivors who, having escaped death, lead a precarious existence. A few women, children, and old men are all that remain. Most of the men have perished rather than be slaves; those who survive continue to fight furiously on the fields and in the inland towns, until they expire or hurl into the sea those who, insatiable in their thirst for blood and crimes, rival those first monsters who wiped out America's primitive race. Nearly a million persons formerly dwelt in New Granda, and it is no exaggeration to say that one out of four has succumbed either to the land, sword, hunger, plague, flight, or privation, all consequences of the war, save the earthquake.”
26: Dear Diary, We were riding today, I am seventeen, when we came across this man we had but heard of. He was called “culo de hierro” or “Iron Buttocks”, but he calls himself Simon. He at first tried to act like he was better than us. taking only the easy tasks and leaving the real riding to my father and me. This made him look worse in my eyes. He was taking the easy jobs and taking the money that should be ours and it looked as if he had had enough food for most if not all of his life. | He is short and has a happy composure. He always has something to say even if we want to hear it or not. He doesn’t fit in, we ignore him but he always has a crowd with him which always gets our attention.
27: Dear Diary I realized I have started to like him, now he has started doing some of the harder work and helps to pitch in when we set up camp and cooked food. He wanted just to fit in and we let him. Anyways the crowd, that was now part of what was just me and my father, made work easier. He has started to talk against the Creoles, that makes us nervous because we live on the edge already but if the aristocracy turns against us then we may not live much longer. No one has spoken against us so he need not leave. If he stays his crowd of llaneros like us will stay and we get payed much better as a group. My parents had already fought alongside the aristocracy, it was how my mother met her death, my father vowed never to fight again. Whenever Simon, the traveler's real name, tells of a coming fight my father leaves. As he speaks though, most listen but some remember the fighting that had us dubbed “the satanic league”. Simon is constantly talking about a republic where everyone is free of the Spanish rule. To some it sounds like a place worth living in but to the rest it just sounds good because Simon says so. Simon had such a way with words you'd think that he has been one of us for his entire life the way people listen to him. usually outsiders are considered taboo but he knows us and has such charisma, I think there may just be a rebellion if he wants one!
28: Dear diary, Simon left saying “I may be back, I may need your help.” This, if anything stirred us up enough that he could tell that we would fight for him. A smile broke out on his face and he rode off. Life started to go back to the way it was, it would never quite be the same because we were now part of a group, we worked together ate together and would fight together. My father called me to the side of the caravan after and said to me “I need to talk to you.” I nodded and wondered what it was I had done now. “It seems like I only talk to you to scold you. I want you to forget that man, forget his promise of freedom.” “Why would I do that? There is no reason to not to heed his words.” “He will ask you to fight. To die with him. There is no reason I should lose you as well as your mother.” “I am not my mother! I can fight, I have been training! She may have died because she was unprepared and under equipped, but I will be neither.” “Boy, listen to me! I will not allow you to fight! You will never leave me and I refuse to fight!” “You cannot stop me I will fight! I can and I will leave you! All you have to do is watch!” I galloped away from him. Chasing the inkling of a plan that I had made. I rode from then until the next dawn, following in the direction I had seen Simon go in.
29: Dear Diary, I have forgotten to write recently. In the past months I have learned much of what the poor go through, the tortures they endure. I had lived as a poor man, a beggar always searching for food. Worked like a slave, beaten and abused by those I tried to work with. I learned how to hate the government and how the poor fight their own battle without worrying about swords and guns. I eventually found Simon, he was in Orinoco. | He remembered me, I knew he would. He did not look happy to see me though. We talked and he asked about what I had been doing. He had been gathering allies. He told me to return to where I had come from and bring the llaneros to what was soon to be known as Angostura. I immediately set off in the direction of my father, not even for a second forgetting that if we won, Simon would be in control.
30: I found the llaneros. Many returned with me, my father was not one of them. I didn’t even see him when I returned. We rode to Angostura where we met up with Simon and his allies the British Legion. We were told we were to leave immediately and cross the Andes mountains to attack Boyaca. | I was finally fighting. I was killing men and striking down their mounts like only a true horseman can. I don’t feel proud, I don’t even feel good. I see them fall before my sword, crushed beneath my horse. I feel the thud as a bullet pierces my horses right flank. he starts to buckle and sink to the ground. I free myself from my saddle and tackle a man using my momentum. My sword cuts deep into his leg and the blood splatters out onto my thigh. I finish him with my dagger and free myself from his corpse. A bullet grazes my shoulder, nothing can prepare for that pain. Now my blood mixes with the powder and blood from the man I landed on. I tried to save myself from the chaos and that smell of death and black powder. The heat pours down and the pain in my shoulder drives me to kneel. I stand again, charge into the masses knowing that it may be my last time. I cut a man down while he was trying to reload his musket. another man with a bayonet slices my arm and I cut into his neck, my sword lodges into his collarbone and I can’t get it out. A bullet rips through my left leg making it impossible to stand. The bayonet passes into my side and I think “I’m just like my mother”
31: I wake up to a firm grip on my arm. A grip that’s told me "Boy you’ve done something wrong." or “Boy you don’t know what you’re talking about.” I say “Father, I should have listened.” and close my eyes again. -In Memoriam of my son, a proud llanero
32: Marley, David F. "Llaneros: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. "Simón Bolívar." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. Crain, John. "New Granada: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 11 Nov. 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llanero (just pictures) http://3.bp.blogspot.com/__N5hDcfFbvk/Rqz-Apd-FZI/AAAAAAAAAB4/WALK8RWh4FY/s320/BatallaCarabobo02.jpg
34: Dear Diary, We (our country) are in a war for independence from Spain. For too long, Colombia has wanted its own independence, and finally we have decided to fight. I may be an average citizen living in this country, but I care and I want to help fight for my country. Not for the glory, but to make a difference. It is July 20, 1810 and our country has unofficially declared independence from Spain. There have been many rebel movements coordinated against Spanish rule, but many times, the rebellion has been crushed, while others remained too weak to change the overall situation we have been presented with. | While throughout the country, there have been, in Bogota, the citizens have started to revolt against Spanish rule. They have also set up a government of their own. It will be a struggle to fight, but I feel that I and the other people fighting will be able to prevail. I have been fighting for a good while, like any other war or revolution, there will be many struggles. There are casualties and maybe the scarcity of supplies that are needed. Almost everyone can agree that the government set up in our country is horrible, and that’s why when we finally realized we could do something, we started gathering rebels who wanted to fight, I heard about it and I, of course, wanted to join.
35: Maybe one of the main causes to the start of this revolution is because of all the small coordinated attacks on the government by the rebellion. Of course, not many of them had a lasting impact, but they eventually led to the government standing up to us and trying to put a stop to the rebels. Of course this was the start of the revolution, but I the rest of the rebels knew that we had a definite fighting chance against the government. | As Mentioned before, this will be a struggle to gain our independence, but it is worth it to fight for a long lasting effect on our country. I want people to remember that a fairly large group of rebels and its leaders were able to make a difference in this country's future. We all hope that we don't have many casualties, but they may be essential to winning this revolution. Sacrifices have always been needed to be made. Its not just an individual effort, but an effort made by all the rebels. Sincerely, Pablo Picante
36: Dear Diary, It was July 20, 1810 when we declared our independence from Spain. Many coordinated movements have been made by the rebellion and since, the revolution has started. Many revolts have spread throughout the countryside, as well as Bogota, where the citizens of the city have revolted against the Spanish government. We started to drive them out and the citizens have set up their own government to rule the city. It would seem that we might have won this fight but, we couldn’t speak to soon, as the Spanish started putting up a fight again. It would seem that this fight alone might even last a lot longer then what we had hoped for. | We started revolting around 1810, but much later than when we declared independence. It has already been 2 months and both sides are still fighting it out and not giving in no matter what. I feel we are still pretty good on supplies, but if this fight goes on for a good while, then we’ll have to find a way to get more supplies. Most of what we have is essential and the basic necessities. But so far, I feel that most of us will be fine as long as this specific rebellion in Bogota doesn’t last past about five months. I don’t feel that fighting this long will really change my life because I am not married, I live alone, so not anyone is really worried about what is going on.
37: I feel that I am just an ordinary person just standing up for what is good and right. I am just glad to help where ever I am needed. It has now been five months in this long battle in Bogota, Colombia against the Spanish government. Now that I realize it, I feel that we don’t need to worry about the supplies because I have found a way to receive goods from a source that I was able to contact. We should be set for the next couple of months after we receive the supplies. It has now been 8 months and I feel that this battle might be dwindling down, but we still must fight to victory. | I have noticed that some Spanish troops have been called back and many have been captured or killed. While those troops are gone, our rebel numbers have also dwindled down. After a year of fighting, it seems that it is over, but of course, the whole revolution is not over yet. This one revolt had lasted a year,no one really won, but we stood a little bit higher than the Spanish. Many years later, I have found out that the government that the citizens of Bogota established had collapsed, and the Spanish were able to retake it again in 1816. Sincerely, Pablo Picante
38: Dear Diary, It is May 17, 1816, it has been about six years since this revolution for independence has started. Many rebellions has sprung up all around the country during the many years spent fighting. I am grateful to have fought alongside all these other rebels. I am not upset in anyway for fighting this long. Most people would never “waste” six years of their life in a revolution. I feel it is a privilege to fight for “your” country. While most are killed and others just quit and give up, I will continue until we are victorious. I will continue to move around the country to help out any battles that are needed to be fought and maybe, won. | Which will further strengthen our cause, and further close the gap between us and the “ultimate prize,” independence from Spain, which we have sought out to gain for so long. It would seem that we rebels are just “pawns” in what the leaders are controlling for this rebellion. From my knowledge of this revolution, Simon Bolivar is one of the leaders controlling the fight. As the years progress and the battles continue, I once again feel that this revolution is dwindling down and becoming less. Many are giving in, but I feel that we are controlling this revolution, but we must not let our guard down or else Spain may snatch the “lead” away from us.
39: It is now around 1819, and I have started to participate in the “Battle of Boyaca.” I have learned that in fact, Simon Bolivar is the leader of this battle against the Spanish Government. I know this will be a long and hard fought battle, but we must prevail...This battle has been a good, hard-fought battle and officially, it is August 7, 1819 and Simon Bolivar, while the rest of the rebels have succeeded in this battle. The Spanish troops are falling back and giving in to us. I feel that I and the rest of the citizens can recognize that Colombia has gained its independence from Spain. What a great honor to have participated in the revolution for independence. Sincerely, Pablo Picante
41: The government. The government is what does not grant me citizenship, it’s what takes my rights away, my rights to be like the rest of them, the right to vote. I have no say. I never will i fear. Things are getting worse. Our poor Columbia has faced the conflicts the government puts it through. There is constant fighting in the streets between federalists and centralists, i hear them when i sleep. When news came that southern Spain had been conquered by Napoleon's forces, that the Spanish Supreme Central Junta had ended and that juntas had been established in Venezuela, we began to do the same. Cartagena de Indias established one on May 22, 1810, followed by Cali on July 3, Pamplona the next day, and Socorro on July 10. And, on July 20 the | viceregal capital, Santa Fe de Bogotá, established its own junta.There may be hope for some. For me i’m not so sure. The fields are my home for now. I can care for them and continue to send money to my loved ones. Columbia has hope of freedom. However, it is with great sorrow that i might add, it might be too late for me. My years are numbered. I am afraid i might not live to see the day when Columbia is free. If that day ever comes, i thank God that i am so fortunate to see it. That one day i might be able to leave, return to my family, as a free man. But for now, there is no hope for me. The fields are all i have, and Master. There will always be a Master to tend to. I will wait tonight to see if Mater comes home, he will probably already
42: have heard the news, but i will wait anyways. Master will want to know his hard work is paying off. Maybe the fighting will end. Maybe. --------------------------------------- Diary entry information gathered from "Supreme Junta of Caracas." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. "New Granada." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. "A Time of Revolutions, 1776-1825." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. | December, 1815 Dear Diary, It gives me my deepest regrets that i have not written for 3 years. With revolts going on throughout the country i don’t seem to have the time. I am scared. Master and his friends have been holding secret meetings. I know now that Master is a rebel. He is fighting the government. It is hard for me to have too much of an opinion on this matter.
43: For me nothing really changes either way. The government does not help me, i am enslaved and will be until my death i am sure of it now. The rebellion is no hope for me. Last night, i overheard Master and is rebel friends discussing the latest news on our dear Columbia. They argued over the federation, and the civil wars being fought. I heard that dispute over the form of government is why the fighting is still continuing. After, Cundinamarce was established The United Provinces of New Granada developed from areas of the New Kingdom of Granada. The government was a federation with a parliamentary system with the help of a strong congress. However, even though this confederation was established, the federation still went unrecognized. | I can tell Master is worried. He told me that a large Spanish expeditionary force has arrived. Spain has invaded, and i don’t know what to do anymore. Master says he is going to fight. He is going to fight in the rebellion. He explained to me that he is part of Simon Bolivar’s revolutionary army, and that Pablo Morillo is trying to take away our freedom. Master has informed me, that he will no longer be needing my services considering he might not return. Master says he will probably die serving our great Columbia. I don’t know what to do anymore. I am a servant with no Master, and no money. If i could give my life in exchange for my families safety and freedom i would. But i cant stop a rebellion. When this is all over, maybe i can have my family back.
44: But until then, I wish them all good luck. I wish them all the best and i sent a letter with these parting words: Consider yourself warned, the royalists are coming. If there comes a day when Columbia is free we will be together, i promise. --------------------------------------- Diary entry information gathered from Bushnell, David. "Bolívar, Simón (1783–1830)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 604-609. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 22 Nov. 2010 "Colombian Civil War." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. | August, 1819 Dear Diary, The way i see it is. There are only a few possible outcomes- win, lose, or die trying. It has been almost 4 years since i have last written. I am worried there is no way for me to even know if my family is alive. I want nothing more then to know that they are safe. I have sent word of my safety hoping for a reply of their conditions immediately. However, I must say, things have taken a turn. Remember when i wrote years ago talking of a time when Columbia would be free. A time when my family and i had hope of once being together again? Its happening. That time is now. Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander have been successfully leading this rebellion and fighting the
45: royalists. Bolívar just returned to New Granada after establishing himself as leader of the pro-independence forces in the Venezuelan llanos. From there he lead an army over the Andes and captured New Granada after the Battle of Boyacá, on August 7, 1819. We have finally gained independence from the Spanish Monarchy. Brigadier Generals Francisco de Paula Santander and José Antonio Anzoátegui led a republican army of Colombians and Venezuelans, to defeat the Royalist Colombian-Venezuelan forces led by Spanish Colonels José María Barreiro and Francisco Jiménez. We have won. Simon Bolivar will forever by my hero, our hero. As he said, “Let us give to our republic a fourth power with authority over the youth, the hearts of | men, public spirit, habits, and republican morality. Let us establish this Areopagus to watch over the education of the children, to supervise national education, to purify whatever may be corrupt in the republic, to denounce ingratitude, coldness in the country's service, egotism, sloth, idleness, and to pass judgment upon the first signs of corruption and pernicious example” I know now that Columbia has hope. It saddens me to admit that i have not heard from master in 4 years. I know he would have loved to see what he helped achieve. The Gran Columbia is now our republic. This means little for me and my rights. I still cannot vote, i still am an enslaved servant. This will be the last entry i ever write because i have realized i have to take a
46: July, 1810 Dear Diary, I have been missing my family very much these days. It’s a lonely life here. Master has been in an out of the house lately leaving me to tend not only to the fields and the crops but to the house. I have been working for Master ever since i can remember. I can’t seem to | imagine my life any differently.Yet, things are changing. I can feel it. I am starting to see that there might come a time when i will no longer be with Master. That time has not yet come. For now, i work very hard so i can send money home to my family. I know i am needed, and I thank Master for giving me shelter and giving me work. However, lately things have been different. Master hasn’t been home for supper quite as often as he normally is. He often leaves his dinner on the dining room table untouched all night. I wonder where he has been going, he disappears quite often i n the night. I worry. I am afraid that Columbia is taking a turn for the worse. Sometimes i wonder why i don’t have more options like Master. But then i remember.
47: Dear Diary, This may be the last time I'll be writing to you before my time is put to rest because as it appears, my time is due. I'm very ill and my life dreams were not accomplished. The cause of everything was the revolution smashed. All of the revolutionary leaders were arrested, other than me. I snuck away and escaped from possibly one of the scariest moment of my life. I then tried to work my way back home. I went to Curaao and eventually to Haiti, where Toussaint L'Ouverture offered asylum. I eventually returned to Venezuela where i thought i could fix everything up with the remaining confidence i had left in me, little did i know at that time that it would all be shattered in a short amount of time. I always wanted Venezuela, my original home, to join powers with us, Colombia, and the New Granada, and it sure happened. It was a very emotional but happy situation for me because it showed to me what a far way I've come. Right when i thought i was on the top of the world, i went into trouble after Ecuador and Peru conjoined with us as well. People didn't like my Constitution and it drove my troops out and cause everyone to rebel against me. Venezuela split out of my federation and now I'm laying down in possibly my last minutes of life. Talk about leaving life on a bad note. Hopefully people will later acknowledge the independence i helped them receive and give me a better title than what i have now. From, Simon Bolivar
50: stand. I send my love to my family they are forever with me in my prayers. I won’t stop till we reunite, or until i die. Which ever comes first.] --------------------------------------- Diary entry information gathered from "Simon Bolivar (Latin American Leader) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
52: August, 1819 Dear Diary, The way i see it is. There are only a few possible outcomes- win, lose, or die trying. It has been almost 4 years since i have last written. I am worried there is no way for me to even know if my family is alive. I want nothing more then to know that they are | safe. I have sent word of my safety hoping for a reply of their conditions immediately. However, I must say, things have taken a turn. Remember when i wrote years ago talking of a time when Columbia would be free. A time when my family and i had hope of once being together again? Its happening. That time is now. Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander have been successfully leading this rebellion and fighting the royalists. Bolívar just returned to New Granada after establishing himself as leader of the pro-independence forces in the Venezuelan llanos. From there he lead an army over the Andes and captured New Granada after the Battle of Boyacá, on August 7, 1819. We have finally gained i
53: ndependence from the Spanish Monarchy. Brigadier Generals Francisco de Paula Santander and José Antonio Anzoátegui led a republican army of Colombians and Venezuelans, to defeat the Royalist Colombian-Venezuelan forces led by Spanish Colonels José María Barreiro and Francisco Jiménez. We have won. Simon Bolivar will forever by my hero, our hero. As he said, “Let us give to our republic a fourth power with authority over the youth, the hearts of men, public spirit, habits, and republican morality. Let us establish this Areopagus to watch over the education of the children, to supervise national education, to purify whatever may be corrupt in the republic, to denounce ingratitude, coldness in the country's service, egotism, | sloth, idleness, and to pass judgment upon the first signs of corruption and pernicious example” I know now that Columbia has hope. It saddens me to admit that i have not heard from master in 4 years. I know he would have loved to see what he helped achieve. The Gran Columbia is now our republic. This means little for me and my rights. I still cannot vote, i still am an enslaved servant. This will be the last entry i ever write because i have realized i have to take a stand. I send my love to my family they are forever with me in my prayers. I won’t stop till we reunite, or until i die. Which ever comes first.
54: Dear Diary, July 28, 1819 Staring out the window, one could only question what our world has come to. The lust for power has become so prevalent that the hope for peace is merely a figure in the distance. Not only have the lives of many people been taken as families are separated, but beyond that, the virtues and set privileges of mankind have been tampered with. Being created by the Almighty, he granted us all freedom. And by any means, that freedom given to us should not be taken away. What kind of gift would that be if we were not able to use it to our full potentials? But even more prevailing than the lust for power and war is actually the potency that the people hold when we work together. When working as a community we can accomplish so much. One person alone could make a difference; but a gathering could create a revolution. Here in the capital, Bogota, of our beloved country, Colombia, we have been given the chance to change our lives; the chance to fight for our freedom. After the overthrow of Spain’s King Ferdinand VII we knew that there could not have been a better time to declare our independence. It was through France’s invasion of Spain in 1808 that our hopes were instantly restored. And years have passed as now it is the month of July in the year 1819. Their rule was consistent in making our lives miserable. But the hope we had was what kept us all going on. From them taking our culture and religion away through their unlawful censoring, we had no freedom to express who we are and live the life we can actually live. My husband and son are off planning a possible rebellion with the other men while I wait at home until they arrive to tell me if there is any news. With my family serving in the army, I want to contribute as well. And some of the neighborly women and I have gathered to sew clothes for the men at my house. In order to fight this war, the men will need clothes and weapons, yet sitting here and doing the expected duties of a woman is quite boring.
55: I know I can do a lot for this country if I were not staying in my house, cleaning, organizing, cooking, or sewing. The thought of being a female rebel intrigues my mind. If only I could I would be privileged with the honor to fight alongside the other men on the battlefield for our people, and our country's liberation. However, as a woman, that is not my place. After waiting for what seemed like forever, my husband and son finally arrived home. Their news of the plan to come was quite surprising to me. As much as we hope that this would finally declare our independence, the thought of my husband and my son being captured or even killed is unbearable. They stated that with Simon Bolivar in charge, they were to head into a battle in the following month. Even though that is a month away, time flies. Time flies, and before I know it, they will be walking out the wooden door off to meet the other soldiers at Bogota to prepare to rebel. And I just pray to El Dios, that he will protect my husband, my son and all the other men as General Bolivar will lead us to our victory! Yours Truly, Carolina Rodriguez | http://online.culturegrams.com/gallery/albumindex.php?useraid=99&index=7&refername=Photo Gallery&referid= | Citation: "Colombia." CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2010. Web. 22 Nov 2010.
56: August 7, 1819 Dear Diary, Even with the fresh dawn breeze welcoming me to a new day, I wanted to go back to sleep and never wake up. But that was only because today was the day; the day that would be written in history books as August 7, 1819; the day where my husband and son were to head off with the other soldiers to finally win a battle. Even though there were previous battles, we were never quite the winners. Although somehow today, I feel that God is on our side and that he'll protect us all and favor us to win. Watching them leave the house is truly devastating. Even though I’m proud to call myself a wife and a mother to two brave soldiers, the possible thought of them never re-entering that wooden door again pains me. I hug them not wanting to let go, but they have to leave. They have to leave to serve our country. And they assure me everything will be successful and they'll be home tonight for a delicious dinner. And I can only hope that they're sure about that. It wasn't until that afternoon that I heard of the action. News truly does travel fast in this town. I heard from our kind neighbor, Mr. Gonzalez as he told me that Bolivar on one side was able to secure a narrow victory at the Vargas Swamp battle the day before. And after that they headed to Bogota where the armies continued with the battle. He told me that the Spanish army was ordered to follow and engage in a small observation force, where General Santander ordered an attack on the Republican forces. He spoke so fast, and it was all truly uprising and exciting as I didn't hear of any major attacks yet. Catching the next part, Mr. Gonzalez told me how General Bolivar's forces soon arrived from the other battle where he ordered a flank attack on the Spanish rearguard. This was where my husband and son probably joined them! Mr. Gonzalez continued to tell me what he had heard. And the part that caught me was when he stated that the enemy army were outnumbered! My spirit was instantly lifted as I was pretty sure now that not only would we win but my family would return home safe and sound. The battle continued of course, but as the sun began to set, I hurried back inside to keep my promise by making them a delicious dinner of all sorts.
57: I was waiting for a while; again. For what seemed like forever. Never in life have I ever felt so desperate to see the two men of my life walk through that wooden door. There was that awful snake that slithered around my stomach. And I was not sure if her was doing that out of excitement or anxiety. And so keep my mind off; I went over to Mr. Gonzalez's house to offer him so bread and to see if he had heard anymore news around the war. And not to my surprise, he had all the details. As in men he said that it was 3430 again 2940 showing the clear outnumbering of the enemies. Next he told me the losses. He clearly said that so far, they have counted 13 dead and 53 injured. Thirteen dead? What if one of the thirteen was my husband or my son? Mr. Gonzalez instantly saw the tears begin to swell up in my eyes and so he told me the good news that we won! But the tears kept flowing out. And so I returned home to continue waiting for them. Sincerely, Carolina Rodriguez | http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?493390-Dios-Patria-Rey-A-Carlist-Spain-AAR | Citations: "Battle of Boyacá." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 17 Nov. 2010
58: August 8, 1819 Dear Diary, They're home! The men have returned in victory as many of the lights turn on and doors swing open as families go out to congratulate the brave fighters. Hearing all the noise, I swung the door open and ran outside to look for my family. My heart was beating terribly fast as I wanted to see their faces well and smiling. I could imagine it. Them running towards me as we hug like a happy family before returning home to the supper awaiting them. And so I look left and right, north and south, but out of all smiling faces, I could not see theirs. I kept on asking around saying, “Sorry, but have you seen my husband Andres or my son Carlos Rodriguez anywhere?” Everyone was too excited to even answer to me, or to even pay attention to me. I was like that one outcast. The outcast that could bring the mood down just by my tears. And so everyone ignored me not wanting my sadness to disturb their happiness. Was that it? Does that mean they were two of the thirteen? Not wanting to disrupt the festivity, I returned home to cry in my empty house; in my empty room. But reaching the wooden door, a hand firmly reaches for my shoulder and pulls me into a tight squeeze. It was Carlos! I looked into his dazzling hazel eyes as my heart lifted with joy in seeing him. He told me that they had won and that our independence has finally been won from the Spaniards. Their control over our land and our lives has finally ended. I was too overjoyed in seeing Carlos safe and home then to think about anything else. However, something was not right; something was missing. I stopped him in mid-sentence about his experience to ask him where his father was. He glanced at me as his eyes began to squint. “I thought padre had already returned home!” He had not come home yet. So what could this possibly mean? Together, Carlos and I went around the crowd looking for that familiar face. But he was nowhere to be seen. And then I felt a tap on my shoulder. Tears of joy instantly flowed out of my eyes as I turned ready to hug my husband.
59: But it was not him. It was one of the high officers. And standing there in the middle of the crowded street, holding onto my son's hand, he told us the news. The news that Andres Rodriguez was killed. I was devastated as I fell to the ground bursting out into tears. Carlos sat and wept with me too. The worst had truly happened as the love of my life was killed on the battlefield. I know that I will never be over this. For goodness sakes’ I will most likely cry everyday. But it does not all come down to this. I have to say that I am proud. I am proud to be the wife of a brave soldier whose soul was taken on the battlefield. The wife of a brave soldier that fought with so much dignity for his country. And in the end, this is what a revolution comes down too. Of course no revolution will end in peace and flowers. Life and the blood of men will have to be shed; that is the price we must pay. Con Amor, Carolina Rodriguez | http://everydaysaholiday.org/battle-of-boyaca-colombia/ | Citation:"Boyacá, Battle of." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. Ed. Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 675-676. Gale World History In Context. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
60: Citation:http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.myartprints.co.uk/kunst/anonymous/simon.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.myartprints.co.uk/a/anonymous/simon-bolivar-1783-1830-c.html&usg=__wf_kOnkirYdMCtkyg5XAxijSk8Q=&h=550&w=435&sz=60&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=9w0_RfdfTHVyYM:&tbnh=136&tbnw=96&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsimon%2Bbolivar%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D576%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=117&vpy=217&dur=1449&hovh=252&hovw=200&tx=95&ty=119&ei=OA_sTMPbHI6SOvPryWk&oei=Og3sTIudLpDSsAOEw9XxDg&esq=29&page=1&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0 February 10th, 1809 Dear diary, I feel like I have accomplished something recently. I was introduced to Francisco De Miranda's and learned about his roles and successes he’s had previously, which made me instantly intrigued into what he was doing. The culture, the history, the “rights of man”, all of these made me want participate in being a leader similar to this. Soon after I noted to myself I wanted to do something like what Miranda did, I decided to start it off by joining the Lodge Lautro in Cadiz (1803). | I then started using my knowledge to my benefit. I realized how fortunate I was for being able to receive the education my grandfather set up for me after he took me from an orphanage around age 15, and that's one of the qualities I believe people like about me, I'm smart. A couple of years later of my increasing success to figuring out our position with the Spanish, I decided that it was time to take charge. “Equality”, “liberty”, and “rights of man” was what we all seek when we fought the Spanish. We went to our first fight in Bogota and we were all pretty nervous, especially me as an individual considering I was a leader here. I was consistently telling people what to do, and reminding them of what Spain has done to us. After a brutal fight, the day we found out we defeated them was probably one of the best days in my life. This first step in my success was a changing point in my life, I could just tell. From, Simon Bolivar Citation:Vila,Manual."SimonBolivar"embavenez-us. Manual Vila. Nov. 21, 2010.
61: Citation:http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.vheadline.com/graf/Bolivar_Simon_01.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.vheadline.com/readnews.asp%3Fid%3D80624&usg=__wZF-VTjmskteAeJ-xnBKBQthi9Y=&h=633&w=475&sz=15&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=2NZ9thiGa5vXfM:&tbnh=127&tbnw=95&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsimon%2Bbolivar%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D576%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C228&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=401&vpy=131&dur=3661&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=99&ty=151&ei=OA_sTMPbHI6SOvPryWk&oei=Og3sTIudLpDSsAOEw9XxDg&esq=29&page=1&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:0&biw=1024&bih=576 October 26th, 1820. Dear diary, After my won battle in Bogota against Spain, it gave me enough confidence to try to add on more to my success. Even though I was recently elected to be president of Colombia, I wanted to get more powerful and more successful. I felt as if I needed to do more for my country, and to put us in a better spot. I met up with my old tutor my grandfather set me up with, his name was Simon Rodriguez. | We hiked up a hill on a normal afternoon when I told him something that I noticed afterwards how much I want us to succeed against Spain. I said, "I swear before you, I swear by the God of my fathers, by my forefathers themselves, by my honor and my country, that I shall never allow my hands to be idle or my soul to rest until I have broken the shackles which bind us to Spain." We were desperate for help, and I tried very hard to get people to join with us. I first went to a group called the Patriotic Society crying for help but I didn't get any. After that I tried the British and still was unable to receive help. I then went to a last resort, the person who had once inspired me, Francisco De Miranda. He claimed that he was too old, and couldn't go back to fight Spain because he accepted the terms they gave him. This got me very mad, so my quick and naive decision was to arrest him. This is when everything got horrible for us, and the blame is on me. From, Simon Bolivar Citation: Gelletly,Leeanne.Columbia. Stockton, NJ: Mason Crest, June 6th, 2009.
62: Citation: http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.minci.gob.ve/img/el_libertador_simon_bolivar.jpg&imgrefurl=http://connect.in.com/simon-bolivar-el-libertador/photos-1-1-1-894eb6c32adb6103fce1609d734041e2.html&usg=__1e9KtUC4bxJalNCoO6Jvby6O96k=&h=426&w=640&sz=155&hl=en&start=22&zoom=1&tbnid=AN16aFILuXaQyM:&tbnh=118&tbnw=177&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsimon%2Bbolivar%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D576%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C228&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=409&ei=oRfsTI3OG4btOcfGpa0B&oei=Og3sTIudLpDSsAOEw9XxDg&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:22&tx=78&ty=42&biw=1024&bih=576
63: December 16th, 1830. Dear Diary, This may be the last time I'll be writing to you before my time is put to rest because as it appears, my time is due. I'm very ill and my life dreams were not accomplished. The cause of everything was the revolution smashed. All of the revolutionary leaders were arrested, other than me. I snuck away and escaped from possibly one of the scariest moment of my life. I then tried to work my way back home. I went to Curaao and eventually to Haiti, where Toussaint L'Ouverture offered asylum. I eventually returned to Venezuela where I thought I could fix everything up with the remaining confidence i had left in me, little did I know at that time that it would all be shattered in a short amount of time. I always wanted Venezuela, my original home, to join powers with us, Colombia, and the New Granada, and it sure happened. It was a very emotional but happy situation for me because it showed to me what a far way I've come. Right when I thought I was on the top of the world, I went into trouble after Ecuador and Peru conjoined with us as well. People didn't like my Constitution and it drove my troops out and causes everyone to rebel against me. Venezuela split out of my federation and now I'm lying down in possibly my last minutes of life. Talk about leaving life on a bad note. Hopefully people will later acknowledge the independence I helped them receive and give me a better title than what I have now. From, Simon Bolivar Citation: Newsday Historical Digest. "Simon Bolivar" The South American Liberator. Newsday Historical Digest. June 24th, 2001.
64: February 15 1819 Dear Diary, I left James today. I knew I had to after listening to all the military officers at our parties. They always spoke of all the revolutions going on nearby, and I couldn't help but feel that I wanted to be a part of that, I wanted to join the fight for independence. I knew I could not shy away from the revolutionary fire inside of me, and so I left to join others in the plan to liberate Lima and Peru. Yes, this is all very sudden, but I really have thought this through. My parents will be furious when they see me, but I am home again in Quito, at last. I have only been here mere hours, but I am already so involved in the revolution. There are people everywhere preaching about how we must fight for our independence. This incredible man, Simon Bolivar, gave a speech at the Congress of Angostura, which I heard of through word of mouth. Everyone is talking about it, the city is buzzing with the power he has given us through the speech. A stranger repeated a line to me, which said, “We are not Europeans; we are not Indians; we are but a mixed species of aborigines and Spaniards.” I was completely mesmerized by his words. His stance is so strong, and he puts so much emotion into what he is saying. If I wasn’t already a believer, after listening to that speech there is no doubt in my mind that I am now, especially after meeting him.
65: I was just walking through the square after he had given his speech at the congress, and I saw a huge herd of people. It was Simon Bolivar and his supporters. I instinctively joined the crowd and followed after him. He immediately noticed me, the newcomer, and stopped the group and came over and said, “Are you joining us?” And I, a bit star struck and taken aback said, “Well. I guess. Yes.” He quickly retorted, “Are you sure that you are not a spy?” I reassured him I wasn’t. He then said, “If you join us you have to be able to dedicate yourself fully, and even risk your life at times, are you up for it?” I whispered, “Yes.” And Simon being difficult asked. “Are you positive?” And I spoke back confidently, “There is no doubt in my mind.” He smiled, and the seriousness was gone. “Well then, I am Simon Bolivar. And what is your name?” I smiled back, relieved that I was being accepted. “Manuela.” I feel horrible saying this, but I can’t help but have feelings for Simon. And I know that is awful considering I just left James today, but Simon is so amazing, and he believes in the same things I do. James never listened to me, he barely ever paid attention to me, and I doubt he has even realized that I am gone. I guess that the right thing to do would be to wait; Simon is 15 years older than me after all. But regardless, today has been so exhilarating! ~Manuela Saenz Citation: Garcés, Elena 1. Colombian women : the struggle out of silence. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2008. Print. Simón Bolívar, An Address of Bolivar at the Congress of Angostura (February 15, 1819), Reprint Ed., (Washington, D.C.: Press of B. S. Adams, 1919), passim.
66: May 26 1822 Dear Diary, Simon and I are madly in love. I don’t care if he is 15 years older than me, and that he is married, I want to be with him. Regrettably we don’t see each other nearly enough, but it is worth it, for when we are together it is so much more. He lets me go to all of these campaigns with him, which is quite thrilling. I am a part of making this revolution happen, and I feel like I’m really contributing, when he lets me come along. Sometimes he doesn’t let me go to campaigns with him, and I always miss him greatly, but we usually write letters back and forth. On a whole other note, two days ago we battled with the Spanish forces at the Pichincha volcano, only short miles from Quito. The repulsive Spanish were led by Melchor Aymerich, while General Antonio Jose de Sucre was our noble leader. It all started 3 days ago when Sucre told us to obtain the high ground on the volcano. Then Aymerich came out with his troops. In the morning the battle began, and because of the fact that our forces spread out, we overtook them and they were forced to retreat.
67: I was able to fight alongside the men, and I also distributed medicine and food. Which I unfortunately had to spend my own money on. But all is well, for it went towards the revolution. And even better for we miraculously won the battle, the Spanish having surrendered yesterday. I was given an unexpected surprise when I was announced as the new lieutenant! I am so ecstatic. All my devotion and hard work has finally paid off, and I am being recognized. Just the fact that I am a woman makes this title so much more rewarding for me to receive. Well it has been quite the exhausting past couple of days, and I must be getting my rest. I have a good feeling about how this revolution will turn out, and Colombia will be a free nation at last. ~Manuela Saenz Citation: Evelyn Cherpak: The Participation of Women in the Indpendence Movement in Gran Colombia, 1780-1830
68: August 11 1828 Dear Diary, It is frightening to think that one day Simon will be gone for good. There have been multiple assassination attempts on him. About 10 days ago I heard news that there were people plotting to assassinate Simon at a party, on the anniversary of his triumphant arrival in Bogota. I had written him many times pleading for him not to go to the party, but Simon being stuck up, assumed that my motives were just jealousy. For I had not been invited to this grand event. So stubborn Simon ignored me completely. Being worried sick, I arrived last night at the party around 11 o'clock, all dressed up in my military uniform. Ridiculously, the guard tried to turn me away at the door, claiming that apparently I had to be dressed in a fancy feminine fashion to be allowed in. Which I knew was completely inaccurate, and I was quite suspicious of this man. So since I am unbelievably stubborn, I returned a second time, no longer in my military uniform. I got all dressed up as a mad old woman, wearing dirty clothes. I then shouted loudly outside the door, "Que viva el Libertador!"
69: You could say Simon was a bit embarrassed. And he therefore got up and left, in order to prevent me from doing anything else embarrassing. Fortunately, he had already gone by the time the assassins showed up to end his life. Now what would he do without me? And I was correct in being suspicious of the guard, because it turns out he was one of the conspirators, and that is exactly why he wouldn't let me in, he knew I would protect Simon. Well he was right about that. If only my beloved Simon were smart enough to see that I am only trying to help and that I have good instincts and know when something is merely a threat, or if there is an actual plot against him. He should learn to listen to me more often. ~Manuela Saenz Citation: "Manuela Sáenz." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 09 Nov. 2010
70: November 18, 1812 Dear family, I am sorry it has been a long time since I wrote to you, but I am doing well here in New Granada. After the ship landed, I was sold to work as a slave for a government official. Imagine that, a man taken from his own country and home, separated from his family, and sent to New Granada to be sold as a slave. I am extremely furious that I’ve become a victim to the slave trade between African and New Granada, but I hope that one day, we will be reunited again. I am very thankful that we can exchange letters and I hope this will make its way to you. Anyways, the work here is hard and the days are grueling, but I am treated quite nicely. But although I am treated well, I am deprived from a lot of rights sine I am a slave. For example, I can not become a citizen or vote. I have no government representation either. Because of this, I feel lost and confused about my stance on this battle for independence. | Lately, New Granada has been involved in a revolution, seeking to gain independence from Spain. You see, problems in the Spanish Empire have caused political and economic disempowerment. Spain had the first right to colonial goods and resources. While excluding all competitors, economic policy was set for Spain’s maximum benefit.
71: Therefore, Latin American nations felt the need to revolt against tyranny since the government was unsuccessful in protecting the people’s natural rights. People were also outraged because they were defied status, wealth, and power, as merchants fretted under mercantilist policies that tied the colonies to Spain. A brave military leader, Simon Bolivar, sought to liberate northern South America from Spain. It’s been a long struggle for Independence, but in 1811, three years ago, New Granada declared itself independent from Spain, but not too long after that, rebel forces in Venezuela agreed to recognize Spanish authority in exchange for recognition of property and personal rights. A year later, Bolivar came to New Granada and declared a revolt against Spain and the rebel forces loyal to Spain. This caused a war against Spain and New Granada, between Spanish loyalists and those who desired independence. | Since I am disenfranchised, I feel like I have to pick a side because the revolution is forcing me to. I am very confused who I should support. The other slaves and servants, who are in the same position I am in, feel the same way. In fact, here in New Granada, a great number of the population consists of slaves and servants, so riots break out quite frequently.
72: We feel like we are being ignored and pushed aside by the government. So far, I haven’t gotten involved in the riots. I am scared and feel lost. I mean, I don’t even know which side should support! I deserve to know what is going on in this country. Well, I have to go now, but I will keep you posted about my situation and the revolution at hand. I hope to see you soon! Tell the children that I love them and miss them dearly! With love, Kayin Omari ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Diary entries inspired by: "Revolutions in Latin America." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.
73: June 30, 1813 Dear Diary, Something miraculous has happened! The people of New Granada are filled with hope and excitement. A couple of weeks ago, I had to look over my master’s house while he traveled to Trujillo, Venezuela to hear Simon Bolivar speak. There, Bolivar delivered his proclamation Guerra a Muerte (Decree of War to Death), stating that all royalists who refused to change sides would be killed. Word gets around pretty fast, and within a few days of the speech, the people of New Granada have been talking about Bolivar’s promises. I’ve heard my master talk about the speech quite frequently. Sometimes, when I am cleaning the house, I listen to my master as he describes his once in a lifetime experience. My master admires Bolivar. He thinks that Bolivar has the potential to liberate New Granada from Spain. Quotes from Bolivar’s speech are even posted in the newspaper. When my master read me the news, I enjoy hearing Bolivar’s quotes. My favorite is, “May the monsters that infest Colombian soil and have covered it with blood, disappear for good, may their punishment be equal to the magnitude of their treason so that the stain of our ignominy is washed off, and to show the nations or the universe that the sons of America can not be offended without punishment.” You know, it’s funny, a couple of months ago, I didn’t know what side I was on. But now, I want New Granada to break free from Spain. Maybe, if it does, slavery will be abolished and I will be a free man! I’m so tired of all the fighting, and the people of New Granada are being hurt and live each day in fear. If we let Spain take control of New Granada, who knows how they will treat us? Spain’s loyalist forces are nothing but horrible to us. I truly believe that Bolivar will help New Granada gain independence from Spain.
74: On the other hand, although some people are excited by Bolivar’s promises, and appreciate the protection he has placed upon us, others aren’t too happy. For example, the Spanish royalists are furious with Bolivar. Very few want to change side, but they know they will be killed if they don’t. I desperately hope that Bolivar will help rid New Granada of these royalists, for they fill our days with violence and terror, storming though our towns and capturing the people. For now, all I can do is hope that Bolivar fulfills his promise to liberate New Granada from Spain. I promise to write back as soon as possible. Fondly, Kayin Omari -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diary entries inspired by: "Gran Colombia: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2010.
75: July 10, 1821 Dear Diary, So much has happened since I’ve last written in this journal. I’ve been living in New Granada for ten years now, and it has been a terrible place, full of violence and fighting. Bolivar’s declaration, Guerra a Muerte failed to end the fights. Six years ago, Spain regained control of New Granada. Although it seemed like a shameful loss for New Granada, Bolivar kept the fight for independence going. Three years ago, on August 7, 1819, Bolivar defeated the Spanish royalists at the Battle of Boyacá here in New Granada. This was a huge turning point in this revolution because this battle ended Spanish control over Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, and started the creation of Bolivia. New Granada is now free from Spain and is now its own country called Colombia. That same year, Simon Bolivar made a speech proclaiming a government for Colombia to the Congress of Angostura in Venezuela. He urged delegates at the conference to create a republican government based on representative democracy. This speech was a big deal because New Granada’s government was being restored after the revolution. The speech was a big part of the revival of New Granada and the start of this new country Colombia. In his speech, Bolivar stated, “No matter what citizen occupies this office, he will be aided by the Constitution, and therin being authorized to do good, he can not do harm, because his ministers will cooperate with him only insofar as he abides by law. If he attempts to infringe upon the law, his own ministers will desert him, thereby isolating him from the Republic, and they will even bring charges against him in the senate.” I am excited that this new government will protect the people’s rights, unlike Spain did years ago.
76: The people of Colombia are hopeful that the future will bring new opportunities for the country’s future and a better life for them. I can’t express how happy I am. The revolution is over and New Granada is finally at peace! The future looks bright, and I hope that this new government will give me some new rights. I hope to break free from the slavery that holds me back in life as I can become a free man in Colombia. If slavery is abolished, maybe my family can come over and we could start a new life here in Colombia together. Well, now the only thing to do is wait for the opportunities the future will bring. Goodbye for Now, Kayin Omari ------------------------------------------------------- Diaryentries inspired by: "Revolutions in Latin America." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2010. " Simón Bolívar: Speech proposing a government for Gran Colombia (1819)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 13 Nov. 2010.
78: September 5,1800 Greetings from the Viceroyalty of New Granada! I miss my family dearly, and only wish I could contact them. However, technology isn’t as advanced as we would like it to be so it’s difficult to communicate. If I could tell my parents anything it would be about how remarkable this experience is for me. I’ve made a few close friends, but it’s hard to trust people when you’re involved in the political world. | Right now we’re in the Revolution, and times are getting tougher as the days move on.I`ve been here working in action on and off for the past 22 years. Currently, I`m located in Colombia, but our neighboring countries associated with the Viceroyalty are Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela which has its capital at Santa Fe. The other Viceroyalty, which is the Viceroyalty of Peru, is also very successful in increasing their population and expanding the importance of business trading regions. We’re in a time period of prosperity,intelligence, and cultural diffusion where advancements are constantly being made, however with the distractions of slow economy and unhappy people it is difficult to keep everyone sane. I’ve been working alongside a man named Antonio Ignacio de la Pedrosa y Guerrero. He is a brilliant man who has been sent to explore and rebuild the region’s administration, economy, defense systems, and assemble the territory to face the government. I’ve learned so much about the Viceroyalty since I’ve been here.
79: Although it has been properly put together, it`s not going to remain valuable for very long, however I can only hope that if the viceroyalty does fall and is reestablished, it will make a significant affect on Colombia’s colonial history. I have also heard a lot about another man by the name of Jorge de Villalonga. He was the first viceroy of the New Granada. And so people have said that it has been proved he was unable to protect the Spaniards against aggressive competition from foreign people acting upon Colombia illegally. In result, this has been the biggest down fall for us in the viceregal government. It shows a lack of strength and we need to step up our game if we’re going to portray ourselves as a strong and powerful government.. Lastly, rumor has it, Napoleon Bonaparte is out to take over Spain. He is said to be intelligent and hardworking, once he has a plan it becomes a mission and he’s out to accomplish it. | I am fearful of him and his troops marching into Spain, and concerned for the future. But I am eager to see what will happen next and am preparing myself for what could potentially be the start of a new beginning. Sincerely, Roberto ---------------------------------------------------- Diary Entry based on information gathered from: "Napoleon I." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 13 Nov. 2010
80: Today, we received news that, “A body of French troops (reported at 5000) had been dispatched from Madrid to take possession of the city of Valencia. They had been once attacked, succeeded in discomfiting the Spaniards, and continued their march. They had arrived within about 20 leagues of Valencia; but there was no despondency on that account and about 30,000 regulars and volunteers had marched to give them battle, zealous in their country's cause, and confident of success." This proves to me that as a government official I need to take control and prepare my army for a bigger battle because the French are expanding and will not fail in moving forward. Napoleon alongside his advisers has turned Spain upside down and into an unfriendly mess. At this time we also have Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s son fighting against us. However, we Spaniards will not accept the king of Naples as our new king. Although Napoleon was expected to bring out peace, an end to chaos, and consolidate political and social conquests of the Revolution, he has only made my job as a government official ten times harder. The creoles have become discontent and are extremely determined to gain independence. | August 31, 1808 Sad to say we aren’t very successful at this point in the Revolution. Napoleon and his troops have come into Spain and are foreseeing the opportunity to become a New Republic. After the brutal defeat of an uprising in Madrid, revolts have spread immensely throughout Spain.
81: Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, Anthony Esler, and Burton F. Beers. Prentice Hall World History: Connections to Today. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003. 527,531. Print. "independence of Spanish America." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010.
82: December 1, 1819 I miss my family more and more every day, and don’t know what to do with myself. I am mentally drained. I`m sure my family has heard bits and pieces of what has been happening, but it’s still not the same, I want to be able to just relax and express my feelings freely. However, who knows, if I open my mouth around here, I could possibly arouse another group of rebels. My time here is of great importance and I need to make the most of it, yet Spain is almost fully taken under control by Napoleon. Due to multiple revolts, I’ve seen more blood in a single area than I’ve ever seen in my entire life. I`m utterly distraught over the amount of violence this Revolution has brought to Spain. I am sincerely hoping that once this is over, I will never have to experience such a chaotic and unruly government. Eventually, I`ll be reconnected with my family and at least I will feel peace and order within my own home. Through rebellions, we have lost focus on importing and exporting goods. The economy is decreasing, and the country of Spain is losing its cultural value. I have a feeling we’re going to suffer from weak foreign demand, and government budgets are going to be too harsh to handle. Enough revolts have broken out, that it`ll take years for society and the people of our country to make peace and become a united region. Today, unfortunately a rebellion succeeded and the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada became the Republic of Greater Colombia. I am positive that by the end of this I will be unemployed, and that is when it`ll be my time to return my family. It will be the signal for me that I have done my best, but is time to leave the government. Spain will have become an absolute republic and my job will no longer be necessary.
83: At first Colombia had hope, and the Viceroyalty was there to help, but now we come across a time period of change. Revolutionary leaders are far too along in their process, and keep succeeding further into Spain which is moving quickly towards Colombia. I wish all the best for the future! Farewell for now! Roberto ------------------------------------------------------ Diary Entry based on information gathered from: "Colombia." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 27 Oct. 2010
84: January 5, 1815 Dear Diary, My recent years in the New World have been plagued with the increased upset of the citizens of Gran Columbia. Their accusations of social discrimination are ludicrous; colonists of my country are of pure Spanish blood and deserve to be treated as such. These revolutionary believers must be insane to think their government will be successful without the control of Spain; it will be impossible to conserve stability with a New Republic. They think it will help the economy! It will be crippled when they fail to establish imports from other countries. Gran Columbia has already failed in its attempts to liberate from Spanish control in 1811. I expect that their motivation for the revolution is fueled by the sickening Napoleon I’s invasion of my homeland. The people of Venezuela came to their senses and agreed to recognize Spanish authority, only if granted recognition of personal and property rights, of course. Countries seem to becoming increasingly selfish and expectant of improved treatment from Spain, as if we have not improved their lives enough! In a sense I worry for the countries that yearn for Independence because they will fail to stand alone. Venezuela has emerged once again, with attempts at a republic.
85: Tonight I am camped in Venezuela. Alongside my friend General Pablo Morillo and a small Royalist army, I am fighting to crush the remaining resistance in Venezuela and soon we will move forward to attack similar forces in New Granada. Although my experiences in this fighting are brutal I like to believe that I am doing it for the better of my country as well as the citizens of the New World. Until Next Time, Alejandro Sanchez | _____________________________________________________________________________ - Simons, Geoff. Colombia: a Brutal History. London: Saqi, 2004. Print. - "Colombia." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. - Picture:
86: October 4, 1815 Dear Diary, The people of New Granada are ardently fighting for their independence. This has gone on far too long. Under the spell of Simon Bolivar, reaching out to try and make the people understand is utterly impossible. So far we have been successful in our efforts to suppress revolution. We even led Simon Bolivar to flee New Grenada earlier in May. Just recently he has written a letter to the governor of Jamaica outlining his views on how a country should operate and expressing his opinions of Spain. Upon news of what was included in the letter, fellow officials and I expressed our deep disdain of Bolivar’s claims. He was said to have included something along the lines of, “we are threatened with the fear of death, dishonor, and every harm; there is nothing we have not suffered at the hands of that unnatural stepmother-Spain.” How does he dare say such things? Spain is the reason for these nation’s existence and without its guidance and generosity, they would accomplish absolutely nothing. Bolivar is suggesting that Spain is mismanaging her colonies and therefore is weakening her ties to the America. He insinuates that people are enslaved by the power of the government and are suppressed by absolutism. I fear that if these nations continue to bite the hand that feeds, they will die of starvation. However much I disagree with
87: this revolution, I cannot deny that it could possibly be very near for new Grenada, no matter how disastrous that will be. Bolivar has already regained control of new Granada in December and has succeeded in expelling our army. I worry that our efforts of suppression will fail.. We shall see what follows, Alejandro Sanchez | __________________________________________________________ - "Simón Bolívar." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. - “Jamica Letter.” Translated by Lewis Bertrand in Selected Writings of Bolivar, (New York: The colonial Press Inc.,1951) - Picture:
88: August 17, 1819 Dear Diary, I stand alone in the now desolate Casa de Teja in the Andres Mountains. The early morning fog has ensnared the countless pile of bodies that lie scattered, lifeless. I hear groans of agony as I experience my own, I have been shot in the stomach and I know I will die within the next couple hours. Before I pass I will retell what has occurred here. Today was a battle between those who desired independence and Spanish royalists. The fighting went on feverishly, first beginning in the Vargas Swamp, where the bastard Bolivar secured a narrow victory. It sickens me that this man will walk away triumphant today while I die, fighting for Spain’s true morality. After that first battle we headed here, to Casa de Teja to fight the Battle of Boyaca. Bolivar succeeded once again to prove victorious over our army. At least 1600 troops were captured in addition to several Spanish commanders. I am grateful that I can pass with my pride, but I fear Spain as lost hers. Today, Colombia has acquired its definitive independence from Spain’s monarchy. Alejandro Sanchez
89: __________________________________________________________________________ - Simons, Geoff. Colombia: a Brutal History. London: Saqi, 2004. Print. - "Colombia." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. - Picture:
90: Epilogue: Many of the issues that government officials are presented with today, aren’t really directly connected to the revolution for Independence. Some of the pressing issues relate to control of certain islands near Colombia, while the government also has to deal with illegal activities, including illegal drugs. I cannot really attribute any of these issues to unresolved problems after the revolution because they aren’t related to each other. The revolution was caused by Colombia wanting to gain its independence so rebellions were formed to fight against the Spanish government. While some of the issues involving Colombia today are related to illegal activities in order for those criminals to make a profit. Economically, maybe the revolution had some effect on Colombia having a debt of $47.33 billion. When Spain was under control of Colombia, they would most likely provide some of the resources to Colombia, once they were taken out the picture, Colombia was on its own from then on. Building up a huge debt involving many counties by importing goods, but not exporting enough goods from their own country. I feel that there aren’t really any direct causes from the revolution affecting Colombia in its current situation today, it is wost likely other factors that are affecting Colombia.
92: Social Epilogue Directly after the revolution in Colombia, slavery was abolished. Crime had steeply risen. Without slaves there were high prices on everything and the landowners were causing a lot of disruption in the country. The political problems in the country also sparked unrest because the liberals and conservatives attacked each other relentlessly. After the revolution was successful there was a period in which the population underwent pandemics of smallpox influenza and dysentery, to the point that the average life expectancy became less than 24. In around 1900 there was a civil war that the United States used to “liberate” Panama and build the Panama Canal. Up until 1991 there had been no strong government and some used the unrest to raise coca and started the Medellin drug cartel. That has been the most prominent issue recently but the major social change because of the revolution was the uncontrollable pandemics that lowered the life expectancy all the way down to 24. Todd, Molly. "Health and Medicine in Latin America: 19th Century." Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. Echeverry, Angela Maria Gonzalez. "Law and Crime in Latin America: 19th Century." Daily Life through History. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. "Colombia." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 19 Nov. 2010. "Colombia." CIA: World Factbook
93: Life Expectancy Chart:
95: Political Indicators These political indicators tell us that it is very possible that the Columbia is in fact more politically stable then the US is today. You can see that there is a definite difference between the corruption of government in the US and Columbia. The US has a corruption percentage of 7.6%, while Columbia only has a percentage of 4%. Another reason why Columbia is very politically stable is because it has a significantly less number of administrative divisions then the US does. The US has 50, meanwhile Columbia only has 32. This creates a more unified and stable country. And Columbia has more political parties then the US does. There are the Alternative Democratic Pole, the Columbian Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the National Integration Party, the Radical Change Party, and the Social National Unity party. While in the US, there are only four: The Republican Party, the Democratic Party, the Liberatarian Party, and the Green Party. With more choices in Columbia that help determine your stance in Columbia, it is a more politically stable country. And finally, the US and Columbia are similar politically because they both share the same age of suffrage. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ http://www.nationmaster.com/index.php
96: PHOTO CREDITS: Amanda`s Photos: Picture of- Napoleon Bonaparte Louis Napoléon Bonaparte: né Paris, te 20 Avril 1808 Digital ID: (color film copy slide) cph 3b50660 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b50660 Reproduction Number: LC-USZC2-2786 (color film copy slide) Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA Picture of- Colombian Flag http://www.worldspresidents.com/wp-content/uploads/presidential-flag-colombia.gif Picture of- Location of Viceroyalty of New Granada http://www.worldspresidents.com/wp-content/uploads/presidential-flag-colombia.gif Abby's Photos: http://www.quezon.ph/2009/07/14/the-bolivarian-temptation-an-illiberal-democracy/ http://www.noosfere.com/heberg/ligny/illustrations.htm http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/liberators.htm
97: http://everydaysaholiday.org/battle-of-boyaca-colombia/ http://colombiareports.com/opinion/131-gustavo-silva-cano/5261-colombias-bicentenary-a-birthday-for-thought.html http://www.gateway.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?t=19699 Anna's Photos: http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/colombia/l/blcitiesmap.htm http://es.justmaps.org/maps/la/colombia/ http://online.culturegrams.com/gallery/albumindex.php?useraid=99&index=7&refername=Photo Gallery&referid= http://forum.paradoxplaza.com/forum/showthread.php?493390-Dios-Patria-Rey-A-Carlist-Spain-AAR http://everydaysaholiday.org/battle-of-boyaca-colombia/ Kate's Photos: http://gramscimania.blogspot.com/2009/06/el-decreto-de-guerra-muerte.html http://www.flagsonline.it/asp/flag.asp/flag_republic%20of%20colombia/republic%20of%20colombia.html