BC: East Gold Yam Pharaoh Tutankhamen
FC: Everyday Ancient Egypt | Julia G. 1/4/11
1: Table of Contents | 1. Nile River 2. Old Kingdom 3. Pyramids 4. Pharaohs 5. Religious beliefs | 6. Middle Kingdom 7. Hieroglyphics 8. New Kingdom Religion 9. Decline of Egypt 10. Contributions
2: The Nile | One of the most important rivers to us Egyptians is the Nile. It is 4,184 miles long stretching from Central Africa to the Mediterranean Sea. The last few miles of the river, which fans out into a delta, are located in Egypt. Every year snow from the mountains in Africa melts into water which then deposits into the Nile River. In the spring, the Nile overflows its banks. When the water recedes, all that is left is the moist, rich soil which is perfect condition for us to grow crops.
3: The Old Kingdom | We work hard every day to survive. Some of the tasks we do is manage irrigation which is very important to our crops. Using the Nile River, we irrigate our crops for a healthy harvest. Normally, farmers build pyramids as tombs for our pharaohs. When the river overflows, they have spare time to build the pyramids. If we are left with nothing to do, sometimes we create jewelry or craft furniture.
4: Pyramids | The people of Egypt show how they feel about pharaohs by building them pyramids. We Egyptians build these works on the west bank of the Nile. We bury our pharaohs and queens in the specially constructed pyramids. For the pharaoh's afterlife, we place all of their personal belongings in the pyramids. Limestone rocks and granite slabs are some of the materials we use to build the pyramids. We also build mud ramps to load these heavy blocks on top of each other.
5: Pharaohs | The most powerful people of Egypt are the pharaohs. Pharaohs are political and religious leaders. We often refer to them as "High Priest of Every Temple." Our pharaoh must be a trustworthy leader to be able to own all of Egypt's land, collect taxes, and protect Egypt and all of its people from foreigners. A pharaoh must be religious because they must represent our gods on earth. Pharaohs perform special rituals and have sacred temples built to honor the gods.
6: Religious Beliefs in the Old Kingdom | We believe that our pharaohs descended from the gods, so they are also chosen to carry out religious practices. When a person dies, we bury them in a temple (if they were important) and place food and their personal items at their burial site. The person's spirit uses the gifts that the people provide. | We Egyptians have many religious beliefs. Some of the gods we believe in include Ra, the sun god; Amun, the creator god; and Isis, the mother goddess.
7: The Middle Kingdom | Upper and Lower Egypt fought many wars. After a long series of wars, Upper Egypt won. Then, Upper and Lower Egypt separated. In B.C. 2000, Upper and Lower Egypt were reunited. Narmer, the King of Upper Egypt, led his armies into Lower Egypt and conquered it. Then he married one of Lower Egypt's citizens and our two areas were united. The first capital was Thebes.
8: Hieroglyphics | Hieroglyphics is a type of writing in which pictures stand for words and sounds. Single symbols are called glyphs. We carve and paint hieroglyphics on monuments and pyramids for pharaohs. There are around 700 to 800 glyphs in hieroglyphics. Only scribes, priests, and government officials use hieroglyphics.
9: Religion in the New Kingdom | We Egyptians still believe in many gods such as Anubis, Horus, Osiris, and Seth. We sacrifice animals to worship these gods. Every so often, we carry images of the gods from city to city to show our god our appreciation. Some people think that our pharaoh only represents a god, but others think that he is a god. | When a person dies, Anubis measures the deceased person's soul. If the soul is heavier than a feather, the person's soul is punished.
10: In 1100 - 730 B.C., after Ramses II rule, the decline of Ancient Egypt slowly started. There were internal divisions inside of our country. Upper and Lower Egypt were the main causes of this problem. High priests were becoming more and more powerful. Then the priests started to challenge the pharaohs. Egypt lost much of its land and broke into smaller states. | Egypt's Decline
11: Contributions | We Ancient Egyptians are very intelligent. We have contributed in many ways to your modern life. In modern arts, we created glass, paper, and ink. In modern schooling, we started geometry and the alphabet. In modern government, we formed a more united nation and a centralized government. For modern homes, we invented | furniture and linens. Finally, in modern mathematics, Egyptians established the clock, the calendar, and primary/secondary education. Without us, your modern lives would not be the same today.