S: Genocide in Rwanda
BC: This is a product of CCHS Holocaust and Genocides, Fall 2010.
FC: Genocide in Rwanda | Report by Jordan Tucker, Janel Sheppard, Paige Cohen, Ashley Matson, and Devin Davis
1: In Loving Memory of those victims of the Rwandan genocide. | We must never forget.
2: What is genocide?
3: ...any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: a. killing members of the group; b. causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; c. deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; d. imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; e. forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
4: http://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/03/world/heart-of-rwanda-s-darkness-slaughter-at-a-rural-church.html | Article 1: "Heart of Rwanda's Darkness: Slaughter at a Rural Church" This church was supposed to be a safe-haven for victims of political violence; instead, nearly 20,000 bodies of Tutsi tribe members that were shot or hacked to death by Hutu soldiers remain. This event happened April 16 and 17 in Nyarubuye; those who escaped were hunted down from the church, to the school, and then to the workshops outside. In the compound, there were eight rooms of bodies laying shoulder to shoulder, one hundred more in the courtyard, and many hidden in the tall grass. A victim's family member stated, "It took them two days to kill everyone in the church." Usually people who attacked whole towns buried their victims; it is believed that the attackers did not have enough time to do so; instead, bodies are sprawled out everywhere. Since civil war broke out on April 6, it is estimated that tens and hundreds of thousands have thousands have been killed. | "Only corpses and the sound of the wind remain." --The New York Times
5: Article 2: "Rwandans in Death Squad Say Choice Was Kill or Die" Almost one thousand Tutsi men, women, and children hid in a Roman Catholic Church in Kibuye to escape killings. "But a mob of several hundred Hutu men had no respect for the church or for life." After killing in the morning, the men went off and drank beer and went back to a soccer stadium the next day to throw grenades and beat to death seven thousand Tutsi; because it had gotten dark and some Tutsi people survived, the Hutu men had to go back the next day to finish them off. The UN is investigating this massacre and others similar to them in order to find out why this genocide is occurring because it is happening for a reason. Many people wonder why so many outsiders stood by and watched people that were their neighbors being brutally murdered. Many men said they joined in the killings to save their own lives, even if Tutsi people had been harbored in their homes. Many tried to prove that they were not part of the Tutsi-dominated rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). | http://www.nytimes.com/1994/08/14/world/rwandians-in-death-squad-say-choice-was-kill-or-die.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm | "We were forced to move with the killers in order not to be killed." --Evode Micomyiza, civics teacher, 33
6: Article 3: "U.N. Study Accuses Hutu in Rwanda Killings" The United Nations has confirmed that the massacres taken out against the Tutsi by Hutu militants were actually genocide; it is a misconception that the Tutsi retaliated, but this is proved as false. One investigator stated that, "[the] acts of genocide against the Tutsi group were perpetrated by Hutu elements in a concerted, planned, systematic and methodical way." With the evidence gained about Hutu leaders, it is foreshadowed that an international tribunal will occur to indict them. It is estimated that nearly 500,000 civilians have been killed since the spring. The UN hopes to indict nearly 85,000 Hutu refugees living in camps. Rwanda's prime minister, Faustin Twagiramungu, says that the country needs foreign aid to help rebuild their economy, rebuild homes, and give two million displaced persons seeds to start their lives over. | http://www.nytimes.com/1994/12/03/world/un-study-accuses-hutu-in-rwanda-killings.html
7: Article 4: "Rwanda Genocide Survivor Recalls Horror" An interview with Immaculee Illibagiza was held on the show called 60 Minutes. She said “I remember looking up to the hill across the river. And I saw somebody actually with a machete cutting somebody. And we were all like, ‘Wow! They’re going to kill us.’” She said that there were no gas chambers like in the Holocaust, there were just machetes, spears, and knives. They hand picked and hand killed all of their victims. Wherever they saw a Tutsis, they would kill them right then and there, leaving the dead bodies in the same spot they were dropped, to scare all of the others who walked by. She also talked about her father who wanted her to run to a minister’s house three miles away so she could stay alive. She asked no questions, went and told him when she got there that her father had sent her. She then explained that there were six other women in his house and they were put away in a three by four foot bathroom where no one could find them. They stayed in that little tiny place for 91 days straight. Eventually, they did find the women, and she escaped through the window of the bathroom. | http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/11/30/60minutes/main2218371.shtml
8: Article 5: "10 Years Later in Rwanda, The Dead Are Ever Present" Emmanuel Murangira, a survivor of a Hutu massacre, guides others in the memorial of a technical school; he shows them classrooms with some remaining corpses that have been treated to decompose at a slower rate. "The stench is overpowering. The scene is worse still." Rwandan authorities are working diligently to bury the remaining bones of 800,000 Tutsis. Some want the bones to remain untouched as evidence that the genocide did occur; others believe in the country's tradition of burying the dead. Those in charge of creating memorials are trying to come up with a method to put the bones behind dark glass, satisfying both parties. In order to make the country more united, "the Tutsi-led government that now runs Rwanda has eliminated ethnicity from identity cards and made it a crime to say or do anything that can be construed as ''divisionist.'' With the mark of the tenth anniversary of the genocide, the President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame, hopes to gain national attention and bring forth awareness. | http://www.nytimes.com/2004/02/26/world/10-years-later-in-rwanda-the-dead-are-ever-present.html
9: Article 6: "Rwanda: How The Genocide Happened" From the beginning of the genocide in April to June 1994, over 800,000 people became victims of mass-killings. It all started when the Rwandan President, a Hutu, was shot down in his plane. From then on, groups Hutu men plotted against the Tutsis. The current Rwandan President, Kagame, was blamed for the incident because he was the leader of a Tutsi rebel group during that time. He still claims that it was actually a hoax planned by the Hutus. Even though the two tribes shared the same language, land, and traditions, the Tutsis were suspected to be of Ethiopian descent. Initially, Belgian colonists believed that the Tutsis were the inferior tribe; they were giving better opportunities. After Rwanda was granted independence in 1962, the Hutus took over power. The RPF was formed by a group Tutsis in order to overthrow the Hutu president because of the horrible economics. After the president's plan was shot down, the Hutus saw the Tutsis as a collective group, so they decided to take revenge on them. | http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1288230.stm
10: Rwandan Population Data
11: Article 7: "Rwanda" In April of 1994, the Hutus planned and carried out an attack against the Tutsi population in Rwanda. In one hundred days, hundreds of thousands of people were murdered and raped, and this was collectively named genocide. This genocide ended in July of 1994 and over 100,000 were accused as perpetrators and imprisoned. Victims were faced with lasting effects from this crime such as HIV/Aids and a significant lack of wealth. Some of these survivors are faced with threats of violence, sometimes being attacked and the Tutsi still live in fear. For dealing with those accused of being participants in the genocide, Gacaca was established and used. Gacaca: Taking its name from the grass called umucaca, and the original Gacaca, it is a form of justice that involves electing nine judges (called Inyangamugayo) who listen to testimonies from the community about who killed who, etc. In the four categories of crime (leaders of the genocide, attacks resulting in death, attacks not resulting in death, theft), Gacaca is used for all but the first category: Leaders of the genocide. | http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007216
12: United States Involvement Through correspondence documents found from the Clinton Administration, it is evident that the administration knew that the genocide about in Rwanda but did not want to act. The cabinet knew that a "final solution" was being made to wipe out all people of the Tutsi tribe. The country had already been sucked into helping Somalia in the past by fighting; Former President Clinton also didn't see any reason for helping Rwanda because there were no beneficial resources for the US, such as minerals or oil. Clinton also did not call the malicious acts being committed by the Hutus on the Tutsis as genocide. Clinton went to Rwanda to apologize to the people for not acting out and calling the massacres genocide sooner. We personally believe that he cannot say sorry for what he lacked to do.
13: Compare Both Jews and Tutsis were seen as threats to the Germany and Rwanda, respectively. Refugee camps were set up in both situations for displaced persons. Some brave people sheltered victims of genocide in their homes. Mass graves were dug by the people who committed massacres in order to hide evidence for both genocides. Some men joined the Nazis and the Hutus for self-preservation. They didn't want to risk dying if they didn't support. Both genocides had killing squads. | Contrast The Rwandan genocide started because a political leader was killed. There were no concentration camps for the Tutsis; they were just shot. The Hutus didn't always destroy the evidence. The Rwandan genocide lasted for a shorter amount of time. The United States had less involvement in the Rwandan genocide than in the Holocaust. | Holocaust vs. Rwandan Genocide
14: How can we combat on-going genocide? 1. Be informed and inform others. There are many people who don't even know what genocide is. It's our civic duty to learn about genocides around the world and encourage others to stop the hate. 2. Set an example for others. Show others that in order to be loved, we have to love others. Kindness can go a long way and discourage violence. 3. Don't give up hope. It may not seem that what we can do can make a difference, but I have to stay strong. A little can always go a long way if I put our mind to it.
15: Together, we can change the world.
16: Works Cited "allAfrica.com: Topical Focus Page: Rwanda, Human Rights and the Commonwealth." allAfrica.com: Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2011.
17: " Google Image Result for http://cdn.wn.com/pd/ee/f6/96cdce0f77eabadf126f1f5cac07_grande.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2011.
18: " Google Image Result for http://www.rebuildingyou.com/images/stories/journey-begins-single-step.jpg." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2011.
19: " US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide | World news | The Guardian ." Latest news, comment and reviews from the Guardian | guardian.co.uk . N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2011.