S: Immigration To The United STates Of America by Gabriella Kreinbrook
FC: By Gabriella Kreinbrook | Immigration To The United States Of America
1: We will be highlighting the journeys of five ethnic groups and their immigration to the United States in the 1800s. 1- Russians 2- Swedish 3- Irish 4- Germans 5- Italians | Cover Photo Source: http://www.jaha.org/edu/discovery_center/push-pull/peopling_pa01.html
2: Pictured above are Russian men at Ellis Island. Many men migrated from Russia to seek better economic opportunities. Though most were unskilled and were forced to accept low-paid jobs in factories and mines. The right picture shows a Russian Jewish market in Hester Street, NY. Along with the lure of better economic opportunities, many Russians were seeking religious freedom as their home country started experiencing Jewish persecution in the late 1800s. | Russian Immigrants | Both Photo Sources: http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/html/eugenics/static/images/1502.html
3: The picture above shows Jacob Mithelstadt and his family. They migrated from Russia to the United States in 1905. Like many Russian immigrants they packed up their family and left their country for hopes of a better future in America. Over half of Russian immigrants settled in New York and Pennsylvania. Russian immigrants greatly contributed to development of science and industry. Many Americans were concerned about Russian immigrants. Their concern based on the rumor of communist agents plotting to over throw the American government. Information Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAErussia.htm | Photo Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAErussia.htm | 1820 - 1920
4: There had always been a shortage of good farm land in Sweden. One estimate says that over 40 per cent of Swedish soil was unproductive at the time of their migration. The situation in Sweden was only worsened by the increase of population. To add to the bad times in Sweden there was a succession of poor harvests in the 1850s. As unemployment grew, wages fell. All these things led to the increase of people who wished to immigrate to America. Most of the people that left Sweden for America were bankrupt farmers or out of work agricultural laborers. Only around a quarter of Swedish immigrants came from towns or cities. Many of the immigrants settled in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois. Some of the people found permanent work in the first city they stopped at. Other immigrants worked on railroads until they had enough money to purchase land near the railways. A large number of Swedish railway workers helped build the Yellowstone section of the Northern Pacific and then became farmers near the area. Most Swedish settlers were opposed to slavery and strongly supported the Republican Party. Tufve Nilsson Hasselquist, the Swedish religious leader, had a part in the campaign against slavery. During the Civil War nearly 4,000 Swedes fought in the Union Army. Hans Mattson, another Swedish man, had a strong career as a colonel in the Union Army and became Secretary of State for Minnesota in 1870. The Swedish immigrants gave doctors, engineers, and influential war leaders to America and enriched our society with their knowledge. The Swedish immigrants were also well treated in America. They were well liked by those who they interacted. They stuck to their farming and religion and built many churches. Information source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEsweden.htm
5: Swedish Immigrants 1820- 1920 | Top Left Photo Source: http://memeplay.blogspot.com/2010/10/sepia-saturday-helsingborg-girl.html | Above Photo Source: http://archsurg.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/139/1/100 | Bottom Left Photo Source: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Sr-Z/Swedish-Americans.html
6: In the early 1800s the largest industry in Ireland was agriculture. Large areas of land were owned by landowners in England and much of the land was rented to famers, who couldn’t afford the land themselves. These farmers worked the land with old fashion techniques and tools. The average wage of farmers in Ireland was eight pence a day and that was only a fifth of what they would make in America. Many Irish people started to immigrate to America. Earlier arrivals were hired to build canals in 1818 and by 1826 about 5,000 were working on four different canals. In October 1845 a blight hit the Irish potatoes, the blight ruined three-quarters of the country's crop. More than four million people in Ireland depended on the potato as their main food. The blight came back in 1846 and over the next year an estimate of 350,000 people died of starvation and an epidemic of typhus. Even with healthy potato crops over the next four years, people continued to die. By 1851 the Census Commissioners estimated that nearly a million people had died during the Irish Famine. The Irish Famine gave uproar in the desire to move to America. By the end of 1854 an estimated two million people, nearly a quarter of the population, had immigrated to the United States in ten years. Many Irish immigrants lived in New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Illinois, Ohio, and New Jersey. Thousands of Irish workers were employed building railroads in the United States. Some Irish immigrants were able to save money to buy land and become farmers near the routes they had helped to develop in the railroad. Many other Irish people became coalminers in Pennsylvania. In politics the Irish tended to support the Democratic Party, they had little sympathy for slaves for they feared if given freedom the slaves would threaten the jobs Irish immigrants employed. Although, on the outbreak of the Civil War about 170,000 men born in Ireland joined the Union Army, but only 40,000 joined the Confederate Army. An Irish immigrant, Thomas Meagher, became a successful general in the war. Many Irish settlers became successful businessmen such as, Michael Cudahy who started a profitable meat-packing business, John Downey who made a fortune in real estate and became governor of California (1861-62), and William Grace who ran a steamship company before becoming mayor of New York City (1880-88). The Irish encountered persecution for their Catholic faith but as time went on they lived more peacefully among the mix of America’s people. Information Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEireland.htm
7: Immigrants | Photo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EarlyIrishImmigrants.gif | Photo Source: http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/america.htm | Photo Source: http://museumvictoria.com.au/origins/gallery.aspx?pid=30 | 1816- 1920 | Irish
8: The failed German revolution in 1848 stimulated immigration. Over the next ten years more than a million people left Germany for America. Some were the leaders of the rebellion, but most were Germans who had found doubt in their government's ability to solve the country's economic problems. Others left because they feared outbreak of war. As Germans arrived in America, New York City was a popular home for them. By 1860 more than 100,000 Germans lived in the city and owned 20 churches, 50 schools, 10 bookstores, and two daily newspapers in German. Many other cities such as Chicago, Milwaukee (known as the German Athens), and Cincinnati, also had large numbers of Germans. Most Germans that arrived in America came from rural areas in Germany. These people were mostly farmers who had suffered from advances in agricultural technology. Many of these farming immigrants moved to Wisconsin, where the soil and climate was likened to that of Germany. Many of the immigrants who fled Germany in the 19th century because of political beliefs became successful in America. These people include August Follen (poet and politician), Carl Schurz (journalist and politician), Franz Sigel (journalist and soldier), Friedrich Heckler (soldier and politician), and many more. Many German immigrants became successful businessmen such as Oscar Hammerstein (real estate), Joseph Seligman (banking), Frederick Weyerhaeuser (timber), Paul Warburg (banking), Jacob Schiff (banking), Adolphus Busch (brewing), Isidor Straus (department stores), Henry Villard (publishing), John Jacob Bausch (optical products), and many more. Milwaukee and Cincinnati, became rich in German-American culture. At the start of the First World War there was an expansion of German nationalism in America. Although, when the United States entered the war, the majority of German-Americans played their full part in the war-effort. This did not stop a hostility to anything German in America. Towns, streets and buildings with German names were quickly renamed. During this time a big number of American-Germans changed their surnames to hide their German origin. Some schools stopped teaching German language and radio stations were told not to play the music of German composers. Persecution of Jews by Nazis in Germany in the 1930s increased desire to come to America. Information Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEgermany.htm
9: 1820- 1920 | German Immigrants | Both Photo Sources: http://cdhshistory.com/3.html
10: Left Photo Source: http://www.portamangiare.com/history/ Right Photo Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEitaly.htm | 1890- 1920
11: Italy was one of the most overcrowded countries in Europe in the 1800s and many people began to think about leaving Italy to flee low wages and high taxes. Most of the immigrants were from rural communities with scarce education. Most Italians found unskilled work in America because of their lack of education. There were large groups of Italians in New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, Baltimore and Detroit. The Italians were willing to work for low wages for long hours and soon they rivaled the Irish for a majority of the unskilled work in industrial areas. The fight for unskilled jobs led to fights breaking out between the Irish and Italians. Soon Italians were hired into the garment industry and by the First World War they replaced the Jews as the main group in the sweated trades. After the First World War Italians developed a reputation for being criminals due to largely known criminals such as Al Capone, Lucky Luciano, Albert Anastasia, and Frank Costello. Prejudice against Italians led to the false conviction of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti in 1921. In the 1930s a big number of Italians that had opposed the rule of Benito Mussolini came to America. There were more people of Italian heritage living in New York City than in Rome by the time of the Second World War. At first the Italians were nervous about the war and their views on it but after the bombing of Pearl Harbor almost all Italians supported the war effort against Benito Mussolini. After the war was over many Italian-Americans became big in development of modern science. The Italians were the third largest group to migrate to America, the second largest being Irish and the largest group being the Germans. Information Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEitaly.htm | Italian Immigrants
12: All Photo Sources: http://www.gjenvick.com/Immigration/1923-EllisIslandHistoricalDocuments.html
13: There were many pros and cons that came with migrating to America. Many immigrants weren't trained in specific skills and struggled to find work. Many also faced housing problems, the places they could afford to live were often not comfortable or sanitary. They faced persecution for their religion often. Although life in America for the immigrants was not all bad. Often there were immigrants who were able to apply their skills to a well paying job. Some were able to afford to buy land and start a new life in a new land of freedom. America offered so many different possibilities. Many immigrants found that America was the land of opportunity and they worked their best to take hold of that new opportunity.
14: Immigration in the past was much easier than it is today. In order to pass through Ellis Island an immigrant had to only pass a few tests. They must be physically and mentally healthy. They must have no or little criminal background. They must also answer a list of questions. If they were seen as fit to enter the country then they were officially a part of American society. In the past the proccess was much quicker and did not last very long. | All Top Photos Sources: http://nyc-architecture.com/LM/LM001-ELLISISLAND.htm Center Photo Source: http://veracityvoice.com/?p=8405
15: Immigration today is a very strict process. For a person to become a citizen of the United States they must undergo many tests and checks. The process of becoming a citizen consists of physical and mental tests. A test on America's history. Background checks and references to your life in your home country. Many times people are turned away and sent back to their country because they don't meet the set criteria. Whoever applies for citizenship should be ready to wait a while and be very patient!
16: Photos Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAimmigration.htm
17: Though there has been much arguing about immigration over the years it still remains today that immigrants seek American soil. The same circumstances that lead many to leave their home country in the 1800s still lead many people to seek immigration today. Just as it was back in the 1800s America is the land opportunity and freedom. America is a place where many immigrants have found peace and prosperity over the years and it continues to be that way to this day.