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Creative Disorders

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Creative Disorders - Page Text Content

S: The Guide for Disorders

BC: The End

FC: "Finally a book that I can enjoy." Alex the Cat | The Guide to Disorders by Rachel Sharon Finch Connett

1: Introduction So you want to know about disorders but don't want to go through all the hassle of getting a degree in Psychology? Well, this is the book for you. In each page I will go through one of 92 disorders which plague our world today. So get ready and let's go!

2: Generalized Anxiety Disorder It's normal to feel anxious from time to time, especially if your life is stressful. However, severe, ongoing anxiety that interferes with day-to-day activities may be a sign of generalized anxiety disorder. It's possible to develop generalized anxiety disorder as a child or as an adult. Generalized anxiety disorder has similar symptoms as panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other types of anxiety, but they're all different conditions. Living with generalized anxiety disorder can be a long-term challenge. In many cases, it occurs along with other anxiety or mood disorders. In most cases, generalized anxiety disorder improves with medications or psychological counseling (psychotherapy). Making lifestyle changes, learning coping skills and using relaxation techniques also can help. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Generalized Anxiety Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/generalized-anxiety-disorder/DS00502. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

3: Panic Disorder with and without Agoraphobia | Without Agoraphobia A panic attack is a sudden episode of intense fear that develops for no apparent reason and that triggers severe physical reactions. Panic attacks can be very frightening. When panic attacks occur, you might think you're losing control, having a heart attack or even dying. You may have only one or two panic attacks in your lifetime. But if you have had several panic attacks and have spent long periods in constant fear of another attack, you may have a chronic condition called panic disorder. Panic attacks were once dismissed as nerves or stress, but they're now recognized as a real medical condition. Although panic attacks can significantly affect your quality of life, treatment is very effective. | With Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder in which you avoid situations that you're afraid might cause you to panic. You might avoid being alone, leaving your home or any situation where you could feel trapped, embarrassed or helpless if you do panic. People with agoraphobia often have a hard time feeling safe in any public place, especially where crowds gather. The fears can be so overwhelming that you may be essentially trapped in your own home. Agoraphobia treatment can be tough because it usually means confronting your fears. But with medications and psychotherapy, you can escape the trap of agoraphobia and live a more enjoyable life. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Panic attacks and panic disorder . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/panic-attacks/DS00338. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Agoraphobia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/agoraphobia/DS00894. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

4: Ailurophobia: FEAR OF CATS!! A phobia is an unreasonable fear of an object or situation that is not normally very scary. Ailurophobia is fear of kitty cats. Symptoms include: a feeling of uncontrollable anxiety when a kitten appears out of nowhere painstakingly avoiding the neighborhood cats feeling powerless to control your own fears which you know are unreasonable because cats are so awesome Treatment Buy a cat...

5: Social Phobia aka Social Anxiety Disorder It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. Going on a date or giving a presentation may cause that feeling of butterflies in your stomach, for instance. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause irrational anxiety, fear, self-consciousness and embarrassment. Social anxiety disorder is a chronic mental health condition, but treatment such as psychological counseling, medication and learning coping skills can help you gain confidence and improve your ability to interact with others. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/social-anxiety-disorder/DS00595. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

6: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that's triggered by a terrifying event. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event. Many people who go through traumatic events have difficulty adjusting and coping for a while. But with time and taking care of yourself, such traumatic reactions usually get better. In some cases, though, the symptoms can get worse or last for months or even years. Sometimes they may completely shake up your life. In a case such as this, you may have post-traumatic stress disorder. Getting treatment as soon as possible after post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms develop may prevent long-term post-traumatic stress disorder. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/DS00246. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

7: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors (compulsions). With obsessive-compulsive disorder, you may realize that your obsessions aren't reasonable, and you may try to ignore them or stop them. But that only increases your distress and anxiety. Ultimately, you feel driven to perform compulsive acts in an effort to ease your stressful feelings. Obsessive-compulsive disorder often centers around themes, such as a fear of getting contaminated by germs. To ease your contamination fears, you may compulsively wash your hands until they're sore and chapped. Despite your efforts, thoughts of obsessive-compulsive behavior keep coming back. This leads to more ritualistic behavior — and a vicious cycle that's characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obsessive-compulsive-disorder/DS00189. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

8: Hypochondria When you have hypochondria, you become obsessed with the idea that you have a serious or life-threatening disease that hasn't been diagnosed yet. This causes significant anxiety that goes on for months or longer, even though there's no clear medical evidence that you have a serious health problem. Hypochondria is also called hypochondriasis. While having some anxiety about your health is normal, full-blown hypochondria is so consuming that it causes problems with work, relationships or other areas of your life. Severe hypochondria can be completely disabling. Although hypochondria is a long-term condition, you don't have to live your life constantly worrying about your health. Treatment such as psychological counseling, medications or simply learning about hypochondria may help ease your worries. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Hypochondria. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hypochondria/DS00841. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

9: Somatization Disorder Somatization disorder is the contemporary conceptualization of hysteria, a syndrome that has been observed since ancient times. According to the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV: American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994), somatization disorder is characterized by a lifetime history of at least four unexplained pain complaints (e.g., in the back, chest, joints), two unexplained nonpain gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., nausea, bloating), one unexplained sexual symptom (e.g., sexual dysfunction, irregular menstruation), and one pseudoneurological symptom (e.g., seizures, paralysis, numbness). | References Woolfolk, R. A. (2010). Affective-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Somatization Disorder. Journal Of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(2), 116-131.

10: Conversion disorder | Conversion disorder is a condition in which you show psychological stress in physical ways. The condition was so named to describe a health problem that starts as a mental or emotional crisis — a scary or stressful incident of some kind — and converts to a physical problem. In conversion disorder, your leg may become paralyzed after you fall from a horse, even though you weren't physically injured. Conversion disorder signs and symptoms appear with no underlying physical cause, and you can't control them. Signs and symptoms of conversion disorder typically affect your movement or your senses, such as the ability to walk, swallow, see or hear. Conversion disorder symptoms can be severe, but for most people, they get better within a couple of weeks. | U.S. National Library of Medicine - The World's Largest Medical Library | Mayo Clinic (2011). Conversion Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/conversion-disorder/DS00877. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

11: Somatoform pain disorder is pain that is severe enough to disrupt a person's everyday life. The pain is like that of a physical disorder, but no physical cause is found. The pain is thought to be due to psychological problems. The pain that people with this disorder feel is real. It is not created or faked on purpose (malingering). Causes, incidence, and risk factors In the past, this disorder was thought to be related to emotional stress. The pain was often said to be "all in their head." However, patients with somatoform pain disorder seem to experience painful sensations in a way that increases their pain level. Pain and worry create a cycle that is hard to break. People who have a history of physical or sexual abuse are more likely to have this disorder. However, not every person with somatoform pain disorder has a history of abuse. As researchers learn more about the connections between the brain and body, there is more evidence that emotional well-being affects the way in which pain is perceived. Symptoms The main symptom of somatoform pain disorder is chronic pain that lasts for several months and limits a person's work, relationships, and other activities. Patients are often very worried or stressed about their pain. | Somatoform pain disorder | National Library of Medicine (2010). Somatoform Pain Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001920/. [Last Accessed May 3, 2012].

12: Body dysmorphic disorder | Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which you can't stop thinking about a flaw with your appearance — a flaw that is either minor or imagined. But to you, your appearance seems so shameful that you don't want to be seen by anyone. Body dysmorphic disorder has sometimes been called "imagined ugliness." When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely obsess over your appearance and body image, often for many hours a day. You may seek out numerous cosmetic procedures to try to "fix" your perceived flaws, but never will be satisfied. Body dysmorphic disorder is also known as dysmorphophobia, the fear of having a deformity. Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder may include medication and cognitive behavioral therapy. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Body Dysmorphic Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/body-dysmorphic-disorder/DS00559. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

13: Depersonalization disorder | Depersonalization disorder occurs when you persistently or repeatedly have a sense that things around you aren't real, or when you have the feeling that you're observing yourself from outside your body. Feelings of depersonalization can be very disturbing and may feel like you're losing your grip on reality or living in a dream. Many people have a passing experience of depersonalization at some point. But when feelings of depersonalization keep occurring, or never completely go away, it's considered depersonalization disorder. Depersonalization disorder is more common in people who've had traumatic experiences. Depersonalization disorder can be severe and may interfere with relationships, work and other daily activities. Treatments for depersonalization disorder include medications and psychotherapy. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Depersonalization Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/depersonalization/DS01149. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

14: Dissociative amnesia usually follows a stressful event and cannot be attributable to explicit brain damage. It is thought to reflect a reversible deficit in memory retrieval probably due to memory repression. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this condition are not clear. | Dissociative Amnesia | References Kikuchi, H. (2010). Memory Repression: Brain Mechanisms underlying Dissociative Amnesia. Journal Of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(3), 602-613.

15: Dissociative Fugue | Dissociative fugue, formerly called psychogenic fugue, is one of a group of conditions called dissociative disorders. The word fugue comes from the Latin word for "flight." People with dissociative fugue temporarily lose their sense of personal identity and impulsively wander or travel away from their homes or places of work. People with dissociative fugue often become confused about who they are and might even create new identities. Outwardly, people with this disorder show no signs of illness, such as a strange appearance or odd behavior. | Cleveland Clinic (2009). Dissociative Fugue. [ONLINE] Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/dissociative_disorders/hic_dissociative_fugue.aspx. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

16: Dissociative trance disorder is an unofficial category often referred to by psychologists and psychiatrists working in premodern, nonwestern societies. Trance is a narrowing of one's attention so that some things (such as sight, movement, or even outer reality) are placed outside awareness. Cross-cultural therapist Richard Castillo, in his book Culture and Mental Illness, says that trance is "an adaptation with great individual and species survival value." It is not far from such non-pathological states as hypnosis and meditation. Castillo gives numerous examples: Amok is found in Malaysia and Indonesia. The word comes from the Sanskrit for "no freedom." It involves a person losing their sense of self, grabbing a weapon such as a machete, and running through the village slashing at people. Afterwards, they have no memory of what they have done and are typically excused from any damage, even if their actions resulted in someone's death! Grisi siknis is found among teenage girls and yound women of the Miskito indians in Nicaragua. They also run wild with machetes, occasionally assaulting people or mutilating themselves. They have no memory of their actions. Pibloktoq or arctic hysteria is found among polar eskimos. For anywhere from a few minutes to an hour, a person takes off their clothing and runs screaming through the snow and ice, as a response to a sudden fright. Latah (in Malaysia) involves violent body movements, taking unusual postures, trance dancing, mimicking other people, throwing things, and so on. "Falling out" (in the Bahamas) involves falling to the ground, apparently comatose, but hearing and understanding what is going on around you. "Indisposition" (in Haiti) is a possession trance understood as a response to fear. "Fits" (in India) is a seizure-like response by some women to family stress, curable by exorcism or by simply telling her husband to protect her from her inlaws! | Dissociative trance disorder | Dr. C. George Boeree (2006). Dissociative Disorders. [ONLINE] Available at: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/dissociative.html. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

17: Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder) | Dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly called multiple personality disorder, is one of a group of conditions called dissociative disorders. Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity and/or perception. When one or more of these functions is disrupted, symptoms can result. These symptoms can interfere with a person’s general functioning, including social activities, work functions, and relationships. People with DID often have issues with their identities and senses of personal history. Dissociation is a key feature of dissociative disorders. Dissociation is a coping mechanism that a person uses to disconnect from a stressful or traumatic situation or to separate traumatic memories from normal awareness. It is a way for a person to break the connection between the self and the outside world, as well as to distance oneself from the awareness of what is occurring. Dissociation can serve as a defense mechanism against the physical and emotional pain of a traumatic or stressful experience. By dissociating painful memories from everyday thought processes, a person can use dissociation to maintain a relatively healthy level of functioning, as though the trauma had not occurred. Dissociation can be described as a temporary mental escape (similar to self-hypnosis) from the fear and pain of the trauma. Even after the trauma is long past, however, the leftover pattern of dissociation to escape stressful situations continues. When dissociation is done repeatedly—as in the case of prolonged abuse—these dissociated mental states can take on separate identities of their own. A person with DID, the most severe type of dissociative disorder, has two or more different personality states—sometimes referred to as "alters" (short for alternate personality states)—each of whom takes control over the person’s behavior at some time. Each alter might have distinct traits, personal history, and way of thinking about and relating to his or her surroundings. An alter might even be of a different gender, have his or her own name, and have distinct mannerisms or preferences. The person with DID may or may not be aware of the other personality states and might not have memories of the times when another alter is dominant. Stress or a reminder of the trauma can act as a trigger to bring about a "switch" of alters. This can create a chaotic life and cause problems in work and social situations. | Cleveland Clinic (2012). Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder). [ONLINE] Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/dissociative_disorders/hic_dissociative_identity_disorder_multiple_personality_disorder.aspx. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

18: Major Depressive Episode | A major depressive episode is not a disorder in itself, but rather is a description of part of a disorder, most often major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. A person who suffers from a major depressive episode must either have a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities consistently for at least a 2 week period. This mood must represent a change from the person's normal mood; social, occupational, educational or other important functioning must also be negatively impaired by the change in mood. A major depressive episode is also characterized by the presence of 5 or more of these symptoms: Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feeling sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). (In children and adolescents, this may be characterized as an irritable mood.) Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. Insomnia (inability to sleep) or hypersomnia (sleeping too much) nearly every day Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt nearly every day Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide A major depressive episode also is generally not diagnosed when the same symptoms could be attributed to Bereavement (normal feelings of sadness after the loss of a loved one). | Psych Central (2012). Major Depressive Episode. [ONLINE] Available at: http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx5.htm. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

19: AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (2006). What is a Manic Episode?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/what-is-a-manic-episode/. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Manic Episode | A manic episode is not a disorder in and of itself, but rather is a part of a type of bipolar disorder. A manic episode is characterized by period of time where an elevated, expansive or notably irritable mood is present, lasting for at least one week. These feelings must be sufficiently severe to cause difficulty or impairment in occupational, social, educational or other important functioning and can not be better explained by a mixed episode. Symptoms also can not be the result of substance use or abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs, medications) or caused by a general medical condition. Three or more of the following symptoms must be present: Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity Decreased need for sleep (e.g., one feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep) More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing Attention is easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant items Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)

20: Double Depression | Double depression is a condition that occurs when an individual suffering from mild depression falls into a major depressive state. New research identifies hopelessness as a key feature of double depression. Thomas Joiner, Florida State University Distinguished Research Professor and the Bright-Burton Professor of Psychology, believes his finding could help therapists diagnose and treat the mood disorder. His paper is published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. Double depression occurs when an individual who suffers from dysthymia, a persistent case of mild depression marked by low energy, falls into a major depressive state. It is not a new concept, but psychologists know little about the characteristics that distinguish double depression from dysthymia or major depression alone, according to Joiner. “It’s clinically important because it is under-recognized and harder to treat than either dysthymia or major depression by themselves,” Joiner said. “The hopelessness result is significant, and it suggests that therapists should especially focus on this feature early and often in the treatment of double-depressed patients.” | RICK NAUERT PHD (2007). Recognize Double Depression. [ONLINE] Available at: http://psychcentral.com/news/2007/07/24/recognize-double-depression/1053.html. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

21: Dysthymic Disorder (Dysthymia) | Dysthymia is a mild, but chronic, form of depression. Dysthymia (dis-THI-me-uh) symptoms usually last for at least two years, and often for much longer than that. Although dysthymia symptoms may be less intense than those of depression, dysthymia can actually affect your life more seriously because it lasts for so long. With dysthymia, you may lose interest in normal daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity and have a low self-esteem. People with dysthymia are often thought of as being overly critical, constantly complaining and incapable of having fun. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Dysthymia . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dysthymia/DS01111. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

22: Bipolar Disorder | Bipolar I disorder. Mood swings with bipolar I cause significant difficulty in your job, school or relationships. Manic episodes can be severe and dangerous. Bipolar II disorder. Bipolar II is less severe than bipolar I. You may have an elevated mood, irritability and some changes in your functioning, but generally you can carry on with your normal daily routine. Instead of full-blown mania, you have hypomania — a less severe form of mania. In bipolar II, periods of depression typically last longer than periods of hypomania. | Bipolar disorder — sometimes called manic-depressive disorder — is associated with mood swings that range from the lows of depression to the highs of mania. When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts in the other direction, you may feel euphoric and full of energy. Mood shifts may occur only a few times a year, or as often as several times a day. In some cases, bipolar disorder causes symptoms of depression and mania at the same time. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Bipolar Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bipolar-disorder/DS00356/DSECTION=symptoms. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

23: Cyclothymic Disorder | People with cyclothymic disorder have, for at least 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents), the presence of numerous periods with hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods with depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a Major Depressive Episode. During the above 2-year period (1 year in children and adolescents), the person has not been without the symptoms above for more than 2 months at a time. No Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, or Mixed Episode has been present during the first 2 years of the disturbance. Note: After the initial 2 years (1 year in children and adolescents) of Cyclothymic Disorder, there may be superimposed Manic or Mixed Episodes (in which case both Bipolar I Disorder and Cyclothymic Disorder may be diagnosed) or Major Depressive Episodes (in which case both Bipolar II Disorder and Cyclothymic Disorder may be diagnosed). The disturbance is not better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and are not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. The symptoms can not be due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism). Furthermore, the symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. | Psych Central (2010). Cyclothymic Disorder and Cyclothymia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx38.htm. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

24: General Adaption Syndrome | General adaptation syndrome, or GAS, is a term used to describe the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress. Stressors in humans include such physical stressors as starvation, being hit by a car, or suffering through severe weather. Additionally, humans can suffer such emotional or mental stressors as the loss of a loved one, the inability to solve a problem, or even having a difficult day at work. Stages of GAS 1 alarm reaction 2 stage of resistance 3 stage of exhaustion | general adaptation syndrome. (n.d.) Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. (2008). Retrieved May 3 2012 from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/general+adaptation+syndrome

25: AIDS | Short for acquired immune deficiency syndrome. An infectious disease of the immune system caused by an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is characterized by a decrease in the number of helper T cells, which causes a severe immunodeficiency that leaves the body susceptible to a variety of potentially fatal infections. The virus is transmitted in infected bodily fluids such as semen and blood, as through sexual intercourse, the use of contaminated hypodermic syringes, and placental transfer between mother and fetus. Although a cure or vaccine is not yet available, a number of antiviral drugs can decrease the viral load and subsequent infections in patients with AIDS. | AIDS. (n.d.) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2003). Retrieved May 3 2012 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/aids

26: Cancer | The human immune system often fights off stray cancer cells just as it does bacteria and viruses. However, when cancer cells establish themselves in the body with their own blood supply and begin replicating out of control, cancer becomes a threatening neoplasm, or tumor. It takes a minimum of one billion cancer cells for a neoplasm to be detectable by conventional radiology and physical examinations. Cancer, which represents more than 100 separate diseases, destroys tissues and organs through invasive growth in a particular part of the body and by metastasizing to distant tissues and organs through the bloodstream or lymph system. Heredity, lifestyle habits (such as smoking), and a person's exposure to certain viruses, toxic chemicals, and excessive radiation can trigger genetic changes that affect cell growth. The altered genes, or oncogenes, direct cells to multiply abnormally, thereby taking on the aggressive and destructive characteristics of cancer. Treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are effective with many cancers, but they also end up killing healthy cells. Gene therapy attempts to correct the faulty DNA that causes the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. Researchers are investigating other treatments, such as immunotherapy (the stimulation of the body's natural defenses), vectorization (aiming chemicals specifically at cancer cells), and nanotechnology (targeting cancer cells with minute objects the size of atoms). | Cancer. (n.d.) The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2003). Retrieved May 3 2012 from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Cancer

27: Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) | High blood pressure is a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease. Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries. The more blood your heart pumps and the narrower your arteries, the higher your blood pressure. You can have high blood pressure (hypertension) for years without any symptoms. Uncontrolled high blood pressure increases your risk of serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke. High blood pressure typically develops over many years, and it affects nearly everyone eventually. Fortunately, high blood pressure can be easily detected. And once you know you have high blood pressure, you can work with your doctor to control it. | Mayo Clinic (2012). High blood pressure (hypertension) . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-blood-pressure/DS00100. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

28: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary heart disease is caused by the buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the arteries. Fatty material and other substances form a plaque build-up on the walls of your coronary arteries. The coronary arteries bring blood and oxygen to your heart. This buildup causes the arteries to get narrow. As a result, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop. A risk factor for heart disease is something that increases your chance of getting it. You cannot change some risk factors for heart disease, but others you can change. The risk factors for heart disease that you CANNOT change are: Your age. The risk of heart disease increases with age. Your gender. Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women who are still getting their menstrual period. After menopause, the risk for women is closer to the risk for men. See: Heart disease and women Your genes. If your parents or other close relatives had heart disease, you are at higher risk. Your race. African Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Hawaiians, and some Asian Americans also have a higher risk for heart problems. | PubMed Health (2011). Coronary Heart Disease. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0004449/. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Coronary Heart Disease

29: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from chronic pain -- pain that lasts longer than six months. Chronic pain can be mild or excruciating, episodic or continuous, merely inconvenient or totally incapacitating. With chronic pain, signals of pain remain active in the nervous system for weeks, months, or even years. This can take both a physical and emotional toll on a person. Chronic pain may originate with an initial trauma/injury or infection, or there may be an ongoing cause of pain. However, some people suffer chronic pain in the absence of any past injury or evidence of body damage. | Chronic Pain | Web MD (2012). Chronic Pain Management. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/understanding-pain-management-chronic-pain. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

30: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome | Chronic fatigue syndrome is a complicated disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that can't be explained by any underlying medical condition. The fatigue may worsen with physical or mental activity, but doesn't improve with rest. The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome is unknown, although there are many theories — ranging from viral infections to psychological stress. Some experts believe chronic fatigue syndrome might be triggered by a combination of factors. There's no single test to confirm a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. You may have to undergo a variety of medical tests to rule out other health problems that have similar symptoms. Treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome focuses on symptom relief. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Chronic Pain Management. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/chronic-fatigue-syndrome/DS00395. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

31: Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa | Bulimia (boo-LEE-me-uh) nervosa, commonly called bulimia, is a serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder. People with bulimia may secretly binge — eating large amounts of food — and then purge, trying to get rid of the extra calories in an unhealthy way. For example, someone with bulimia may force vomiting or do excessive exercise. Sometimes people purge after eating only a small snack or a normal-size meal. Bulimia can be categorized in two ways: Purging bulimia. You regularly self-induce vomiting or misuse laxatives, diuretics or enemas after bingeing. Nonpurging bulimia. You use other methods to rid yourself of calories and prevent weight gain, such as fasting, strict dieting or excessive exercise. | Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and the food they eat. People with anorexia nervosa attempt to maintain a weight that's far below normal for their age and height. To prevent weight gain or to continue losing weight, people with anorexia nervosa may starve themselves or exercise excessively. Anorexia (an-oh-REK-see-uh) nervosa isn't really about food. It's an unhealthy way to try to cope with emotional problems. When you have anorexia nervosa, you often equate thinness with self-worth. Anorexia nervosa can be difficult to overcome. But with treatment, you can gain a better sense of who you are, return to healthier eating habits and reverse some of anorexia's serious complications. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Anorexia nervosa. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/anorexia/DS00606. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Bulimia nervosa. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bulimia/DS00607. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

32: Binge-eating Disorder | Binge-eating disorder is a serious eating disorder in which you frequently consume unusually large amounts of food. Almost everyone overeats on occasion, such as having seconds or thirds of a holiday meal. But for some people, overeating crosses the line to binge-eating disorder and it becomes a regular occurrence, usually done in secret. When you have binge-eating disorder, you may be deeply embarrassed about gorging and vow to stop. But you feel such a compulsion that you can't resist the urges and continue binge eating. If you have binge-eating disorder, treatment can help. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Binge-eating disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/binge-eating-disorder/DS00608. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

33: Obesity | Obesity is defined as having an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity is more than just a cosmetic concern, though. It increases your risk of diseases and health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. Doctors often use a formula based on your height and weight — called the body mass index (BMI) — to determine if you are obese. BMIWeight status Below 18.5Underweight 18.5 — 24.9Normal 25.0 — 29.9Overweight 30.0 and higherObese 40.0 and higherExtreme obesity | Mayo Clinic (2011). Obesity. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

34: Primary Insomnia | Insomnia is a disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep, or both. With insomnia, you usually awaken feeling unrefreshed, which takes a toll on your ability to function during the day. Insomnia can sap not only your energy level and mood but also your health, work performance and quality of life. How much sleep is enough varies from person to person. Most adults need seven to eight hours a night. Many adults experience insomnia at some point, but some people have long-term (chronic) insomnia. You don't have to put up with sleepless nights. Simple changes in your daily habits can help. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Insomnia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/insomnia/DS00187. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

35: Hypersomnia, or excessive sleepiness, is a condition in which a person has trouble staying awake during the day. People who have hypersomnia can fall asleep at any time; for instance, at work or while they are driving. They may also have other sleep-related problems, including a lack of energy and trouble thinking clearly. According to the National Sleep Foundation, up to 40% of people have some symptoms of hypersomnia from time to time. Causes of Hypersomnia There are several potential causes of hypersomnia, including: The sleep disorders narcolepsy (daytime sleepiness) and sleep apnea (interruptions of breathing during sleep) Not getting enough sleep at night (sleep deprivation) Being overweight Drug or alcohol abuse A head injury or a neurological disease, such as multiple sclerosis Prescription drugs, such as tranquilizers Genetics (having a relative with hypersomnia) | Hypersomnia | Web MD (2010). Sleep and Hypersomnia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/hypersomnia. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

36: Narcolepsy | Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep. People with narcolepsy often find it difficult to stay awake for long periods of time, regardless of the circumstances. Narcolepsy can cause serious disruptions in your daily routine. Contrary to what some people believe, narcolepsy isn't related to depression, seizure disorders, fainting, simple lack of sleep or other conditions that may cause abnormal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is a chronic condition for which there's no cure. However, medications and lifestyle changes can help you manage the symptoms. Talking to others — family, friends, employer, teachers — can help you cope with narcolepsy. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Narcolepsy. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/narcolepsy/DS00345. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

37: Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders | Sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts. You may have sleep apnea if you snore loudly and you feel tired even after a full night's sleep. Sleep apnea occurs in two main types: Obstructive sleep apnea, the more common form that occurs when throat muscles relax Central sleep apnea, which occurs when your brain doesn't send proper signals to the muscles that control breathing Additionally, some people have complex sleep apnea, which is a combination of both. If you think you might have sleep apnea, see your doctor. Treatment is necessary to avoid heart problems and other complications. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Sleep apnea. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sleep-apnea/DS00148. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

38: Symptoms commonly found in persons with a circadian rhythm disorder related to the sleep-wake cycle can include the following: Difficulty initiating sleep Difficulty maintaining sleep Nonrestorative sleep Daytime sleepiness Poor concentration Impaired performance, including a decrease in cognitive skills Poor psychomotor coordination Headaches Gastrointestinal distress | Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder | Web MD (2007). Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder Symptoms. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/circadian-rhythm-sleep-disorder-symptoms. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

39: Gender -- being male or female -- is a basic element that helps make up an individual's personality and sense of self. Gender identity disorder is a condition in which a male or female feels a strong identification with the opposite sex. A person with this disorder often experiences great discomfort regarding his or her actual anatomic gender. People with gender identity disorder may act and present themselves as members of the opposite sex and may express a desire to alter their bodies. The disorder affects an individual's self-image, and can impact the person's mannerisms, behavior, and dress. Individuals who are committed to altering their physical appearance through cosmetics, hormones and, in some cases, surgery are known as transsexuals. | Gender Identity Disorder | Web MD (2010). Gender Identity Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/sex/gender-identity-disorder. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

40: Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder | A woman's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide with the beginning or end of a relationship or with major life changes, such as pregnancy, menopause or illness. Some antidepressants and anti-seizure medications also can cause low sex drive in women. If you have a persistent or recurrent lack of interest in sex that causes you personal distress, you may have hypoactive sexual desire disorder. But you don't have to meet this medical definition to seek help. If you are bothered by a low sex drive or decreased sex drive, there are lifestyle changes and sex techniques that may put you in the mood more often. Some medications may offer promise as well. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Low sex drive in women . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/low-sex-drive-in-women/DS01043. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | It's natural for men to notice a gradual decrease in sex drive (libido) as they age. The degree of this decline varies, and most men maintain at least some amount of sexual interest well into their 60s and 70s. Sometimes, however, loss of sex drive is related to an underlying condition. For men, depression and stress often contribute to loss of sex drive. Sometimes the culprit is a decrease in male sex hormones due to an endocrine disorder. In other cases, loss of sex drive may be a medication side effect. If you're concerned about loss of sex drive — especially if the loss happened abruptly — consult your doctor. He or she will likely do a physical exam and lab tests to help determine what's causing the loss of sex drive. Once any underlying factors are identified, your doctor can suggest appropriate treatment options. | Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. (2012). Is loss of sex drive normal as a man gets older?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/loss-of-sex-drive/AN01431. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

41: Sexual aversion disorder: Diagnosed when you avoid all or almost all genital sexual contact with a sexual partner to the point that it causes personal distress and relationship difficulties. This condition may affect women who have experienced some type of sexual abuse or who grew up in a rigid atmosphere in which sex was taboo. A study in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior found that among patients with panic disorder, 75 percent had sexual problems, and that sexual aversion disorder was the most common complaint, affecting 50 percent of women with the disorder. | Sexual Aversion Disorder | healthy women (2009). Sexual Dysfunction. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.healthywomen.org/condition/sexual-dysfunction. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

42: Male Erectile Disorder | Female Sexual Arousal Disorder | A man has erection problems if he cannot get or keep an erection that is firm enough for him to have sex. Erection problems are also called erectile dysfunction or impotence. Erection problems can occur at any age. But they are more common in older men, who often have other health problems. Treatment can help both older and younger men. What causes erection problems? Erection problems may be caused by physical problems, such as injury to nerves or loss of blood supply to the penis . They can also be linked to other health problems. These include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and atherosclerosis. Erection problems can also be linked to problems with the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. | Web MD (2010). Erection Problems (Erectile Dysfunction). [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.webmd.com/erectile-dysfunction/tc/erection-problems-erectile-dysfunction-topic-overview. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Sexual arousal disorder: The persistent or recurrent inability to reach or sustain the lubrication and swelling reaction in the arousal phase of the sexual response to the point that it causes personal distress. It is the second most common sexual problem among women, affecting an estimated 20 percent of women, and most frequently occurs in postmenopausal women. Low estrogen levels after menopause can make vaginal tissue dry and thin and reduce blood flow to genitals. As a result, the arousal phase of the sexual response may take longer and sensitivity of the vaginal area may decline. However, this can happen at any age. | healthy women (2009). Sexual Dysfunction. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.healthywomen.org/condition/sexual-dysfunction. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

43: Female Orgasmic Disorder | Anorgasmia is the medical term for regular difficulty reaching orgasm after ample sexual stimulation, causing you personal distress. Anorgasmia is actually a common occurrence, affecting more women than you might think. Orgasms vary in intensity, and women vary in the frequency of their orgasms and the amount of stimulation necessary to trigger an orgasm. In fact, fewer than a third of women consistently have orgasms with sexual activity. Plus, orgasms often change with age, medical issues or medications you're taking. If you're happy with the climax of your sexual activities, there's no need for concern. However, if you're bothered by lack of orgasm or the intensity of your orgasms, talk to your doctor about anorgasmia. Lifestyle changes and sex therapy may help. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Anorgasmia in women . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/anorgasmia/DS01051. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Premature ejaculation occurs when a man ejaculates sooner during sexual intercourse than they or their partner would like. As long as it happens infrequently, it's not cause for concern. However, if you regularly ejaculate sooner than you and your partner wish — such as before intercourse begins or shortly afterward it can be considered premature ejaculation. Premature ejaculation is a common sexual complaint. Estimates vary, but as many as 1 out of 3 men may be affected by this problem at some time. Both psychological and biological factors can play a role in premature ejaculation. Although many men feel embarrassed to talk about it, premature ejaculation is a common and treatable condition. | Premature Ejaculation | Mayo Clinic (2011). Premature ejaculation. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/premature-ejaculation/DS00578. [Last Accessed 3 May 12].

44: Dyspareunia | Painful intercourse can occur for a variety of reasons — ranging from structural problems to psychological concerns. Many women experience painful intercourse at some point in their lives. The medical term for painful intercourse is dyspareunia (dis-puh-ROO-ne-uh) — which is defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain that occurs just before, during or after intercourse. Talk to your doctor if you're experiencing painful intercourse. Treatments focus on the underlying cause, and can help eliminate or reduce this common problem. | Mayo Clinic (2012). Painful intercourse (dyspareunia) . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/painful-intercourse/DS01044. [Last Accessed 3 May 12]. | Vaginismus | Vaginismus is when the muscles in the vagina tighten and prevent a woman from having sex. It can cause distress, relationship problems and also infertility. Many treatments have been tried including sex therapy, education, hypnosis and drug treatments. Therapy may involve relaxation techniques and gradually inserting a dilator or finger into the vagina. (This may be called systematic desensitization or flooding.) This review found only three studies. None of the studies compared treatments with no treatment. On the basis of these studies we cannot draw conclusions about how well treatments for vaginismus work. Uncontrolled reports suggest that sex therapy may be helpful. | PubMed Health (2009). Interventions for vaginismus. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0011170/. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

45: Fetishism | The term "fetishism" was coined in the late 1800s. It originates from the Portuguese word feitico, which means "obsessive fascination". There is a degree of fetishistic arousal in most normal individuals who find particular bodily features attractive. However, fetishistic arousal is generally considered a problem when it interferes with normal sexual or social functioning and where sexual arousal is impossible without the fetish object. Fetishism is characterized as a disorder when there is a pathological assignment of sexual fixation, fantasies or behaviors toward an inanimate object -- frequently an item of clothing -- such as underclothing or a high-heeled shoe -- or to nongenital body parts -- such as the foot. Only through use of this object can the individual obtain sexual gratification. The fetishist usually holds, rubs or smells the fetish object for sexual gratification or asks their partner to wear the object during sexual encounters. Fetishism is a more common occurrence in males, and the causes are not clearly known. Fetishism falls under the general category of paraphilias, abnormal or unnatural sexual attractions. | Psychology Today (2005). Fetishism. [ONLINE] Available at: e.g. http://www.microsoft.com. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

46: Voyeurism | Voyeurism is a psychosexual disorder in which a person derives sexual pleasure and gratification from looking at the naked bodies and genital organs or observing the sexual acts of others. The voyeur is usually hidden from view of others. Voyeurism is a form of paraphilia. A variant form of voyeurism involves listening to erotic conversations. This is commonly referred to as telephone sex, although it is usually considered voyeurism primarily in the instance of listening to unsuspecting persons. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Voyeurism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Voyeurism.html#b. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Exhibitionism | Exhibitionism is a mental disorder characterized by a compulsion to display one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM-IV-TR, classifies exhibitionism under the heading of the "paraphilias," a subcategory of sexual and gender identity disorders. The paraphilias are a group of mental disorders marked by obsession with unusual sexual practices or with sexual activity involving nonconsenting or inappropriate partners (such as children or animals). The term paraphilia is derived from two Greek words meaning "outside of" and "friendship-love." | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Exhibtionism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Exhibitionism.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

47: Tranvestic Fetishism | Transvestic fetishism is defined by the mental health professional's handbook, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revision (2000), which is also called DSM-IV-TR , as one of the paraphilias . The paraphilias are a group of mental disorders characterized by obsession with unusual sexual practices or with sexual activity involving nonconsenting or inappropriate partners (such as children or animals). The essential feature of transvestic fetishism is recurrent intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies involving dressing in clothing associated with members of the opposite sex. Another term for tranvestic fetishism is cross-dressing; people who frequently engage in cross-dressing are sometimes called transvestites. A diagnosis of transvestic fetishism is made only if an individual has acted on these urges or is markedly distressed by them. In other systems of psychiatric classification, transvestic fetishism is considered a sexual deviation. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Transvestic fetishism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Transvestic-fetishism.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

48: The essential feature of sexual sadism is a feeling of sexual excitement resulting from administering pain, suffering, or humiliation to another person. The pain, suffering, or humiliation inflicted on the other is real; it is not imagined and may be either physical or psychological in nature. A person with a diagnosis of sexual sadism is sometimes called a sadist. The name of the disorder is derived from the proper name of the Marquis Donatien de Sade (1740-1814), a French aristocrat who became notorious for writing novels around the theme of inflicting pain as a source of sexual pleasure. | Sexual Sadism | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Sexual Sadism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Sexual-sadism.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Masochism | The essential feature of sexual masochism is the feeling of sexual arousal or excitement resulting from receiving pain, suffering, or humiliation. The pain, suffering, or humiliation is real and not imagined and can be physical or psychological in nature. A person with a diagnosis of sexual masochism is sometimes called a masochist. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM , is used by mental health professionals to diagnose specific mental disorders. In the 2000 edition of this manual (the Fourth Edition Text Revision also known as DSM-IV-TR ) sexual masochism is one of several paraphilias . Paraphilias are intense and recurrent sexually arousing urges, fantasies, or behaviors. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Sexual Masochism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Sexual-masochism.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

49: Pedophilia is a paraphilia that involves an abnormal interest in children. A paraphilia is a disorder that is characterized by recurrent intense sexual urges and sexually arousing fantasies generally involving: nonhuman objects; the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner (not merely simulated); or animals, children, or other nonconsenting persons. Pedophilia is also a psychosexual disorder in which the fantasy or actual act of engaging in sexual activity with prepubertal children is the preferred or exclusive means of achieving sexual excitement and gratification. It may be directed toward children of the same sex or children of the other sex. Some pedophiles are attracted to both boys and girls. Some are attracted only to children, while others are attracted to adults as well as to children. | Pedophilia | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Pedophilia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Pedophilia.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

50: Incest is defined as sexual contact between persons who are so closely related that their marriage is illegal (e.g., parents and children, uncles/aunts and nieces/nephews, etc.). This usually takes the form of an older family member sexually abusing a child or adolescent. (Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, RAINN, 2008). Incest is considered by many experts to be a particularly damaging form of sexual abuse because it is perpetrated by individuals upon whom the victim trusts and depends. In addition, support can also be lacking and pressure to keep silent powerful as fear of the family breaking up can be overwhelming to other family members. (Ibid). Adults who were incestuously victimized by adults in their childhood often suffer from low self-esteem, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and sexual dysfunction; and are at an extremely high risk of many mental disorders including depression, anxiety, phobic avoidance reactions, substance abuse, borderline personality disorder, and complex post-traumatic stress disorder. (Christine Courtois, Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy, 1988) Father-daughter and stepfather-daughter incest is most commonly reported, with most of the remaining reports consisting of mother/stepmother-daughter/son incest. Prevalence of parental child sexual abuse is difficult to assess due to secrecy and privacy; some estimates show 20 million Americans have been victimized by parent incest as children. (Jeffrey Turner, 1996). | Incest | National Center for Victims of Crime (2008). Incest. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32360. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

51: Drug Addiction | Drug addiction is a dependence on an illegal drug or a medication. When you're addicted, you may not be able to control your drug use and you may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. You may want to quit, but most people find they can't do it on their own. For many people, what starts as casual use leads to drug addiction. Drug addiction can cause serious, long-term consequences, including problems with physical and mental health, relationships, employment and the law. You may need help from your doctor, family, friends, support groups or an organized treatment program to overcome your drug addiction and stay drug-free. | Drugs you can get addicted to: Depressants Stimulants Opioids Hallucinogens | Mayo Clinic (2011). Drug Addiction. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-addiction/DS00183. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

52: Intermittent Explosive Disorder | Intermittent explosive disorder is characterized by repeated episodes of aggressive, violent behavior in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, and angry outbursts or temper tantrums that involve throwing or breaking objects may be signs of intermittent explosive disorder (IED). People with intermittent explosive disorder may attack others and their possessions, causing bodily injury and property damage. Later, people with intermittent explosive disorder may feel remorse, regret or embarrassment. If you have this anger disorder, treatment may involve medications and psychotherapy to help you control your aggressive impulses. | Mayo Clinic (2010). Intermittent Explosive Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intermittent-explosive-disorder/DS00730. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

53: Kleptomania | Kleptomania is the irresistible urge to steal items that you generally don't really need and that usually have little value. Kleptomania (klep-toe-MAY-knee-uh) is a serious mental health disorder that can cause much emotional pain to you and your loved ones if not treated. Kleptomania is a type of impulse control disorder — a disorder in which you can't resist the temptation or drive to perform an act that's harmful to you or someone else. Many people with kleptomania live lives of secret shame because they're afraid to seek mental health treatment. Although there's no cure for kleptomania, treatment with medication or psychotherapy may be able to help end the cycle of compulsive stealing. | Mayo Clinic (2011). Kleptomania. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/kleptomania/DS01034. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

54: Pyromania | Pyromania is defined as a pattern of deliberate setting of fires for pleasure or satisfaction derived from the relief of tension experienced before the fire-setting. The name of the disorder comes from two Greek words that mean "fire" and "loss of reason" or "madness." The clinician's handbook, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM, classifies pyromania as a disorder of impulse control, meaning that a person diagnosed with pyromania fails to resist the impulsive desire to set fires—as opposed to the organized planning of an arsonist or terrorist. The position of the impulse-control disorders as a group within the DSM-IV-TR ( DSM, fourth edition, text revised) diagnostic framework, however, has been questioned by some psychiatrists. The differential diagnosis of pyromania and the other five disorders listed under the heading of impulse-control problems ( intermittent explosive disorder , kleptomania , pathological gambling, trichotillomania , and impulse-control disorder not otherwise specified) includes antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), mood disorders, conduct disorders (among younger patients), and temporal lobe epilepsy. It is not clear whether the impulse-control disorders derive from the same set of causes as ASPD and mood disorders, or whether "impulse-control disorder" is simply an all-inclusive category for disorders that are otherwise difficult to classify. Some American researchers would prefer to categorize pyromania and the other disorders of impulsivity as a subset of the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Pyromania. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Pyromania.html#b. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

55: Pathological gambling disorder occurs when a person gambles compulsively to such an extent that the wagering has a severe negative effect on his or her job, relationships, mental health, or other important aspects of life. The person may continue to gamble even after they have developed social, economic, interpersonal, or legal problems as a result of the gambling. Description Pathological gambling disorder is characterized by uncontrollable gambling well beyond the point of a social or recreational activity, such that the gambling has a major disruptive effect on the gambler's life. People who are pathological gamblers may lose their life savings, and may even commit crimes (stealing, embezzling, or forging checks) to get money for their "habit." Relationships and jobs may also be lost as a result of the disorder. Read more: Pathological gambling disorder - children, causes, DSM, functioning, therapy, adults, person, people http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Pathological-gambling-disorder.html#ixzz1tsDuGaQE | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Pathological gambling disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Pathological-gambling-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Pathological gambling disorder

56: Trichotillomania | Individuals with trichotillomania repetitively pull out their own hair. Trichotillomania as an impulse-control disorder. Some researchers view it as a type of affective or obsessive-compulsive disorder . Nail-biting, skin-picking, and thumb-sucking are considered to be related conditions. Description Trichotillomania involves hair-pulling episodes that result in noticeable hair loss. Although any area of the body can be a target, the most common areas are the scalp, followed by the eyelashes, eyebrows, and pubic region. Hair-pulling can occur without the individual's awareness, but is frequently preceded by a sense of increasing tension and followed by a sense of relief or gratification. The resulting hair loss can be a source of embarrassment or shame. Because of a tendency to hide symptoms, and because professionals are relatively unfamiliar with the disorder, individuals either may not seek, or are offered treatment. Untreated trichotillomania can result in impaired social functioning and medical complications. Read more: Trichotillomania - children, causes, DSM, functioning, effects, therapy, person, people http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Trichotillomania.html#ixzz1tsEfZePh | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Trichotillomania. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Trichotillomania.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

57: Paranoid Personality Disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (e.g. 2011). Paranoid Personality Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Paranoid-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | People with paranoid personality disorder (PPD) have long-term, widespread and unwarranted suspicions that other people are hostile, threatening or demeaning. These beliefs are steadfastly maintained in the absence of any real supporting evidence. The disorder, whose name comes from the Greek word for "madness," is one of ten personality disorders described in the 2000 edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , (the fourth edition, text revision or DSM-IVTR ), the standard guidebook used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders. Despite the pervasive suspicions they have of others, patients with PPD are not delusional (except in rare, brief instances brought on by stress ). Most of the time, they are in touch with reality, except for their misinterpretation of others' motives and intentions. PPD patients are not psychotic but their conviction that others are trying to "get them" or humiliate them in some way often leads to hostility and social isolation.

58: Schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a persistent withdrawal from social relationships and lack of emotional responsiveness in most situations. It is sometimes referred to as a "pleasure deficiency" because of the seeming inability of the person affected to experience joyful or pleasurable responses to life situations. Description A person with schizoid personality disorder has little or no interest in developing close interpersonal relation ships. They appear aloof, introverted and prefer being alone. Those who know them often label them as shy or a "loner." They turn inward in an effort to shut out social relationships. It is common for a person with schizoid personality disorder to avoid groups of people or appear disinterested in social situations even when they involve family. They are often perceived by others as socially inept. | Schizoid Personality Disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Schizoid personality disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Schizoid-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]

59: Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Schizotypal Personality Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Schizotypal-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by an ongoing pattern in which the affected person distances him- or herself from social and interpersonal relationships. Affected people typically have an acute discomfort when put in circumstances where they must relate to others. These individuals are also prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions and a display a variety of eccentric behaviors that others often find confusing. Description People with schizotypal personality disorder are more comfortable turning inward, away from others, than learning to have meaningful interpersonal relationships. This preferred isolation contributes to distorted perceptions about how interpersonal relationships are supposed to happen. These individuals remain on the periphery of life and often drift from one aimless activity to another with few, if any, meaningful relationships. Read more: Schizotypal personality disorder - children, causes, DSM, functioning, therapy, paranoia, people, used http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Schizotypal-personality-disorder.html#ixzz1tsH3FHEF | Schizotypal Personality Disorder

60: Mayo Clinic (2010). Antisocial personality disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antisocial-personality-disorder/DS00829. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Antisocial Personality Disorder | Antisocial personality disorder is a type of chronic mental illness in which a person's ways of thinking, perceiving situations and relating to others are abnormal — and destructive. People with antisocial personality disorder typically have no regard for right and wrong. They may often violate the law and the rights of others, landing in frequent trouble or conflict. They may lie, behave violently, and have drug and alcohol problems. And people with antisocial personality disorder may not be able to fulfill responsibilities to family, work or school. Antisocial personality disorder is sometimes known as sociopathic personality disorder. A sociopath is a particularly severe form of antisocial personality disorder.

61: Mayo Clinic (2010). Borderline Personality Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/borderline-personality-disorder/DS00442. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Borderline Personality Disorder | Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an emotional disorder that causes emotional instability, leading to stress and other problems. With borderline personality disorder your image of yourself is distorted, making you feel worthless and fundamentally flawed. Your anger, impulsivity and frequent mood swings may push others away, even though you desire loving relationships. If you have borderline personality disorder, don't get discouraged. Many people with borderline personality disorder get better with treatment and can live happy, peaceful lives.

62: Histrionic personality disorder, often abbreviated as HPD, is a type of personality disorder in which the affected individual displays an enduring pattern of attention-seeking and excessively dramatic behaviors beginning in early adulthood and present across a broad range of situations. Individuals with HPD are highly emotional, charming, energetic, manipulative, seductive, impulsive, erratic, and demanding. Mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM ) to diagnose mental disorders. The 2000 edition of this manual (the fourth edition text revision, also called the DSM-IV-TR ) classifies HPD as a personality disorder. More specifically, HPD is classified as a Cluster B (dramatic, emotional, or erratic) personality disorder. The personality disorders which comprise Cluster B include histrionic, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic. | Histrionic personality disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Histrionic Personality Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Histrionic-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

63: Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is defined by the Fourth Edition Text Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV-TR , a handbook that mental health professionals use to diagnose mental disorders) as one of ten personality disorders . As a group, these disorders are described by DSM-IV-TR as "enduring pattern[s] of inner experience and behavior" that are sufficiently rigid and deep-seated to bring a person into repeated conflicts with his or her social and occupational environment. DSM-IV-TR specifies that these dysfunctional patterns must be regarded as nonconforming or deviant by the person's culture, and cause significant emotional pain and/or difficulties in relationships and occupational performance. To meet the diagnosis of a personality disorder, the patient's problematic behaviors must appear in two or more of the following areas: perception and interpretation of the self and other people intensity and duration of feelings and their appropriateness to situations relationships with others ability to control impulses | Narcissistic personality disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Narcissistic Personality Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Narcissistic-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

64: Avoidant personality disorder is one of several personality disorders listed in the newest edition of the standard reference guide to mental disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM-IV-TR . It is characterized by marked avoidance of both social situations and close interpersonal relationships due to an excessive fear of rejection by others. Persons with this disorder exhibit feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem, and mistrust toward others. Description People who are diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder desire to be in relationships with others but lack the skills and confidence that are necessary in social interactions. In order to protect themselves from anticipated criticism or ridicule, they withdraw from other people. This avoidance of interaction tends to isolate them from meaningful relationships, and serves to reinforce their nervousness and awkwardness in social situations. The behavior of people with avoidant personality disorder is characterized by social withdrawal, shyness, distrustfulness, and emotional distance. These people tend to be very cautious when they speak, and they convey a general impression of awkwardness in their manner. Most are highly self-conscious and self-critical about their problems relating to others. | Avoidant personality disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Avoidant personality disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Avoidant-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

65: Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Dependent Personality Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-Fi/Dependent-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Dependent Personality Disorder | Dependent personality disorder is characterized by an excessive need to be taken care of or depend upon others. Persons with this disorder are typically submissive and display clinging behavior toward those from whom they fear being separated. Persons with dependent personality disorder are docile, passive, and nonassertive. They exert a great deal of energy to please others, are self-sacrificing, and constantly attempt to elicit the approval of others. They are reluctant to express disagreement with others, and are often willing to go to abnormal lengths to win the approval of those on whom they rely. They are easily influenced and can be taken advantage of easily. This compliance and reliance upon others leads to a subtle message that someone should assume responsibility for significant areas of the patient's life. This is often displayed as helplessness, even for completion of seemingly simple tasks.

66: Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder | Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is a type of personality disorder marked by rigidity, control, perfectionism, and an overconcern with work at the expense of close interpersonal relationships. Persons with this disorder often have trouble relaxing because they are preoccupied with details, rules, and productivity. They are often perceived by others as stubborn, stingy, self-righteous, and uncooperative. The mental health professional's handbook, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revision (2000), which is also called DSM-IV-TR , groups obsessive-compulsive personality disorder together with the avoidant and dependent personality disorders in Cluster C. The disorders in this cluster are considered to have anxiety and fearfulness as common characteristics. The ICD-10, which is the European counterpart of DSM-IV-TR , refers to OCPD as "anankastic personality disorder." It is important to distinguish between OCPD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which is an anxiety disorder characterized by the presence of intrusive or disturbing thoughts, impulses, images or ideas (obsessions), accompanied by repeated attempts to suppress these thoughts through the performance of irrational and ritualistic behaviors or mental acts (compulsions). It is unusual but possible, however, for a patient to suffer from both disorders, especially in extreme cases of hoarding behavior. In some reported cases of animal hoarding, the people involved appear to have symptoms of both OCD and OCPD. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Obsessive-compulsive-personality-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

67: Schizophrenia | Schizophrenia is the most chronic and disabling of the severe mental disorders, associated with abnormalities of brain structure and function, disorganized speech and behavior, delusions , and hallucinations . It is sometimes called a psychotic disorder or a psychosis . Description People diagnosed with schizophrenia do not always have the same set of symptoms; in addition, a given patient's symptoms may change over time. Since the nineteenth century, doctors have recognized different subtypes of the disorder, but no single classification system has gained universal acceptance. Some psychiatrists prefer to speak of schizophrenia as a group or family of disorders ("the schizophrenias") rather than as a single entity. A standard professional reference, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (also known as the DSM-IV-TR) acknowledges that its present classification of subtypes is not fully satisfactory for either clinical or research purposes, and states that "alternative subtyping schemes are being actively investigated." | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Schizophrenia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Schizophrenia.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

68: Schizophreniform disorder (SFD) is a time-limited illness wherein the sufferer has experienced at least two of the major symptoms of psychosis for longer than one month but fewer than six months. Hallucinations , delusions , and strange bodily movements or lack of movements (catatonic behavior) are all symptoms that may be observed. Additionally, minimal or peculiar speech, lack of drive to act on one's own behalf, bizarre behavior, a wooden quality to one's emotions or near-absent emotionality are all typical psychotic symptoms that may occur in SFD. Part of defining SFD involves examining possible biological influences on the development of the individual's psychotic symptoms. When the psychotic features result from a physical disease, a reaction to medication, or intoxication with drugs or alcohol, then these symptoms are not considered SFD. Also, if hallucinations, delusions or other psychotic symptoms are experienced solely during episodes of clinical depression or mania, then SFD is not diagnosed. Instead, a mood disorder diagnosis is given. | Schizophreniform disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Schizophreniform disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Schizophreniform-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

69: Schizoaffective disorder | One of the most challenging mental disorders to identify accurately and treat appropriately is schizoaffective disorder. This condition involves both psychotic symptoms and conspicuous, long-enduring, severe symptoms of mood disorder. The cluster of symptoms experienced by persons with schizoaffective disorder can resemble—at various times in its course—bipolar disorder, major depressive episode with psychotic features, or schizophrenia . The schizoaffective disorder classification is applied when a mental health client meets diagnostic criteria for both schizophrenia and an "affective" (mood) disorder— depression or bipolar disorder . In schizoaffective disorder, the experiencing of mood and psychotic symptoms occurs predominantly simultaneously and the mood disturbance is long lasting. However, periods of experiencing serious psychotic symptoms without serious mood disturbance are also a definitive feature. In bipolar disorder and depression with psychotic features, psychotic symptoms only occur during an active episode of mania or severe clinical depression. Schizoaffective disorder is characterized by periods during which psychotic symptoms are experienced without simultaneous severe mood changes. If the patient is encountered for the first time during such a period of psychotic symptoms in the absence of mood changes, it can appear that the individual has schizophrenia. However, in a person who has psychotic symptoms, the presence of long-standing severe mood disturbance suggests possible schizoaffective disorder if there are also periods of psychotic symptoms without concurrent mood fluctuations. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Schizoaffective disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Schizoaffective-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

70: Delusional disorder is characterized by the presence of recurrent, persistent non-bizarre delusions . Delusions are irrational beliefs, held with a high level of conviction, that are highly resistant to change even when the delusional person is exposed to forms of proof that contradict the belief. Non-bizarre delusions are considered to be plausible; that is, there is a possibility that what the person believes to be true could actually occur a small proportion of the time. Conversely, bizarre delusions focus on matters that would be impossible in reality. For example, a non-bizarre delusion might be the belief that one's activities are constantly under observation by federal law enforcement or intelligence agencies, which actually does occur for a small number of people. By contrast, a man who believes he is pregnant with German Shepherd puppies holds a belief that could never come to pass in reality. Also, for beliefs to be considered delusional, the content or themes of the beliefs must be uncommon in the person's culture or religion. Generally, in delusional disorder, these mistaken beliefs are organized into a consistent world-view that is logical other than being based on an improbable foundation. In addition to giving evidence of a cluster of interrelated non-bizarre delusions, persons with delusional disorder experience hallucinations far less frequently than do individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder . | Delusional Disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Delusional Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Delusional-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

71: Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Brief Psychotic Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Brief-psychotic-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Brief Psychotic Disorder | Brief psychotic disorder is a short-term, time-limited disorder. An individual with brief psychotic disorder has experienced at least one of the major symptoms of psychosis for less than one month. Hallucinations , delusions , strange bodily movements or lack of movements (catatonic behavior), peculiar speech and bizarre or markedly inappropriate behavior are all classic psychotic symptoms that may occur in brief psychotic disorder. The cause of the symptoms helps to determine whether or not the sufferer is described as having brief psychotic disorder. If the psychotic symptoms appear as a result of a physical disease, a reaction to medication, or intoxication with drugs or alcohol, then the unusual behaviors are not classified as brief psychotic disorder. If hallucinations, delusions, or other psychotic symptoms occur at the same time that an individual is experiencing major clinical depression or bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, then the brief psychotic disorder diagnosis is not given. The decision rules that allow the clinician to identify this cluster of symptoms as brief psychotic disorder are outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition Text Revision, produced by the American Psychiatric Association. This manual is referred to by most mental health professionals as DSM-IV-TR .

72: Shared psychotic disorder, a rare and atypical psychotic disorder, occurs when an otherwise healthy person (secondary partner) begins believing the delusions of someone with whom they have a close relationship (primary partner) who is already suffering from a psychotic disorder with prominent delusions. This disorder is also referred to as "folie á deux." Description In cases of shared psychotic disorder, the primary partner is most often in a position of strong influence over the other person. This allows them, over time, to erode the defenses of the secondary partner, forcing their strange belief upon them. In the beginning, the secondary partner is probably healthy, but has such a passive or dependent relationship with the primary partner that imposition of the delusional system is but a matter of time. Most of the time, this disorder occurs in a nuclear family. In fact, more than 95% of the cases reported involved people in the same family. Without regard to the number of persons within the family, shared delusions generally involve two people. There is the primary, most often the dominant person, and the secondary or submissive person. This becomes fertile ground for the primary (dominant) partner to press for understanding and belief by others in the family. Shared psychotic disorder has also been referred to by other names such as psychosis of association, contagious insanity, infectious insanity, double insanity, and communicated insanity. There have been cases involving multiple persons, the most significant being a case involving an entire family of 12 people (folie á douze). | Shared Psychotic Disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Shared psychotic disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Shared-psychotic-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

73: Mayo Clinic (2011). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/adhd/DS00275. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012]. | Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder | Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often persists into adulthood. ADHD includes some combination of problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. While treatment won't cure ADHD, it can help a great deal with symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications and behavioral interventions. A diagnosis of ADHD can be scary, and symptoms can be a challenge for parents and children alike. However, treatment can make a big difference, and most children with ADHD grow up to be normal adults.

74: Learning Disorders | Learning disorders, or learning disabilities, are disorders that cause problems in speaking, listening, reading, writing, or mathematical ability. A learning disability, or specific developmental disorder, is a disorder that inhibits or interferes with the skills of learning. Under federal law, public schools consider a child to be learning disabled if his or her level of academic achievement is two or more years below the standard for age and IQ level. The Fourth Edition Text Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM-IV-TR , a handbook that mental health professionals use to diagnose mental disorders) uses the term learning disorder and defines this as cognitive difficulties arising from brain dysfunction. It is estimated that 5% to 20% of school-age children in the United States, mostly boys, suffer from learning disabilities. Often, learning disabilities appear together with other disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Learning disorders are thought to be caused by irregularities in the functioning of certain parts of the brain. Evidence suggests that these irregularities are often inherited (i.e. a person is more likely to develop a learning disability if other family members have them). Learning disabilities are also associated with certain conditions occurring during fetal development or birth, including maternal use of alcohol, drugs, and tobacco; exposure to infection; injury during birth; low birth weight; and sensory deprivation. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Learning Disorders. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Learning-disorders.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

75: Autism | The term "autism" refers to a cluster of conditions appearing early in childhood. All involve severe impairments in social interaction, communication, imaginative abilities, and rigid, repetitive behaviors. To be considered an autistic disorder, some of these impairments must be manifest before the age of three. The reference book used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM . The 2000 edition of this reference book (the Fourth Edition Text Revision known as DSM-IV-TR ) places autism in a category called pervasive developmental disorders . All of these disorders are characterized by ongoing problems with mutual social interaction and communication, or the presence of strange, repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities. People diagnosed with these disorders are affected in many ways for their entire lives. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Autism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Autism.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

76: Asperger's disorder, which is also called Asperger's syndrome (AS) or autistic psychopathy, belongs to a group of childhood disorders known as pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) or autistic spectrum disorders. The essential features of Asperger's disorder are severe social interaction impairment and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and activities. It is similar to autism , but children with Asperger's do not have the same difficulties in acquiring language that children with autism have. In the mental health professional's diagnostic hand book, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition text revised, or DSM-IV-TR , Asperger's disorder is classified as a developmental disorder of childhood. Description AS was first described by Hans Asperger, an Austrian psychiatrist , in 1944. Asperger's work was unavailable in English before the mid-1970s; as a result, AS was often unrecognized in English-speaking countries until the late 1980s. Before DSM-IV (published in 1994) there was no officially agreed-upon definition of AS. In the words of ICD-10, the European equivalent of the DSM-IV, Asperger's is "a disorder of uncertain nosological validity." (Nosological refers to the classification of diseases.) There are three major reasons for this lack of clarity: differences between the diagnostic criteria used in Europe and those used in the United States; the fact that some of the diagnostic criteria depend on the observer's interpretation rather than objective measurements; and the fact that the clinical picture of Asperger's changes as the child grows older. | Asperger's disorder | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Asperger's disorder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Asperger-s-disorder.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

77: Mental Retardation | Mental retardation (MR) is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18. It is defined as a level of intellectual functioning (as measured by standard intelligence tests ) that is well below average and results in significant limitations in the person's daily living skills (adaptive functioning). Description Mental retardation begins in childhood or adolescence before the age of 18. In most cases, it persists throughout adult life. A diagnosis of mental retardation is made if an individual has an intellectual functioning level well below average, as well as significant limitations in two or more adaptive skill areas. Intellectual functioning level is defined by standardized tests that measure the ability to reason in terms of mental age (intelligence quotient or IQ). Mental retardation is defined as an IQ score below 70–75. Adaptive skills is a term that refers to skills needed for daily life. Such skills include the ability to produce and understand language (communication); home-living skills; use of community resources; health, safety, leisure, self-care, and social skills; self-direction; functional academic skills (reading, writing, and arithmetic); and job-related skills. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Mental Retardation. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Mental-retardation.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

78: Delirium | Delirium is a medical condition characterized by a vascillating general disorientation, which is accompanied by cognitive impairment, mood shift, self-awareness, and inability to attend (the inability to focus and maintain attention). The change occurs over a short period of time— hours to days— and the disturbance in consciousness fluctuates throughout the day. Description The word delirium comes from the Latin delirare . In its Latin form, the word means to become crazy or to rave. A phrase often used to describe delirium is "clouding of consciousness," meaning the person has a diminished awareness of their surroundings. While the delirium is active, the person tends to fade into and out of lucidity, meaning that he or she will sometimes appear to know what's going on, and at other times, may show disorientation to time, place, person, or situation. It appears that the longer the delirium goes untreated, the more progressive the disorientation becomes. It usually begins with disorientation to time, during which a patient will declare it to be morning, even though it may be late night. Later, the person may state that he or she is in a different place rather than at home or in a hospital bed. Still later, the patient may not recognize loved ones, close friends, or relatives, or may insist that a visitor is someone else altogether. Finally, the patient may not recognize the reason for his/her hospitalization and might accuse staff or others of some covert reason for his/her hospitalization (see example below). In fact, this waxing and waning of consciousness is often worse at the end of a day, a phenomenon known as "sundowning." | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Delirium. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Delirium.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

79: Dementia isn't a specific disease. Instead, dementia describes a group of symptoms affecting intellectual and social abilities severely enough to interfere with daily functioning. Many causes of dementia symptoms exist. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of a progressive dementia. Memory loss generally occurs in dementia, but memory loss alone doesn't mean you have dementia. Dementia indicates problems with at least two brain functions, such as memory loss and impaired judgment or language. Dementia can make you confused and unable to remember people and names. You also may experience changes in personality and social behavior. However, some causes of dementia are treatable and even reversible. | Dementia | Mayo Clinic (2011). Dementia. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dementia/DS01131. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

80: Amnestic Disorder | The amnestic disorders are a group of disorders that involve loss of memories previously established, loss of the ability to create new memories, or loss of the ability to learn new information. As defined by the mental health professional's handbook, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , fourth edition, text revision (2000), also known as DSM-IV-TR , the amnestic disorders result from two basic causes: general medical conditions that produce memory disturbances; and exposure to a chemical (drug of abuse, medication, or environmental toxin). An amnestic disorder whose cause cannot be definitely established may be given the diagnosis of amnestic disorder not otherwise specified. Description The amnestic disorders are characterized by problems with memory function. There is a range of symptoms associated with the amnestic disorders, as well as differences in the severity of symptoms. Some people experience difficulty recalling events that happened or facts that they learned before the onset of the amnestic disorder. This type of amnesia is called retrograde amnesia. Other people experience the inability to learn new facts or retain new memories, which is called anterograde amnesia. People with amnestic disorders do not usually forget all of their personal history and their identity, although memory loss of this degree of severity occurs in rare instances in patients with dissociative disorders. | Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2000). Amnestic Disorders. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.minddisorders.com/A-Br/Amnestic-disorders.html. [Last Accessed 4 May 2012].

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Rachel Connett
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  • Title: Creative Disorders
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