FC: HAITIAN REVOLUTION BY: Alison G., Birna G., Rebecca M., Charlie A., Cathy S., Georgia H., Nick G., Connor A., Timothy N., Ashley K., Matt. S, Austin R.
1: Table of Contents: Prologue........... Page 2 - 9 Diary Entries of Jacques Pages 10-15 Diary Entries of Jean-Jacques Pages 16-21 Diary Entries of ......... Diary Entries of.......... Diary Entries of.......... Diary Entries of.......... Diary Entries of.........,. Diary Entries of.......... Diary Entries of.......... Diary Entries of.......... Diary Entries of Johanne......... Page 44 - 51 Diary Entries of Toussaint L'Ouverture Page 42 - 47 Epilogue......... - Economic status Page 68-71 Photo Credits............. Page 4
4: This timeline starts in 1780, due to the fact that at that time independent thinkers were stirring ideas of a revolution. Nine years later, a French Revolution and National Assembly grants rights to mulattoes-a small victory for Haiti but is just the start. In 1790 the first grand scale rebellion was led by Vincent Oge, who lead mulattoes in a rebellion in the North. In 1791 a slave revolt sets sparks as a former voodoo priest by the name of Dutty Boukman leads slaves to fight for independence. Thousands of slaves and Frenchmen are killed. Boukman is eventually captured and killed, beheaded in November, 1791. 1793 was a big year; a revolutionary leader, Toussaint L'Ouverture, leads black rebels in a revolt. He is the only successful leader of the rebellions so far. As a result, French Commissioner Sonothax declares that all slaves are freed. Slaves become disenfranchised people, joining the group of free people of color. in 1797, Sonothax declares Tussaint the commander of the French forces. This is a turning point for Haiti, because in the next year French troops leave Haiti completely.
5: Since the French have left, mulattoes are trying to gain control. In 1799 the War of Knives takes place, led by L'Ouverture, and it eventually becomes a massacre of thousands. However, it ends up being a major victory for L'Ouverture. In 1801 he is declared governor-general for life by the Saint Domingue assembly. He remains in this position until captured and jailed by the French. 1802 is when the French army tries to take control of Saint Domingue again. This only lasts 2 years until Saint Domingue is declared independent and renames itself “Haiti”. The remaining French in the new country are killed.
7: The Haitian Revolution was from 1791 to 1804. It was a period of conflict between the slaves and the French government in St. Domingue, a French colony at the time. This slave rebellion turned out to be one of the only successful revolutions for the slaves during that time period and is regarded as a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New World. Napoleon had sent commissioners into St. Domingue to try and restore the old order. The slaves revolted because they were not given freedom or their civil rights. Toussaint l’Ouverture, a former slave and leader of this slave revolt, achieved peace and established Haiti as the first republic ruled by people of African ancestry.
10: September 21, 1791 Dear Diary, I haven’t slept in days the constant question in my head seeps through at night and keeps me wide-awake. Should I stay loyal to France? Or should I do what my brother did, and join the political liberal movement? I am deprived of my right to vote, as well as other rights, so why should I stay loyal to France? But, who knows, if France really controls us, it could hurt me to join the revolution. Its difficult for my people to pick a side, and it is assumed that we joined the movement. I could get killed either way. Being a disenfranchised man in Saint Domingue, just a small colony, is not where I imagined myself being. Its my dream to vote, that’s all I want. Working on the plantation in the past, I waited for this day to come so I could be free. I thought I would have the rights of my fellow self-proclaimed black nationhood, but I quickly discovered we don’t have many rights at all. I know many people that are just fleeing, refugees from the Caribbean that see hope in the United States. Nearly a third of us without rights are of African descent, and that includes slaves and the free people of color. I know this is raising issues about slavery and race. There are many refugees that are white planters though I really can’t make up my mind. Should I join the rest of my people in the political movement? What is there to lose? I would rather die for my rights than to be unhappy, and potentially killed from being loyal to France.
11: It seems like being loyal to France isn’t worth it. What has France done for me? They founded a colony, purely for money. They haven’t given my people many rights. We make up half the free population of Saint Domingue. There are the free people of color, which have at least some African ancestry who have attained freedom. Still, many wealthy planters and merchants don’t have the right to vote. Myself, I am a free person of color, but I’m deprived of my right to vote. I want to fight for those rights, don’t I? I should stand up for what I believe in. I should follow in the footsteps of my brother, a revolutionary hero. I should protect my family, and give my son the right to vote when he is older. Tomorrow, I shall finally join this political movement for equality. I’l do it for myself, my brother, and my nation. Get excited, France. Saint Domingue will become independent, I can feel it. Sincerely, Jacque This entry is based on information from: http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/Topics/Display/1185773?cid=41&terms=haiti+revolution "From Slavery to Independence (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
12: Dear Marcus, November 22, 1791 Napoleon Bonaparte’s regime has forced us to make choice between political equality and freedom vs. loyalty to France. I did sit on the fence for a while about this issue, but am now proud to say that I have chosen to join the political movement. I now understand your passion and devotion for the colony. I used to just hope that someday we would be free, but now I know we all have the power to do it. There was a slave revolt near my village in August. The slaves are known for taking part in these events, as they have the most to fight for. Anyway, they were chanting “Freedom!” loudly around the Normand de Mezy plantation, and thing got violent quickly. In Morne Rouge, not much happens, so when revolts occur, news travels fast. I wasn’t a witness of the revolt but I know many details. The leader of the revolt was a man called Boukman Dutty. Rumor has it that he was a voodoo priest in the south, and he starts revolts that vow “death to all whites”. I wonder if he knows that there are still white plantation owners without the right to vote, among other rights. Well, today, you probably were a witness of Boukman’s head on a pike, after he was beheaded and burned. What has happened to the revolutionaries, brother? Placing Dutty’s head on a pike wont scare us from the French, it is just angering us further and making us work harder. I believe he was beheaded in Cap Francias, sometime last week, so you have probably heard about the horrid incident
13: . I felt the need to write to you about this, brother, because I am worried about you. We don’t have many rights, but you don’t let that stop you for fighting for our nation. I am worried that you will end up like Boukman, though. God forbid you do, but if anything happens, I want you to know I am proud of you for serving our nation. I don’t take part in the revolt most of the time, even though I do support the movement. I just have to lay low, incase they enslave me again. I don’t want to sacrifice my bit of freedom for this revolution. I can’t see the effects yet, but I’m sure they will come clear soon. At least, I hope so. Take care, Your brother, Jacques This entry was based off of information from these sources: Girard, Philippe A. "Boukman Dutty." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/ "Revolutions in Latin America: Haitian Rebels (Opponent Overview)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.
14: Dear Diary, July, 1793 I’ve come to terms with the fact that my people are not represented by anybody. Revolutionaries either overlook us, or see us as bodies to use. Even my own brother has become too obsessed with the revolution to remember that I don’t have any rights. I can’t visit him anymore, its too dangerous with the possibility of a revolt lurking. In fact, I haven’t received a letter from him in a couple months. I’ve let my mind only gently touch the subject of the possibilities of his well, death. I warned him about getting too involved. I told him what happened to Boukman Dutty. I guess I am lucky to not be represented, because there aren’t major expectations for me. I mean, as a supporter of independence, I have some responsibilities, but at least I don’t have to deal with having the responsibilities of the wealthy, the slaves, or the revolutionaries. The wealthy have to seek control, even the mulattos. You don’t see many wealthy people where I live, but that’s because I live in an established place for my people. We are in the middle of everything, but we are the biggest group. I don’t have a certain way to act, except for to lay low and not be too involved. I can’t vote, so I don’t have much of a voice in society. I can’t have an opinion about politics, or at least I can’t use it. I hope this revolution changes things. That’s the reason why I supported it in the first place. I thought it would get me my rights, I would finally be represented by a party that has responsibilities and visible qualities. I have that, but we are a self-proclaimed group of people, not generally seen or even known in society.
15: I just want to be a “somebody”, like my brother. He’s seen as a local revolutionary leader. He won’t go down in history or anything, but he is organized and involved. He was still a slave when he led revolts at the beginning of this whole war, but I had escaped. I earned a few rights, like the right to own property, but I still don’t have the right to vote. Technically, I’m not a citizen of any country. It’s a scary thought. I’m not represented, but this movement for independence will change all that. We are so close, I can feel it. Sincerely, Jacques This diary entry was based off of information from these sources: "Revolutions in Latin America: Haitian Rebels (Opponent Overview)." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/ Mead, Karen. "Haitian Revolution: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.
16: August 15, 1791 Dear Diary, We are finally starting to revolt against our oppressive French masters. Dutty Boukman, a voodoo priest, has signaled for a war to give us all: slaves, free blacks, and mulattoes, freedom. We are the reason this colony is the most prosperous colony in the world. We deserve to have equal rights as the people that do nothing but force us to do their bidding. The French should not be considered our superiors just because they are white and we have colored skin. It is fantastic that we started fighting our terrible “leaders” yesterday. We finally started it, mulattoes and free blacks began to fight the French in Port-au-Prince. We fought very bravely, no matter how many French tried to hold us back we continued to fight with whatever we could find. Once I ran out of ammunition for my gun I kept going after them with a wooden board. Nothing could keep me from attacking them, we must win our equality, freedom for slaves, and independence from France. At the same time, many slaves tried to overpower their masters. People are saying they weren’t very successful, however the fact that the call for war has reached the slaves shows that everyone that is treated unequally will rise up against France. I feel very confident about this revolution, I know that we can overthrow the French government. Some people have even said that Spain or Britain may be willing to help us with our efforts. I know that even without outside help we can end slavery and make Saint Domingue an independent nation. Sincerely, Jean-Jacques
17: diary entry inspired by data from: "Haitian Revolution." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 27 Oct. 2010.
18: February 20, 1801 Dear Diary, Over the last few years we have had the blessing of having a great new general, Toussaint L’Ouverture. He has time and time again proved to be a great leader that is capable of winning battles. He even helped to cause France to end slavery. However, to do this he had to agree with France to help fight against Britain, who invaded Saint Domingue. While it is great that there is no more slavery, by defeating Britain, France has gotten full control over us once again. However, since Toussaint restored control to Saint Domingue, he had a lot of power and made himself leader of us all. He has proved to be a very good leader. He has had many great victories. Including when we defeated another invading British force. Also, he ended slavery in Santo Domingo, the country to the east. While i was not there for it, I heard that he did it with such ease. It only took him two months to achieve his goal. Unfortunately, we are still technically controlled by France even though Toussaint has ruled by himself. For this revoulution to be a complete success we must exceed beyond our goals of simply being equal people among the French. We must eliminate the French from OUR country all together. I’m sure that Toussaint will make that happen very soon though. Vive la révolution! Sincerely, Jean-Jacques
19: Diary entry inspired by information from: "From Slavery to Independence (Visual)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. "Toussaint L'Ouverture." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 22 Nov. 2010.
20: November 25, 1803 Dear Diary, Two years ago Toussaint L’Ouverture wrote a constitution freeing us from French rule making us our own country. We thought we had finally reached our ultimate goal. However, Napolean decided that was unacceptable and sent forces to retake our land. During this Leclerc, Napolean’s brother, arrested Toussaint, who sadly died in a French jail. However, we still had people willing to fight against the French once again. Our new leader, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, was an ally of Toussaint and helped to defeat Leclerc in battles. Luckily, they started fighting before France could reinstate slavery, which they intended to do. These battles were even easier because much of the French army died of yellow fever, including Leclerc. The French army, for the first time, was out numbered by us. Napolean seemed to have lost interest in his efforts hear, because he didn’t send any reinforcements for his sickened troops. Anyway, we finally finished them off in the battle at Vertires. We fought hard, fighting until there were no more French to fight. I can still see that day in my dreams. The choking clouds of smoke from our guns and canons, the sight of seeing bullets ripping through French soldiers, and best of all the sight of them retreating. After that battle, the French sailed back home.
21: We are, hopefully, free once and for all. All that is left is for Jean-Jacques to make a constitution and take command. All twelve years of fighting has been necessary to finally be free. The only thing that makes me sad is that so many people that helped make this happen will never see it actually happen. Sincerely, Jean-Jacques ______________________________________________ Diary entry inspired by information from: Which accompanied the meeting of the President of the United States to both Houses of Congress, January 19, 1797 Letter to Mr. Pinkney, Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to the French Republic. (1797, February 13). Connecticut Courant (1791-1837),p. 1. Retrieved November 22, 2010, from ProQuest Historical Newspapers Hartford Courant (1764 - 1922). rebel
22: Dear Diary, July 19, 1791 All I really want is independence. My husband, two daughters and I just want to be free of all these ridiculous white people living here in Haiti. It's as though all they ever want to do is fight with us. Recently, many wars have been breaking out between us blacks and the whites, and it's extremely maddening. I mean on the first hand its the middle of July, the heat is almost unbearable. It's unhealthy for my husband and I to be out fighting in this kind of heat. Ever since the French Assembly passed a law stating that all men born of free parents have full citizenship, the white men have been fighting us for independence in the capital, Port-au-Prince. It's beginning to get old. I mean at this point it isn't even the government who we're fighting with, its our fellow citizens. I don't understand why they always have to look down upon us, I mean just because we're a different race doesn't mean we're a lesser person. Now all of a sudden, my whole family is putting their lives on the line everyday, rioting outside near the fields where my husband works. The whites will attack at any chance given. I mean that doesn't go without saying that us blacks are angels to them, because we aren't. But they are most definitely the instigators. Luckily, all our other friends and family are there with us, fighting off the whites. I’m sort of upset with the government though, I mean why can't they just step in and help us for once. They can see we're struggling. And these white people are just so persistent. I feel like we'll never be given a break.
23: All I really care now is getting things to return back to normal. I wouldn't necessarily say I want to take back all the progress we've made over the last few years. I am certainly a fan of the few rights we've been granted, like this new found citizenship we have. But I just wish all this fighting would end. For my children's sake. Who would want to grow up in a time period like this? I’m just hoping and praying, that things will start to look up before something terrible happens. That maybe we'll be free before the new century comes around. Alright well, my daughter is summoning me, so I must go. Until next time, Sandra _______________________________________________________________________ Diary Entry inspired by information from: Mead, Karen. "Haitian Revolution: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.
24: Dear Diary, May 30,1794 Things are starting to get bad here. Moms are sacrificing themselves AND their kids in these fights. Slaves are revolting against their masters and getting killed left and right. People are going crazy, but now that this has been going on for some time I’m finally understanding why everyone wants to fight. I’m seeing the reasons why everyone is so into the rebelling. We deserve to be an independent country. Not to mention, but we’re getting so close, it would be a shame and complete waste of time to just let it go now. Two years ago, 1792, in April all free black men of color were granted citizenship. I’m starting to notice that all our hard work and all our efforts have paid off. If we keep it up, there’s a good chance that we WILL get the independence we’ve been fighting for. Especially with this new leader who has taken over the revolution. He seems like he knows what he’s doing and I really respect him, Toussaint L'Ouverture. He’s mainly helping us with the slave revolts. My favorite thing about him is how you know he will listen to his followers and take and suggestions they have because he too once used to be a slave, and he rose form enslavement. Along with that, he was a brilliant general.
25: I don’t know much about him because he literally just assumed the position of power, but so far so good. He’s doing a good job of keeping everything organized and everybody motivated. He has a real way with the two different social groups here in Haiti, he’s been doing a spectacular job with getting rid of any tensions among us all. I’m excited having someone new in charge. It sends a good message to all the people that we will continue to fight, and get the rights we deserve even if it means we have to change up the leaders every now and again. As happy as I am about all this, I would be lying if I said I wasn’t sort of nervous. I just don’t know what to expect, you know? I mean sometimes I’ll have these dreams that we’ll never reach our goal, that our endeavor will fail. Then at the same time, my husband is always so enthusiastic about it, which then makes me feel better. It seems like that’s how this whole revolution has been working, everyone is just feeding off of each others enthusiasm. As of right now, I’m not really sure about much of anything, except that I really do like this Toussaint L'Ouverture man. I’ll keep you updated, Sandra __________________________________________________________________________ Diary Entry inspired by information from: Mead, Karen. "Haitian Revolution: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.
26: Dear Diary, August 28, 1804 We’re having a breakthrough, it’s 1804, and things are looking better than ever. It’s the beginning of February and Haiti is now an independent country. Toussaint L'Ouverture has proven he’s worthy of all leadership we’ve given him. | He is so manipulative with the French government, it never fails to amaze me. A lot has happened since Toussaint was first appointed leader, one of the main events being that the French betrayed him. As a result of his arrest, Toussaint’s general Jean-Jacques Dessalines provoked and led a war against the French. When Napoleon said, “My decision to destroy the authority of the blacks in Saint Domingue is not so much based on considerations of commerce and money, as on the need to block for ever the march of the blacks in the world”(Napoleon Bonaparte) Haiti went crazy. Every one of my fellow colored people starting rebelling. I just don’t understand what would make somebody say such a horrible thing. Especially if we’re revolting, doesn’t he know that, this would just enrage us even more? It’s like he’s giving this revolution fuel, he’s supplying us with more desire to come out on top.
27: Unfortunately, our greatest leader is now out of commission. They’ve got him locked away, Toussaint. It’s funny though, he’s really taught us all a great lesson. On December 12, 1798, just a few years after L’Ouverture took charge the London Gazette wrote this exact words about him, “Toussaint is a Negro and in the jargon of war has been called a brigand. But according to all accounts he is a Negro born to vindicate the claims of this species and to show that the character of men is independent of color”. Everyone who knows Toussaint, or even knows of him is aware of what a spectacular person he is. He’s given us all so much courage throughout this whole revolution and I know for a fact we wouldn’t have been able to do it without him. I hate to even remember the day, April 7, 1803, when he passed on. Nobody likes talking about it much, because it was such an emotional time, but in the end we did get our independence which I know is what he wanted. Seeing as he died with hopes of succeeding, when we did achieve our goals, my heart didn’t ache for him like I thought it would. I knew it was what he would have wanted for us, so I’m just happy that we didn’t fail, for his sake. While some people believe January 1st, 1804 was the best day of their lives, the day Haiti was declared independent, others could consider the day Toussaint L’Ouverature came into our lives as one of the best days. Signing off as a free woman, Sandra ______________________________________________________________________________ Diary information inspired by: Marley, David F. (2010). Revolutions in Latin America (Consequences). In World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/ Watts, Tim. (2010). Toussaint L'Ouverture. In World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/ Carruthers', Jacob H. "Haiti 200 years of black independence: on New Year's Day, Haiti celebrated 200 years of independence, the second black nation in the Western hemisphere to achieve independence in 1804. This is the concluding part of the extract from Dr Jacob H. Carruthers' book, The Irritated Genie, on the amazing story of the Haitian Revolution. Sadly, Dr Carruthers passed away on 4 January 2004 (See p66)." New African Feb. 2004: 58+. General OneFile. Web. 1 Nov. 2010.
28: Dear Diary, December 11, 1791 It has been over 7 months since I have last written in my diary. A lot has happened here in St. Domingue over these longs months. Right now, my fellow officers and I are stationed at Cap Francais although it doesn’t look like it did when I got here last June, the last time I journaled. For the past months, I have been involved in trying to end the slave rebellions and bring order back to St. Domingue, although a very grueling task. I have been appointed the chief commander. The months have been blurring together but I believe it was September when Colonel Mauduit Duplessis, our royal commander, was killed by an angry mob therefore enabling me to take over. I live in danger here. I truly thought that when the constituent assembly gave mulattos and free blacks political rights the country would not be so dangerous and violent. Apparently, I was wrong. I first knew us French would need to take annitiative when I accompanied spies to the northern part of St. Domingue. We witnessed Jean-Francois, Biassou and Jeannot taking part in a voodoo ceremony which I believe is the landmark that sparked the uprising. As the voodoo drums beat, rebellious leaders led the assembled slaves to rise
29: up against their masters while chanting, “Throw away the symbol of the god of the whites who has so often caused us to weep, and listen to the voice of liberty, which speaks in the hearts of us all.” On that night, August 20, the slaves revolted; first at the Gallifet plantation, then across the North plain, and soon came to where my troops were stationed. They got to Cap Francais 2 days after the ceremony and ready to attack. There were at least a half-million slaves in St. Domingue outnumbering white colonists by more than ten to one and killing all whites that came in their reach. The rebels revolted, killing many of my troops. I had not yet arrived back when they attacked which is why I survived. When I did finally arrived, a roaring fire had destroyed the buildings and the ground was filled with ash. I walked over blood stained grass praying to god and wishing I was back at home in France with my wife and children. Over the next three weeks, the Haitian slaves burned every plantation throughout the fertile regions of Haiti and executed all Frenchmen they could find. Because of this violence, the Colonial Assembly recognized the Paris decree which granted citizenship to all free blacks. I believed this was a good idea so they would stop fighting but then the general Assembly in Paris revoked it causing more uproar. It was really difficult for me to handle being the chief government
30: official so I wrote to Napoleon and asked him to send a few more leaders to help me with the revolution. Commissioners Roume, Saint-Leger, and Mirbeck should be landing here in St. Domingue soon to help restore the order. Rumor has it, that Toussaint has joined forces with the rebellion. He is said to be strong, intelligent and a very talented leader. I fear him and how he will rally his troops against us. I am currently waiting in hiding until these commissioners come to plan our next attack and preparing myself for the many more years of violence to come. Yours Truly, Monsieur Jacques C. Petain Diary Entry Inspired by information from: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=3&did=951714742&SrchMode=1&sid=15&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1289763412&clientId=56189, http://www.workers.org/2010/world/racist_media_0128/, http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=Roume
32: Dear Diary, December 25, 1799 Sad to say we are not very successful in our fight to bring order back to St. Domingue at this time as Napoleon would have liked. When Sonthonax was sent here to help me defeat these rebels, he had promised the Assembly that he would not free the slaves. However, when Sonthonax and Polverel, a very dear friend of mine, attempted to defeat Galbaud’s forces, Polverel’s son was grabbed as a hostage. The commissioners had no choice but to grant the black army their freedom. I am currently stationed at Port au Prince and my plans and decisions for the future are up in the air. It has been more than 10 years since I have seen my family and I bet my kids are all grown up. Luckily, I am finally getting to go home in about three weeks. My journey through these years have been remarkable and an experience I will never forget. I have made close friends however, because I am involved in this political war, I am unable to tell them to much about me incase they are working for Toussaint. I was able to work alongside many wonderful leaders including
33: Sonthonax, Roume, Raimond, and Laveaux. I am indeed one of the only ones that survived this violent country. Sonthonax was sent back to France, Roume was isolated and escorted out of St. Domingue, and Laveaux was attacked in march of 1796 by a mulatto rebel group. After the brutal defeat in Aux Cayes, rioting has spread immensely through St. Domingue. After Laveaux was killed, Toussaint became the Governor General of St. Domingue in 1797, and there was nothing I could do about it. I didn’t have the supplies or troops to help me defeat Toussaint. Many more of the French government officials including Thomas Hedouville have fleed St. Domingue and headed back to France, although I am one of the last ones here to straighten things out. Because Toussaint is in control of the land, Napoleon finally issued the Proclamation on St. Domingue to end violence. Although St. Domingue is still a French colony, Toussaint’s forces are controlling it. Napoleon states, “Remember, brave blacks, that the French people alone recognize your freedom and the equality of your rights.” St. Domingue is the most profitable plantation colony in the New World and has been producing 40% of Europe’s sugar and 60% of its coffee. I believe Napoleon is going to go back on his word and try to take over this wealthy colony again because it needs the trade. At the moment, Toussaint does not trust the French, and before anything else drastic happens, I am very eager to come home. Yours Truly, Monsieur Jacques C. Petain Diary Entry Inspired by information from: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/ revolution/revolution1.htm, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world factbook
34: Dear Diary, January 3, 1804 I am very tired and weak. I am back in St. Domingue yet again. Luckily, I was able to enjoy one full year at home with my beloved family in 1800. I have one son, Edwin, and two twin daughters, Alice and Millicent. I could barely recognize them they had gotten so old when I had come home. Now, I have been back and working for Napoleon again for the past three years. In 1801, Napoleon decided to send us back here to St. Domingue to have a campaign against the people. | He had said it would be quick but inevitably, I have been here for three years as well as it has been very costly. He believed that the slaves were no match for us, trained troops, and our war tactics and weaponry. He thought we would be able to defeat them now because we were more prepared, oh how wrong he was! Soon after we had gotten comfortable in our new home, yellow fever spread throughout our army, killing Leclerc and many of my French troops. I put up a brave fight against it, but for the past few days I have been feeling weaker and weaker. I pray to god each night, hoping my arrangements to leave will be carried out soon so I will be able to see my family before I get too sick. Our objective when entering St. Domingue was to restore the old colonial system, but we have not been successful again. When the citizens of St. Domingue heard of our arrival, the soldiers of African descent fought back against us where they eventually emerged victorious. They attacked Fort Vertieres on 18 November 1803, and won against our French colonial army. When they defeated us, it was our last straw.
35: We surrendered the last territory we held in our land of St. Domingue, as well as we gave slaves their freedom. Luckily because we surrendered and because I am getting sick, I can leave relatively soon. The last arrangements for St. Domingue’s declaration of independence are being made now. Although I wish I could have defeated these slaves, I am so happy to be coming home. I hear they are going to name St. Domingue “Haiti” because it is no longer a French colony. Before I wrote this final journal entry, I looked back through my past entries and read about the very exciting journeys and experiences I witnessed. I am very grateful to have fought for my nation although we were not victorious. Farewell and Goodnight. Yours Truly, Monsieur Jacques C. Petain Diary Entry Inspired by information from: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=847534572&SrchMode=1&sid=4&Fmt=10&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=HNP&TS=1289762733&clientId=56189
36: I sit outside my employers home sitting in a rocking in my chair, the sun dipping below the horizon. Talks are coming up around my town about a revolution. Not sure yet how I feel about it but the slaves are revolting, whether the french like it or not, it’s coming. I’m just a simple white servant, not much say. But all I know is I’m lliving fine and I really don’t need this. I’m content working for shelter and food, this isn’t necessary. How I see it the slave owners paid for them, and they need to obey. The word around here from what I’ve heard is the Haitian slaves are finally done dealing with the French rule. They want their independence and rightfully so it’s justified. I actually had a very interesting day, with an encounter with a slave awaiting the revolution. My employer sent me out to fetch water and grab some things from the merchants. On my way I passed many plantations and on one of them I noticed 3 slaves working in a field, sweating, clearly exhausted and beaten up. I could tell one of them noticed me, then said something to his fellow slaves and they made there way over to me, just a fence in between us. Initially I was scared, me being a white man in the midst of revolution talks. Although I hoped they’d know I had no part in their independence and I was barely ahead of them in the social ladder. “How goes it”,a tall African-American yelled out at me. I stuttered and just got out a couple words, “Not bad...good.” I said nervously. | February 14, 1791 | Dear Diary,
37: “You don’t know how could you have it”, a shorter slave with him blurted out. I didn’t know exactly what to say or how to handle this situation. I thought about asking of the revolution and what they know, and ultimately decided it couldn’t hurt, they seemed friendly. “I assumed you’d ask about the revolt, why, so you can go tell your master? Tell the French Assembly?” “I support what you’re doing I’m just curious” I lied to these slaves. “Well, you better learn the name Toussaint L'Ouverture. He’s soon to rise from enslavement, and lead a revolt to gain independence. You can’t deny that our small country has been taken over by those French trying to take over our land, our people. They take us from our homes and throw us on these plantations. It’s wrong, It’s plain wrong.” Just then the front door of the plantation opened and you could tell they were scared, they hinted for me to get away. “Watch yourself kid, this isn’t going to be a safe place in a few days” he told me as I began to walk away. I can’t say I don’t see the reasoning and causes for this revolt. The slaves had some good points. But a white man isn’t their friend, even if I’m a servant. And as he said this won’t be a safe place for me pretty soon. I was finally satisfied, as much as I feel for the slaves, this has to be shut down. What was that? Oh no, I think I have to go. | Diary Entry inspired by information from: | Mead, Karen. "Haitian Revolution: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010.
38: It’s been a while since my last entry. I’ve been moving around alot. That last night I wrote, February 14 back in 1791 I was interupted by gun shots and screams. I didn’t realize at the time, but it turns out that was the start of the revolt. This revolution has been in affect for almost a decade, and I can’t even begin to tell you what I’ve gone through. Ever since they began the slaves have been destroying plantations and killing all whites, it’s terrible. My employer took me with him and we ran off and met up with these men he knows. They’re all good people, very respectful and intelligent. We’re essentially staying in a safe house basically just staying away during the whole revolt. I just hate how we’ve come to this situation. The French Assembly passed a law stating that all men are born free as citizens. However, the White men in Saint-Domingue refused to abide by these rules and fighting broke out from there. I’m looking back on that last entry I wrote so long ago, and reminiscing on that slave who told me to remember the name, Toussaint L’Overture. He has sure made a name for himself as a leader of this revolt. He has really become a black idol, a leader for the African-American race. He’s all but abolished slavery as they make a rise in political and military power. But lately what I’ve heard alot about him for is The Battle of Crete-a-Pierrot. From what I heard Toussaint was at a fort of Crete-a-Pierrot. It’s been talked about mostly as a moral victory for the revolters. Many white men have a changed opinion on these slaves, realizing they may actually be successful with this revolution. | Dear Diary | March 17, 1802
39: The French and white men everywhere are scared after the slaves killed double the amount of men that they lost. However, they did lose the fort to the French. I’ve heard rumors that they’re switching their “gameplan” to guerrilla tactics. It’s not easy to beat, I fear the French will have difficulty. Not to mention I’m in the woods, where the slaves are hiding. Come to think of it I think I’d better be going. | Diary Entry inspired by information from: | Marley, David F. (2010). Revolutions in Latin America (Consequences). In World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/
40: Dear Journal, I’ve been very busy again, and with peace finally being somewhat restored I can finally relax and write. However, this peace isn’t restored once again by the French. In fact, I’m no longer even in Haiti. The country of Haiti is an independent nation. And the leader, believe it or not a black man, former slave Jean-Jacquess Dellaines. I have to hand it to him he did an outstanding job as a leader and became one of the first men in history to lead a successful revolution, and take over. Your probably wondering how all of this came to be though and I’ll fill you in. Well, a man I haven’t talked much about has really came in and played quite a role in this whole situation. Just recently there was a French invasion with their leader Napoleon at the helm of the whole operation. I’ve actually had many encounters with this man after getting in a situation that I tried so hard to get out of. It’s truly amazing that I’m even alive. The French, aware of the new guerilla tactics being run by the slaves set off to search the woods looking for them. However, what they found was not slaves, but me and my friends. Our safe house turned out not to be so safe after all as we were put into the war. It was a cold night and we were all just sitting around when I noticed some noise and a light moving towards us.
41: We waited nervously and eventually noticed it was thankfully the French army with Napoleon leading on a horse carrying a lantern. We thought about running but opted to wait it out. Napoleon himself knocked on the door of our hand built house and I answered it. He put his sword away after he noticed I wasn’t a slave, and told me I needed to leave this house and join his army in the fight. He explained that thousands of white’s have been killed and plantations destroyed and they were low on men. Knowing I was lacking options, I joined. I fought this war with all my heart and honest to god expected that my life was coming to an end, so I lived it with no regrets on the battle field. I saw my friends and employer from my days as a servant killed while fighting the Revolution, and I still don’t know why I was the one to survive it all. Luckily in April of 1803 the French were forced to dispose of the colony and it was taken over by the Independent Haiti. The French borded me on a ship with the other survivors and shipped us back where I was given citizenship. I don’t know what happened in Haiti, and my life has certainly been turned upside down, but again working as a servant in France, my life is stable once again. Diary Entry Inspired by information from: Watts, Tim. (2010). Toussaint L'Ouverture. In World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://worldatwar.abc-clio.com/
42: Hello Journal December 29, 1801 I will proceed on giving my information on my family and I. My name is Agwe Azacca, I am 35 years old with two children and a lovely wife. I live in France as a freedman whose ancestors were slaves for the Frenchman. I have a solid wealth coming in towards me family, but nothing to get to cocky about. We live in an average home but my children are very spoiled for there position in their social class. As for my governmental and political views, I would classify myself as a disenfranchised citizen. Because we were freed, I cannot say they have full control over us, but our life’s as Haitians could be much better. When I look at the slaves who are forced to do work, it makes me feel like I am one of them. Although I am freed I am brothers and sisters with these people. Some of us are treated with respect and some like we are animals so it is a hard choice to make a judgment on. While one person is being freed, another is being whipped and there is nothing me and my family can do about it. The Frenchmen have such an overpowering government that it looks like they will have control over us forever. We need someone to lead the enslaved Haitians to overtake the French. All of us need the
43: freedom and a victory would set us off to a good note as a free country. As of now we stay inferior to these people. I want to live knowing me and my family is safe. I am free now, but looking at these men and woman who have to cope with being used like a animal to do work for no money and deprivation. If there was a hero who could save us from this I would do anything for him to start now, because I don't think we can last longer like this. The work is hurting them physically but more importantly it is hurting us mentally. I pray every night before I go to sleep, that if there is a man or woman to lead us to freedom I would give my life to him/her for my people. It is cruel to use these people for labor like this, but at the same time I am gifted with the freedom. My family and I are in a very good position compare to the other Haitians. I thank god for my freedom as a human, but I also with my other people could be gifted with what i have. Based Off Information From.. World History: The Modern Era, s.v. "Haitian Revolution," accessed November 14, 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/.
44: Diary Entry #2 It has been a very long time since I have last wrote in my diary. But I have lots of thing to let you know about. Right now, we are in the midst of what is called our revolution. Slaves are revolting, people are fighting and the French power looks very weak. I would be very happy to say that we may become free but this is very serious and my family and me have no time to sit around. We have to protect our home from Frenchmen but also from homeless Haitians. My family is caught up in the midst of all this and we are fence sitting over which side to defend. As a father I have to look out for my wife and kids to protect them, but at the same time I need to defend myself. There could be one little thought of confusion and I could be mistaken for a slave and be killed. Things right now are very scary for everyone. At the same time I am proud to see my people fighting back for power. There is this one man is named Toussaint L'Ouverture who is the leader of all of this and was pretty much the man who I was praying for all those months back. I am told around the town that he is very wise and precise with his choices and has already taken over many plantations. With Toussaint as a leader, who knows what will happen to me and the other Haitian people. As much as I want this to end, I want also want it to be a victory. I know I am free and so is my family, so I do give respect to the Frenchmen, but seeing my fellow people free would make my life.
45: I know how much we have been through just trying to stay alive even though it seemed like there was no hope, but this is the time for us to shine and be in control of ourselves and not worry about other people telling the Haitians what to do. Based Off Information From.. Haitian Revolution. (2010). In World History: The Modern Era. Retrieved November 14, 2010, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
46: Diary Entry #3 August 24, 1807 Hey journal, after the victory for independence, I decided I am going to stop writing and move on with my life. We have gained full freedom for ourselves and now we are all on our own. Luckily, my family made it through the revolution safe. There were men and woman who died for this cause that we have to always keep in mind. When we won over our revolution, even though 2 seconds after it did not change me, I felt emotionally moved on how hard we fought. Though I was close to the Frenchmen and they gave me freedom, I do have to support my people. My children have a life to live for, jobs to get, and money to make. This day will be known as one of the most memorable days in Haitian history, and I was alive with my kids and wife to see it happen and the outcome of it. My family was gifted and god was looking upon us by keeping us safe throughout this whole thing. I love all of my people and it makes me love them even more when I see a smile on there faces knowing that they have unlimited freedom. The most important thing that I got out of the revolution was that, if you feel like you need more of something, go out and strive for it, and that’s just what we did. The amount of respect that I have to the Frenchmen has not changed after the war but I do see things
47: a bit differently. The days seem brighter, the people seem benevolent and my surroundings seem lifted mentally. As I near my goodbyes, I want to thank god and whoever was looking out for my family during this fight. Though we were not out there with guns and cannons, my family stayed strong until the end. Toussaint L'Ouverture is now going to be our leader as an individual country. I hope we stay as strong as we are now. Who ever reads this after I am gone, I thank you for your time, and live free. Sincerely, Agwe Azacca Based Off Information From.. From Slavery to Independence (Visual). (2010). In World History: The Modern Era. Retrieved November 14, 2010, from http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
48: Dear Diary, It is 1780 and so far things have been going really well in Saint Domingue. I feel very confident in my country and the opportunities that it has given me. There have been a lot of food and goods like sugar, coffee, cocoa, indigo, tobacco, cotton, sisal and fruits and vegetables that have been traded and sold to other countries. Every body's life is the way it has been for a very long time.
49: This is the way of living for us as it is kind of like island life and this has been their life long before. Nothing or nobody has told them the way to live and the way to do things around their country. There have been some slaves in Saint Domingue but most of them have escaped in the mountains where they call home. This is so they will not get caught and so they can be free. Saint Domingue also had the largest population of color in the Caribbean. The group was known as the gens de couleur. There was a lot of land for farmers to farm on and to grow their crops. Well, at least for now everyone in Saint Domingue is okay. But, things can change within a blink of an eye. Sincerely, Johanne
50: Dear Diary, I was right. Things can change and it can have a devastating effect on people and on our country. At this point in time, it is very early in the Haitian Revolution. It is 1790 and the revolution has been going on since 1789. It is now very important that we know everything that is going on in France. At this point in time, King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette rule France. We have finally found out that the king and queen at this time in France do not care about their people and before that, the people of France did not have rights of citizenship. The people in France were divided into two camps, which were the red cockades that were in favor of the revolution and then the white cockades that were loyal to the system of monarchy. This is important to the people in Haiti at the moment because everyone in Saint Domingue had to being to chose sides. This is what the people in Saint Domingue had to go off of.
52: Dear Diary, It has been very hard to live this way but luckily people are getting used to it and it is becoming apart of our lives. What the government’s plan to do with Saint Domingue was to make them into a revolutionary or monarchist and to have them stay with the same camp, which was the red cockades or the white cockades. Everyone is Saint Domingue wasn’t too happy about this and started to protest against this idea. This would take away the Haitians freedom and also make them park of the French government which the people did not want to do. The people in Saint Domingue thought that they should be the free persons of color meaning they should not have to follow the system of red and white cockades. Since there were a lot of slaves in the Haitian Revolution, there eventually was a Slave Rebellion that happened on August 21, 1791.
53: The Slave Rebellion caused the Legislative Assembly in France to realize it was facing an ominous situation. In Haiti, about 2/3 of the island was covered with slaves. This is a lot of people who are not allowed to have any say and have to do everything that they are asked with no questions. This is a very powerful rebellion and in 1794, slavery was abolished and everyone was free. To me, this is a very good thing. The reason why this is so good is because now people are allowed to do what they want to do and people are not’ owned by people. Sincerly, Johanne
54: Dear Diary, After about twelve years, the revolution is over! The revolution has been going on since 1791 and it has finally came to an end in 1803. In fact, this war marked the Haitian Independence. The Haitian Independence day is January 1. This is when Saint Domingue was changed to the name Haiti. The independence is very important to the country because this is when Haiti became Haiti and not Saint Domingue anymore. This makes a change in power for our government and our people.It is also when France did not have any control of the country. It was free from them. Everyone is Haiti is really happy because this means that they are able to have Independence and not follow the ways of the French government. They are allowed to make their own rules and establish their own form of government. To a female rebel like me, I am very thankful that I have my independence now.
55: No one can tell me or my country what to do anymore. This is a very good thing for our country because now it allows us to be a part of the outside world knowing that people will not attack on us for making decisions. They can not do this anymore because now we are a free country. Sincerly, Johanne
56: March 2, 1793 The former slave life that had brought me all these struggles and pain is now in the past. Onward to the greater future! Onward to the freedom for which I am able to foresee! With my army of mulattoes and dark-pigmented races, we will conquer! We will conquer! We will show them that we have strength and that we were not brought onto this earth to be tossed around as rags. We are humans as well. As I watch my soldiers getting stronger and my army getting larger, I cannot help but boast my pride. I can foresee a great future for all of us. Gathering these men was just as I expected. What man would not want freedom? What man would not want a greater future? | Inspired by: http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1185773?cid=47&terms=toussaint+l'ouverture
57: As these men had joined their ride for a better future, I could see the hope in their eyes. I am most definitely determined to not bring these men down. I promise them a superior future. When these men are done fighting for their freedom, they will be able to look back at their past and say, “I earned this freedom. I gained this freedom. I won this freedom.” Yes, this will be one of the world’s greatest revolutions. A fight for their lives and a fight for their future. I am truly amazed at how simple and easy this is moving along. But alas, nothing is ever this easy. Therefore, I will be prepared for the harsh journeys that we encounter and overcome. This is determination. We are determination. We are the future. We are determination. We are freedom. We are heroes. We are revolutionaries. We are fighters. We are winners. We are soldiers. We are men. We are redeemers. We are saviors. We are willing. We are men. We will conquer! We will conquer!
58: April 6, 1976 Alack! My years of military service have all come up to now! To think that all these months that have been easy, I have slowly watched become a struggle. As if we are climbing uphill! Uphill to our greater future. We shall conquer! We shall conquer! Luckily, I have watched my army strive victoriously. I have become their new leader. And I dare not to disappoint any of them! I promised them a future; therefore I will let them win their future! As for the ones who have perished while fighting, they will live gloriously in the heavens above. As a deputy governor, I plan on wiping out the entire white class and replacing them with our kind and we shall take over the colony! My plan for this moment is for my officers to take over the abandoned plantations and hopefully revive their production. However I’m afraid that we’re going to need to use former slaves as workers. Granted, they will be paid! Even if I am setting these
59: slaves up to work again, they will realize that I am doing it for their future – our future. Another goal that would increase the speed of our process would be to turn Saint Domingue into autonomy from France. Would this mean that I would have to return to France? I guess I will have to. As of now, I cannot look further into combat. Peace and compromises is what sounds fairly intelligent to me. Perhaps the United States would be willing to withdraw their troops? And maybe even Britain. If we are able to persuade the British to withdraw their troops, then we might be able to open trade with British colonies! That would be magnificent. I see the future nearing. We shall conquer! We shall conquer! For we are soldiers, we are fighters, we are winners. We are men. | Inspired by: http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1185773?cid=47&terms=toussaint+l'ouverture
60: July 14, 1799 Thanks to wonderful support of Great Britain and the United States, we were able to enter into civil war. Much gratitude towards to André Rigaud. He is described as the mulatto counterpart to me. With everyone’s great kindness and support, we successfully won the War of the South! However, even after this victory, I seem to see many struggles forming. This was not how I had imagined it to end. With the violence of the war rupturing here and there, it seems almost impossible to unite the blacks and mulattoes yet again! To see my men arguing and fighting. Why, it’s an obstacle in our greater future! Do these men not want their freedom? Do they think we have the time to throw hatred and violence towards each other? After working so hard to bring them their future, they stop at such an obstacle like this? My men are stronger than this. I have trained them to overcome obstacles such as these!
61: It seems as if I have not trained my men enough. I have failed as a leader. Alas! I shall not let these words get to my mind. For it is negativity that blocks the path of success. Success, the miraculous glory that we all seek. We are winners, we are soldiers, and we are fighters. More importantly, we are men. Men that know what they want in their future. Our glorious freedom. We shall conquer! We shall conquer! | Inspired by: http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/Topics/Display/1185773?cid=47&terms=toussaint+l'ouverture
62: Diary Entry One1793 Dear Diary, The year is 1793, and the revolution in this most properous French colony of Saint-Domingue has only just begun. There are three distinct different groups of people here on our small island off the shore of North America, the first being the Whites, the most powerful, whom numbered to be about 45,000 in the conony; next comes the Free-Blacks and mulatto’s, or mixed bloods, who themselves number to be 30,000 with many of them acutally owning their own land, finally comes the slave population of African descent, who number nearly 450,000 which is the largest population by far on Saint-Domingue. Although the revolution has already been underway for a few years, that being since 1789, my rallying of slaves to revolt is just beginning and I am sure that we will be successful with our battle to defeat the French, who themselves are undergoing a revolution on their home soil. The thing is, their revolution is inspiring us in their colony to begin the same type of revolution. I myself am a devout Catholic, therefore I do not specifically want to endulge in violence, but if it is neccessary for the well being of our nation, then it must be done. In my particular case, I am a great tactician in geurilla warfare, meaning that I excel at being able to attack enemies not from straight on positional fighting, but instead by attacking them from the sides and taking them by suprise, hopefully throwing them off guard, which will help us to achieve victory as a colony altogether. To further revolt against the French, I joined an alliance with my peoples to the Spanish and we were easily able to take the east side of Saint-Domingue. The French government is currently at war with the Spanish and English at their homeland with the great French leader Napoleon, as the French try to control more and more of Europe. As we took more and more of the island, the French government decided to make a bold decision to ensure that they would not lose the war immediately,
63: and decided to set all slaves free, as many of them decided to side with the French themselves, so it was a smart decision on their part, and brilliant planning. It is September of 1793, and this is the month that the government decided to let all slaves free, and in this month alone, nearly 1,000 plantations containing the likes of sugar cane and many other valuable exports of Saint-Domingue to Europe and the United States are going to waste as plantations burn down to the ground. I am an honored man being knighted by the Spanish government due to the excellent job that I have done so far on the battlefield, and there really is not much else that I can personally say at this point, as my slaves and the Spanish control the East of the island. So far, our revolution is strongly underway, and with our newfound alliance with the Spanish, who have the same idea in mind of defeating the French, are a great help to not only our battle strategy, but also for our manpower. I see only a bright future ahead of us, and I am sure that we will prevail eventually against this great power in the French. Signed, Tim
64: Diary Entry 2 1799 Dear Diary, Have the tides changed in my life! After the French decided to distribute freedom to all of the native African slaves throughout this colony, I decided in 1794 to switch my alliegance to their side and to support their cause, as it to me is a just one and I see nothing but a bright future. I was thoroughly dissappointed that the Spanish and British governments were not willing to abolish slavery throughout their portion of the colony, which served as a real impetus for me to hop sides and turn my back on the Spanish and switch over to the French’s side. Quickly, my military expertise began to pay off, as when I switched sides of the war the newly led French side, led by myself began to totally dominate the battles. Our men fought long and hard for our land and eventually we were able to prevail for the French. Due to the high quality leadership skills that I displayed while I was on the battlefield, I was honored with being the lieutenant governor of Saint-Dominigue which in addition was truely an honor. On top of that, I was placed as the commander in chief of all French forces on the island, which of course placed a momentous amount of power at my disposal. Even though most of the Spanish and British forces had indeed been ousted, fighting and small skirmishes continued, and we the French continued to fend them off at ease. Now that we had knocked out all of the invaders, the imposing force was from our own island, who we had once been fighting alongside. Down south, the mulatto forces enslaved blacks once again, and my army of blacks from up north were forced to do the dirty work and attempt to get some of the newly enslaved blacks out of the control of the mulattoes.
65: Clearly the ideas of slavery from the British and the Spanish imposed thoughts on the mulattoes and there took up their idea of slavery and once again put it on the blacks, which forced us to adapt what we were looking to do. Still this battle rages on between us, as it really had just begun, but it has made us make changes that we had not anticipated on making, as I never thought that there was going to be a civil war going on between us. However, I was wrong, and now we must adapt and try and take control once again over the southern peninnsula. I have an optimistic outlook for the future that these problems with the mulattoes will eventually be solved, as we have already fended off the Spanish and the British. It is an odd battle however, as before we were fighting against foreigners, opposed to now when we are really fighting some people who may at one point have been friends to us. A delicate thing lies in the balance with civil wars as many people have seen throughout the history of man, and it will be interesting to see how things pan out in this case. Signed, Tim
66: Diary Entry 31803 Dear Diary, Never, in all of my wisdom would I have thought I would be sitting in a prison, yes indeed a prison back overseas in France. In all honesty, I feel betrayed by the people that I gave so much for. Just think, they could have lost their colony of what is now Haiti if I had decided to stay on the side of the Spanish and British instead of flopping against all odds back over to the French, but that’s exactly what I decided not to do, I gave it all up for the just cause, and now that cause is coming to bite me in the butt. It really is a sad story of betrayal that the great Napoleon has thrust upon me, one that surely will never forgive me, as I seemingly face my final days in this prison. The civil war which I had previously told about went of course in my sides favor, as our military expertise payed off in the long run. After defeating the resistance in the south, I decided to make the former slave Jean-Jacques Dessalines the governor in the south, while I the proclaimed governor of Haiti returned back up to the north where I was residing. Little did we know that Napoleon had been scheming to come back to France in 1802 after they had left in 1798 before the civil war and after the defeat of the British and Spanish. However in 1802, Napoleon sent his brother, Charles-Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc back over to Haiti along with 21,000 troops to sieze control. Unknown to me, his secret instructions were to secretly win over all of the black leaders and take them back over to France. All of this of course were the tactics of Napoleon, and were not known to anyone in the colony except for his brother. Of course I did whatever I could for Haiti, and even took to long measures to keep him and his troops away from us. I burned cities and towns instead of yielding to the oncoming army. Being overpowered, I was forced to surrender, and I was allowed to return to my plantation peacefully.
67: Unfortuantely, I was tricked into a meeting with the French leaders in Haiti and was kidnapped back over to France. Here I sit now, isolated from all outsiders with anything but a bleak outlook for the future, as I am a man growing old, death may soon be calling my name, as there is virtually no point to be living any longer. After a long life, I see that I did well to help all of the Haitians have their independance, which is something that they certainly deserve, as they are the first free black nation known to man. Once again, my troops prevailed during our little civil war, and we were able to maintain order until Napoleon sent his brother over to take the power away from me and ship me over here, basically to my deathbed. Signed, Tim
68: of Haiti. In 2002, Haiti reported that U.S. Foreign assistance gave $931 million and the International Community provided over $600 million in aid but foreign assistance levels have declines since then because of the countries own problems. In 2005, Haiti’s debt reached US$1.3 billion in contrast to the United States which was $40,000. However, Haiti soon qualified for the World Bank’s Heavily Indebted Poor Country which cancelled some of its external debt. Although this was useful then, Haiti remains in 2010 over $1 billion dollars in debt due to the effects of the earthquake that hit its country. The earthquake hit the capital, Port- au- Prince, in January of 2010 destroying most of the country. The country has been faced with problems of finding shelter and food for the citizens. At the moment, people have been living in tents because the country is not built up yet. However, these tents cannot withstand natural disasters such as hurricanes or mudslides. Due to there being much rain, there has also been a Cholera outbreak. The medical facilities in Haiti are not very good so most of the people are suffering. Both of these issues are connected with each other and are definetaly one of the biggest issues that this country is facing. I do not believe Haiti’s economic problems are connected to the legacies of the revolution because although Haiti had to pay off France to get its independence, it was not until the coup in the late 1900s when it was clear that Haiti would be in huge trouble. Sources used: http://www.traveldocs.com/ht/economy.htm, http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2010/01/suspend-haitis-debt-and-take-official-lenders-beyond-lending.php
69: September 21, 1791 Dear Diary, I haven’t slept in days the constant question in my head seeps through at night and keeps me wide-awake. Should I stay loyal to France? Or should I do what my brother did, and join the political liberal movement? I am deprived of my right to vote, as well as other rights, so why should I stay loyal to France? But, who knows, if France really controls us, it could hurt me to join the revolution. Its difficult for my people to pick a side, and it is assumed that we joined the movement. I could get killed either way. Being a disenfranchised man in Saint Domingue, just a small colony, is not where I imagined myself being. Its my dream to vote, that’s all I want. Working on the plantation in the past, I waited for this day to come so I could be free. I thought I would have the rights of my fellow self-proclaimed black nationhood, but I quickly discovered we don’t have many rights at all. I know many people that are just fleeing, refugees from the Caribbean that see hope in the United States. Nearly a third of us without rights are of African descent, and that includes slaves and the free people of color. I know this is raising issues about slavery and race. There are many refugees that are white planters though I really can’t make up my mind. Should I join the rest of my people in the political movement? What is there to lose? I would rather die for my rights than to be unhappy, and potentially killed from being loyal to France.
70: It seems like being loyal to France isn’t worth it. What has France done for me? They founded a colony, purely for money. They haven’t given my people many rights. We make up half the free population of Saint Domingue. There are the free people of color, which have at least some African ancestry who have attained freedom. Still, many wealthy planters and merchants don’t have the right to vote. Myself, I am a free person of color, but I’m deprived of my right to vote. I want to fight for those rights, don’t I? I should stand up for what I believe in. I should follow in the footsteps of my brother, a revolutionary hero. I should protect my family, and give my son the right to vote when he is older. Tomorrow, I shall finally join this political movement for equality. I’l do it for myself, my brother, and my nation. Get excited, France. Saint Domingue will become independent, I can feel it. Sincerely, Jacque This entry is based on information from: http://worldhistory.abcclio.com/Topics/Display/1185773?cid=41&terms=haiti+revolution "From Slavery to Independence (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. http://worldhistory.abc-clio.com/
71: Epilogue- Post Revolution Prior to the revolution, Haiti was the most productive sugar colony in the world. However, after they became an independent nation, their main source of money, agriculture, couldn't thrive because many plantations were burned. Also, around this same time the industrial revolution was beginning. However, Haiti, being an island nation with few trading partners, had almost no part in the industrial revolution. They didn't have the resources necessary to take part in this, and what resources they did have were undesirable to more modern countries. Even today, very few people have access to telecommunication and electricity. Also, today Haiti is the poorest country in the western Hemisphere and has large amounts of debt. This debt can be directly related to the revolution, since almost immediately after Haiti became independent, their economy began to decline. However, this is similar to Haiti before the revolution, because at that time the majority of the money was in the hands of a small group of people. Although, today there are less people with any money at all. Haiti’s government currently is democratic and has a president. However, it took time for Haiti to get a fair government. From the early to mid 1900’s, there were constantly military coups, constantly changing the leader. Eventually, Francois Duvilier, or Papa Doc, came into power, he was a very harsh ruler whose secret police would kill civilians in public. Followed by Duvilier, was his son, Jean-Claude Duvilier, baby doc, who was also brutal.
72: E P I L O G U E | E c o n o m i c s t a t u s
73: Before Haiti established its independence from France, the area was ranked as the world's richest and most productive colony. In order to receive its independence, Haiti was required to pay France 150 million francs starting the downfall of Haiti’s economy. Haiti now is one of the least-developed country in the Western Hemisphere and is the poorest in the world. Economic indicators show that Haiti has been falling behind other low income developing countries since the 1980s. It has become so unstable because of its shortage of good land, lack of public investment in human resources, bad economic policies, a weak national savings rate, and a poorly run judicial system. It is ranked 146th out of 177 countries in the UN index. From 1991-94, a coup was formed in Haiti and I believe was responsible mostly for this economic decline. Following the coup, the United States put an embargo on all goods entering Haiti except food and medicine. The employment rate in Haiti fell below 17,000 and since then it has been restored to about 18,500. The people of Haiti were loosing their jobs, just as the United States is now, therefore they were unable to buy many goods raising the inflation rates drastically. In 1996, the Haitian Ministry of Economy and Finance built the EERP (Emergency Ecoomic Recovery Plan) which helped with budget reforms. But again in 2001, the GDP turned negative. In 2003, Haiti’s debt to the World Bank was more than $30 Million. Because of this debt, the IMP estimated that Haiti would only have a 1% growth in GDP for the upcoming year but instead it declined. External aid is essential for the future economic development
74: of Haiti. In 2002, Haiti reported that U.S. Foreign assistance gave $931 million and the International Community provided over $600 million in aid but foreign assistance levels have declines since then because of the countries own problems. In 2005, Haiti’s debt reached US$1.3 billion in contrast to the United States which was $40,000. However, Haiti soon qualified for the World Bank’s Heavily Indebted Poor Country which cancelled some of its external debt. Although this was useful then, Haiti remains in 2010 over $1 billion dollars in debt due to the effects of the earthquake that hit its country. The earthquake hit the capital, Port- au- Prince, in January of 2010 destroying most of the country. The country has been faced with problems of finding shelter and food for the citizens. At the moment, people have been living in tents because the country is not built up yet. However, these tents cannot withstand natural disasters such as hurricanes or mudslides. Due to there being much rain, there has also been a Cholera outbreak. The medical facilities in Haiti are not very good so most of the people are suffering. Both of these issues are connected with each other and are definetaly one of the biggest issues that this country is facing. I do not believe Haiti’s economic problems are connected to the legacies of the revolution because although Haiti had to pay off France to get its independence, it was not until the coup in the late 1900s when it was clear that Haiti would be in huge trouble. This entry is based on information from: http://www.traveldocs.com/ht/economy.htm, http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2010/01/suspend-haitis-debt-and-take-official-lenders-beyond-lending.php , http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/inflation/current-inflation-rates/
77: Haiti has never been a very successful country, politically, financially, and globally. Even when Haiti had their great revolution back then, they have not strived very much in the past two hundred years. With Haiti facing natural disasters that have completely corrupted them, they are immune to lacking the ability to strive. The good news about Haiti is that they completely abolished slavery during the Haitian Revolution. If slavery were to continue now, Haiti would be even more corrupt as it is. The interim government that was planning to hold an election in late 2005, had registered about three-fourths of eligible voters, but crime, kidnapping, and gang activity had caused the election to be postponed. In 2006, only 63% of the Haitian voters directly went to the polls and elected Préval as president. Haiti deals with government instability as well. The parliament rejected Préval’s nominations for prime minister several times. Haiti has faced many violent outbursts recently, including revolts and natural disasters. This affects the population which affects the government as well. Haiti is currently trying to recover politically, but with economic and global issues, Haiti finds themselves struggling.
78: Post Revolution Prior to the revolution, Haiti was the most productive sugar colony in the world. However, after they became an independent nation, their main source of money, agriculture, couldn’t thrive because many plantations were burned. Also, around this same time the industrial revolution was beginning. However, Haiti, being an island nation with few trading partners, had almost no part in the industrial revolution. They didn’t have the resources necessary to take part in this, and what resources they did have were undesirable to more modern countries. Even today, very few people have access to telecommunication and electricity. Also, today Haiti is the poorest country in the western Hemisphere and has large amounts of debt. This debt can be directly related to the revolution, since almost immediately after Haiti became independent, their economy began to decline. However, this is similar to Haiti before the revolution, because at that time the majority of the money was in the hands of a small group of people. Although, today there are less people with any money at all. Haiti’s government currently is democratic and has a president. However, it took time for Haiti to get a fair government. From the early to mid 1900’s, there were constantly military coups, constantly changing the leader. Eventually, Francois Duvilier, or Papa Doc, came into power, he was a very harsh ruler whose secret police would kill civilians in public. Followed by Duvilier, was his son, Jean-Claude Duvilier, baby doc, who was also brutal. However, after baby doc was exiled a constituion was written which created a president, prime minister, and a bicameral parliament. However, this democratic government was suppressed by the military.
79: However, the United Nations essentially banned trade from Haiti until they put Jean-Betrad Aristide, the rightful leader, into power. While this can be argued as a cause or the revolution or not, before the revolution, there was a definite ruler that was put in power fairly. Haiti’s society has also suffered since becoming independent. In 2010, there was a devastating 7.0 earthquake. Since Haiti is a poor nation, their buildings are built very poorly, including government, police, and military buildings. Many of these buildings, including the presidents palace were destroyed. Also, there were over 200,00 deaths caused by the earthquake. Also, Haiti is still receiving relief supplies, as of November 2010. This obviously can’t be caused by the revolution, since it’s a natural disaster, but the revolution negatively effected Haiti’s economy which is why clean up is taking so long. Also, there are thousands of murders, sexual assaults on women, and an increased number of kidnappings, especially abductions of children in Port-au-Prince. Most of these crimes can’t very well be attributed to the revolution either. However, again the poor economy may lead people to hold people ransom just to make a living. Which can be a bi product of their revolution.
80: Bibliography "Haiti." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010. "Haiti." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.
82: Photo Credits Johanne http://www.drsol.info/newsroom/index.php?a=view&id=58876&language=fr http://hiphopandpolitics.wordpress.com/2010/01/24/immortal-technique-reflections-on-the-haitian-revolution-present-condition/ http://www.graychampion.com/ http://www.liquidsector.org/ Monsieur Jacques C. Petain http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/98506253/ http://adiama.com/ancestralconnections/2010/01/17/the-haitian-revolution-revisited-by-dr-edward-scobie/ http://revolutionaryfrontlines.wordpress.com/2010/03/25/the-slaveowners-of-haiti-and-the-us/ http://ihs.wikispaces.com/Haitian+Revolution
83: Jean-Jacques http://www.augustine.com/images/jorge/Haitian_Revolution.jpg http://www.thechessdrum.net/newsbriefs/2010/NB_photos/Toussaint_Louverture2.jpg http://www.mapsofworld.com/images/world-countries-flags/haiti-flag.gif http://thelouvertureproject.org/images/thumb/f/fb/Battle_of_vertieres.jpg/380px-Battle_of_vertieres.jpg