S: Edo Metropolis Project
FC: Edo Metropolis Project By: Gurdit, Qais, and Ndaba
1: Bibliography: Levin, Phyllis, Teddy Moline, and Pat Redhead. Our worldviews. Toronto, Ont.: Thomson, 2007. P, 128, 149. "Edo Period." National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS) -Gateway to Global Leadership. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. http://www.grips.ac.jp/teacher/oono/hp/lecture_J/lec02.htm "Hiroski Castle ." Thinkquest. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2011.
2: Popular Culture: Edo was the heart of popular culture at the time. Each metropolis had a few differing popular cultures, but some of Edo’s cultures included novels, stage plays, animated works and woodblock printing. | Wood Block Printing: Wood block printing was a form of art where artists would mimic a painting and then carve details into a wood block. Wood block printings would normally depicts scenes of nature. Utagawa Hiroshige was highly respected artist in the city of Edo. The painting to the left is his most famous printing called “Beautiful Scenery”. | There were two types of theatrical acts in Edo, Banraku and Kabuki. Banraku plays were not all that popular in the metropolis of Edo, just because they were meant for adults and specifically the wealthy ones. Kabuki theatrical plays were well known thought the city of Edo. They were cost effective and were a great source of entertainment. There was only one theatre in Edo which was located in the neighbourhood of Tsukiji.
3: Much of Edo’s economic success could be credited to its well trained labour force. Japan had a population of roughly 127 million during the 18th century. | Much of Edo’s economic successes depended raw materials. Mineral resources alone account for 14% of Edo’s Exports before the isolation. With very low domestic oil supplies Japan imported lots of crude oil. | Natural Resources: Edo Japan only had four natural resources access to the ocean, agricultural, mineral, and human. | Edo had achieved tremendous economic development by taking advantage of their maritime location and resources. Historically the many harbours and bays, provided Edo with internal communications as well as access to the rest of the world. Fishing and shipbuilding are also large Japanese industries. Japanese fishing vessels travel all over the world to sell there inventory. | Only about 25% of the land area is suitable for agriculture. Edo was largely self-sufficient in rice up to World War II, but the rising population and poor soil called for food imports. Other major crops include wheat, barley, and oats, apples, tea and citrus fruit.
4: First: The Emperor. The Emperor was the topmost position in Japanese society, but the Emperor was not actually in control of the country. The Shogun was the person who ran everything. | Second: The Shogun technically was the second most powerful person in the country but actually was the one to hold the real power. | Third: There were 78 domains which the city was divided. The Daimyos job was to govern that domain. | Fourth: The samurai worked for the Daimyo. They were fairly limited to the amount of money they could have,which helped the Daimyo keep control of them. There job was to serve their lords and even sacrifice their lives if necessary. | Social Systems: The Japanese had a similar social system to the European one used in the Renaissance. The higher the class the more Authority they had and vice versa. You could not be promoted but you could be demoted for many different reasons.
5: Fifth: Farmers. Farmers made up about 80% of the population. They were dependent on their harvest. A bad harvest meant starvation because they had no money. To make some money farmers would sell their daughters which was called "weeding out the rice seedlings." | Sixth: Artisans provided services to people of the Daimyo castles throughout Japan. They also provided merchants with items to sell. | Seventh: Merchants were almost at the bottom of the social order but they managed to control much of the financial power because they sold the artisans products for a profit. They also formed a banking system in Edo. | Eighth: This group is composed of outcasts. Beggars were also in this group,just because they were ritually unclean since they were tanners and butchers. The physically deformed also ended up in this group.
6: Architecture: In Edo there were many styles of architectural aesthetics and designs developing. In the 18th century the city grew to a population exceeding 1 000 000. Having such a large population meant that many of the smaller buildings had been expanded to accommodate more people. Some of the other trends included incorporating Ming dynasty style architecture into newer styles, having a main hall in the building, tiled hip-gable roof with curved edges, and a secondary roof with slightly less curved edges. Also in the 18th century Japanese officials started realise that the ground was shaking quite often and developed a modular system which building had to built upon other wise a fine would be issued at the owners expense. | Edo Castle | The plans for constructing the Edo Castle started in February 1603 and took 2 years to build. Tokugawa Leyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate in the castle after he took control of it from the Uesugi clan. It was the house of the shogun and the location of the shogunate. The castle also has a long history of destruction being damaged by the Meineki fire, bombings by the USA in WWII, and being taken captive after losing the Boshin War. Today it is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo, also known as former Edo. | The Toshogu Shrine is the main attraction of Nikko Tokyo. Each Year millions of people go there to see the Sacred Stable, where a white imperial horse is kept which is a gift from New Zealand. The shrine is dedicated to the spirit of Ieyasu. To create the shrine for the shogun, 15,000 craftsman worked on it for two years. A total of 2.5 million sheets of gold leaf were used on the building. The Japanese people worship Leyasu’s sprits twice a year in the march of the thousand warriors festival.
7: Tanabata festivals first started in Edo, Japan during the mid 18th century. The Mid Summer Festival is how people define the festival in English. This celebration was held on the first day of summer because people wanted to thank the sun for shining its light on them and also allowing them to cultivate crops. Today, large-scale Tanabata festivals are held in many places in Japan. Some of the places include along shopping malls and streets, which are decorated with large, colorful streamers. The most famous Tanabata festival is held in Tokyo from August 5 to August 8. | Historical Events: Through out the history of Edo there have been many significant things that have occurred. The events vary from being cultural,educational, laws being passed, etc. | Japan's isolation policy was fully implemented by Tokugawa Iemitsu in 1603. He passed a law that essentially closed Japan to all foreigners and prevented Japanese from leaving the country. This was because outside influences were seen as a threat to the bakufu. The main problem was that jesuit missionaries involved themselves in politics. This law officially ended when the edo period ended in 1867.
8: Rice had many importances to the Japanese citizens of Edo. They had used it as food, a currency at one point, an major export commodity and economic resource. | In the city of Edo the ocean was significantly valued. They used the ocean for many things such as a water source, food, import/export before the isolation, transportation and etc. | Citizens believed in Buddhism. | Practiced Confucianism and Christianity.
9: The End