S: US History Magazine Project
BC: IN NEXT ISSUE First decade gone past in the 21th Century. Has it been a good start?
FC: LAST CENTURY IN REVIEW | Jim Thrope His life and Legacy | Ryne M | Interview with Jackie Robison
1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | Page 2 : Interview | 1)Letter from the Editor 2)Manhattan Project/A-Bomb Image and description of report on the Manhattan Project 3)Jackie Robinson An interview with Jackie Robinson 4)What is not always taught in American History class Jim Thorpe: His Life and Legacy This is a story about the life of Jim Thorpe. 5)Dwight Eisenhower Short biography on the president. 6) Person of the Century A biography of the TIME MAGIZINE Person of the Century. 7)Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. or Malcolm X Who handled the civil rights movement better? 8)Top 10 Deadliest Wars 9)Civil Rights Word Search 10)Barack Obama X-word puzzle
2: Letter to the Editor | The last century has had a little bit of everything. There have been wars, disasters, revolutions and many legends were born. The century started off with a bang with the WWI (The War to End all Wars) and the womens rights suffrage. This latter movement was a movement, which led to the rights for women to vote. Then the stock market crashed on October 29, 1929 as more trouble was brewing in Europe. This trouble led to the Holocaust and World War II. There were lots of humans tortured, killed or left for dead in this war. Many came on the most deadly day of battle in recent history, D-Day. In the Holocaust about 6 million Jews were killed Then there was a time of war with no fighting. Instead there were things like the race to space and race for the hydrogen bomb and nuclear bomb. During this century in America there was a movement for all races to have equal rights. This movement was called the Civil Rights Movement. Famous people such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X headed the Civil Rights Movement. Then toward the end of this movement a new war arose in Vietnam. Many young men were sent off to fight but only few returned. Many people have said it was almost like manslaughter. As the century started to come to a close the US military had most of its attention focused on the Middle East. The latest war was the Wars in Afghanistan and the War on Terror. These wars started in 2001 when 9/11 happened and have now led this country into a major recession. One other cool thing about the past two years is that we have had our first African-American president elected into office. Over these years there has not only been these few key events there have also be important people like Teddy Roosevelt, Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan and John F. Kennedy as leaders of our country. There were many great athletes like Jim Thorpe, Jackie Robinson, Muhammad Ali, and Jesse Owens. There have also been many people who have changed America through arts like Walt Disney, Louis Armstrong, Steven Spielberg, Michel Jackson and Elvis Presley. The list does not stop here but as you can see many people have made an impression on this country that will last for many years. In the world that we have been able to see, the country has been full of happiness and love but there has also been lots of destruction and damage not only to humans but also to the country. There have been people like Martin Luther King Jr. and many of the presidents that have tried to spread happiness, prosperity and joy all over the country. There has also be people like Adolf Hitler who have done major destruction to the well being of many people. This is why I think that the that we in America have come a long way since 1900. I also believe that many people have helped make this country a stronger one despite those people and events that have slowed down this progress we have made.
3: Dwight D. Eisenhower is one of the few men to both be a high ranking leader in the United States military and also be President of the United States. Born in the late 19th century (1890), Eisenhower grew up and experienced his early manhood during very tough times for America. His experiences would lead him to be a very strong leader in both the military and political worlds. Although he came from a military background, you can find quotes were he used great judgment and didn’t always see military force as a way to solve problems. After graduating from West Point in 1915 and not having to see battle duty in WWI, Eisenhower played a very important role in WWII. Working with such famous generals as Gen. Douglas MacArthur and Gen. George Marshall, Eisenhower had many roles in the Army. Near the end he was made Supreme Allied Commander for the invasion of Europe. Eisenhower briefly left the military after WWII to be the president of Columbia University but was recalled by President Truman to active duty to command the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces in Europe until 1952. In 1952 Eisenhower won the Republican nomination and defeated Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois in the presidential election. He served two terms were he was a moderate in domestic policies and showed balance in his policies challenging old beliefs when needed. He retained most Fair Deal programs and used American soldiers to enforce court-ordered school integration which was a milestone in the Civil Rights movement. He was a seeker of diplomacy and peace on the military side but still believed the United States must be strong against Communist aggression. Eisenhower sought peace through Free World strength in an era of new nationalisms, nuclear missiles and space exploration. Also, in cases where this strength would not be enough he fostered alliances pledging the United States to resist “Red” aggression in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. You could see both Eisenhower desire for peace but strength against “Red” aggression in his actions, which brought a truce in the Korean War in 1953. Eisenhower died in Washington, DC, on March 28, 1969. He left behind a legacy not matched by many before or after him. He was strong but compassionate in his leadership and will forever be recognized as one of the truly great leaders of the United States. | Dwight Eisenhower
4: The Manhattan Project was the codename for a project conducted during World War II to develop the first atomic bomb. The project began in 1939 when a small research plant in Manhattan Engineering District was built. About 130,000 people helped with the construction and cost nearly $2 billion ($22 billion now) was spent. All of the plans for building plants, information about the plants, and operations were secret. Project research took place at more than 30 sites, including universities, across the United States. | The Manhattan Project/ A-bomb | The start of the research and planning was in 1939. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was contacted by Albert Einstein about researching nuclear power. President Roosevelt decided to go through with the idea of revolutionizing warheads. Three years later the first nuclear reactor was built by Enrico Fermi, a physicist. The reactor was called CP-1 (Chicago Pile 1). It was built and housed at the University of Chicago. | The very next year the first test of a nuclear warhead on July 16, 1945. J. Robert Oppenheimer had this to say about the first test, “We knew the world would not be the same. A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita. Vishnu is trying to persuade the Prince that he should do his duty and to impress him takes on his multi-armed form and says, "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." I suppose we all felt that one way or another.” | The Uranium bomb was made similarly to a gun. It had one end filled with one mass of Uranim-235 and the other end was filled with the same thing. One of the reasons that they used U-235 was that when it exploded it would cause a chain reactions. Chain reaction create more larger blast stop that the bomb is more effective blow.
5: A month after the first test was done on the city of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed. The damage was catastrophic. The death total was about 246,000 people from the city combined. These bombings scared Japan into surrendering. | As the bomb would fall the U-235 at the top of the barrel would fall through a small tube leading to the bottom of the bomb. At the bottom of the bomb the was more U-235 when the 2 substances collide then the bomb is detonated.
6: Jim Thorpe was an amazing man who changed many people’s lives through his actions on and off the athletics field. Jim Thorpe has set many records in 4 different sports while also changing the lives of the Native Americans living at the time and the ones of the future. He was the Jackie Robinson of Native Americans. He played many sports including track and field, baseball, basketball and football. He was most known for his gold medals in the Olympics in 1912. Off the field we was a national icon and a leader in the advancement of culture of the Native Americans. | Jim Thrope His life and Legacy | James Francis Thorpe was on born on May 28, 1887. He was born in a house near Prague, Oklahoma. His was father, Hiram Thorpe, an Irish farmer, and his wife was Mary James Thorpe. Mary James Thorpe was a Pottawatomie Indian. James was a descendant of the last great Sauk and Fox chief Black Hawk. His Indian name was Wa-Tho-Huk which means “Bright Path”. His parents were both Catholic. Jim went to school in Stroud, Oklahoma. James was born a twin. His brother’s name Charlie. Charlie sadly died at the age of 9 to pneumonia. This happened at a time when Jim really needed Charlie because Charlie was the one helping Jim get through school. He did not take his brother’s death very well and to reduce his pressure Jim ran away from school many times.
7: This became such a habit that his father had to send him off to a boarding school in Lawrence, Kansas. The school was called Haskell Indian Nations University. He did better in his school until his mother died of birth complications.This caused Jim to come back home and to pick up his old habit of running away. One day he ran off to a horse ranch where he lived and worked for 2 years. After that he went back home to his father and decided to go back to school. | Jim went to a new school in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. This school was called Carlisle Indian Industrial School. This is where his illustrious career began. This reportedly began his athletic career. He walked past the track and beat the Carlisle 's best high jumpers with a 5-ft 9-in jump, when he had never tried this before. He was even his wearing normal clothes. As soon as he joined the track and field team he started to set records. His first record was set in 1907. He did not only compete in track and field but also football, baseball, lacrosse and ballroom dancing. One funny fact is that he and his dancing partner won the 1912 inter-collegiate ballroom dancing championship. His first was a very famous one Scobey (Pop) Warner. Pop Warner was the one who gave him his first chance to play football. | The first play that he got the football he ran right past everyone and no one was able to touch him. Pop thought it was luck and ran the same play 2 more times. Both times the result was the same as the first time. Coach Warner released this statement about Jim, "Nobody is going to tackle Jim, not even the best defense.” This was the start of his great football career. In his football career Jim was awarded the All-American honors in 1911 and 1912. Later in his college career his father died so Jim dropped out of College.
8: Jim was selected to go to the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. He was to compete in the long-jump, high-jump, pentathlon and the decathlon competitions. The pentathlon and the decathlon were new events about who was the best all-around athlete. Jim was able to win 2 gold medals at these Olympics. The 2 events were the pentathlon and the decathlon. He placed in neither long-jump or high-jump competitions. This 2 medals have been some of the most conversely medals in Olympics history. There was a rule which stated “Athletes who received money prizes for competitions or who had previously competed against professionals, were not considered amateurs and were not allowed to compete in the Olympics.” Thorpe had played professional baseball in the Eastern Carolina League for a team from Rocky Mount, North Carolina. He received pay of about $2 a game of about $35 a week. This argument came about in the late 1913. This meant that Jim Thorpe was not allowed to compete in the 1912 Olympics. His medals were taken away from min and given to the second place finishers. The rulebook for the 1912 Olympics also stated that “Protests had to be made within 30 days from the closing ceremonies of the games.” This rule was over looked and he was stripped of his medals. One of his former Teammate, Avery Brundage, on that Olympic team later became president of the IOC. He lead the charge for Jim’s medals to be given back to their rightful winner. This push came through and Thorpe got his metals back.
9: As a pro Thorpe signed with the New York Giants baseball team in 1913. He played in the minors for most of his career but got to play with the Giants team some in his 4 years with the club. While play baseball in the New York Giants organization he also played football for the Pine Village Pros. He led the Pine Village Pros to a few undefeated seasons and league championships. The New York Giants traded him to the Cincinnati Reds at the beginning of the 1917 season. He played for the Cincinnati Reds for about 2 years before being traded back to the Giants. In baseball he went on for another 3 years before retiring with the Boston Braves. This marked the end of his baseball career. While in Cincinnati he played football for a team called Canton Bulldogs. He played with them for about 5 years ad lead them to win 3 league titles. These titles would later become NFL titles. Thorpe then played for the Oorang Indians which is still the only all Native American football team in history. Thorpe was later elected to be the first President of the APFA (American Professional Football Association). Two years later this would become the NFL (National Football League). This would mark the end of his football career. | In the later years of his life Jim Thorpe was an activist in Native American rights and culture. His athletic career boosted the awareness of the racial divide in the country. This led to many Native Americans becoming US Citizens. He also paved the way for many other colored athletes to compete in major sports. He like many others struggled to support their families during the Great Depression. He was unable to find jobs. He did jobs such as small roles in movies, worked as a bouncer, security guard, construction worker and a ditch digger. I movies he normally played an Indian chief. | In his last few years he ran out of money because he had put it all into his family and civil rights for Native Americans. He was hospitalized with lip cancer in 1950. His bills were paid by many charities. Three years later he had a heart attack and died on March 28, 1953.
10: His legacy still lives on in Pennsylvania. He was buried there and there was a deal to make his name the name of the town. Many People go to learn and to try and keep the legacy alive. He will always go down as one of the greatest athletes to ever live and as one of the pioneers of Civil Rights for Native Americans. | Events and people in the Civil Rights movement L I N O D P R I H S T W S M T P H I N B B R W A H C G M G K T T P A D G B H O L P T O V C J C W I K O G F L T D N A S A J R R S J Q O N Q W C I C C G Q I V N C N C B E A X N J S U Y Y V O F D K E I K K C V B M P X H P U O K X L N Y J A B P A R D F R A A Y T J B I G M N D C D O A L A R T N E C R Z G S H Q X M T C R R N N X A I D M H R K X U C X T A Z W E E T F D O I U T R I D S B A I F H N C A I H H H B Z L L R T U R Y J R F B G A M K E L X O F R E E D O M R I D E R S H S C R L U N C H C O U N T E R S I T I N P A S E M M I T T T I L L M V X A G W J E J K M Y Y P M H V D M S O Q T H O Y V E U C Y J T P D V O Z Z Q G K N V U Q K C A V U H S T D I N X G M T I S L O A A H F G G N I K R E H T U L N A I T R A M Y M H E H N F E Z N F P E O P E A C V R F N O R X I R D N E H Y M M I J Z I B R T A J BLACKPANTHERS BOARDVBROWN CENTRAL EMMITTTILL FREEDOMRIDERS HIGHNINE IHAVEADREAMSPEECH JACKIEROBINSON JIMMYHENDRIX LUNCHCOUNTERSITIN MALCOLMX MARTIANLUTHERKING MONTGOMERYBUSBOYCOTT ROSAPARKS SNCC Solution + + N + + + + + + + T + + M + + + I N B + R W + + C + + + + T + + A + + + H O L + + O + + + C + + + O + + L + + + A S A + + R S + + + N + + C + + C + + + V N C + + B + A + + + S + Y + + O + + + E I K + + V + + P + + + + O + + L + + + A B P + + D + + + A + + + B + + M + + + D O A L A R T N E C R + + S + + X + + + R R N + + A + + + + + K + U + + + + + + E E T + + O + + + + + + S B + + + + + + A I H + + B + + + + + + + Y + + + + + + M K E + + + F R E E D O M R I D E R S H S C R L U N C H C O U N T E R S I T I N P A S E M M I T T T I L L M + + + G + + E J + + + + + + + + + + + O + + H + + + E + + + + + + + + + + + + G + N + + + + C + + + + + + + + + + + + T I + + + + + H + + G N I K R E H T U L N A I T R A M + + + + + + + + + + + + E O + + + + + + + + + + X I R D N E H Y M M I J + + + + + + + | Q. What do you think that you contributed most to the civil rights movement? A. I think that I gave the people hope. I helped people realize that racial equality is not just a dream it could be really. Q. What drove you to keep playing in Major Baseball even though of the way you were treated? A. In many ways I think that the thought of social equality was the main reason why I played through all the racism and torture there was to play through. I always remember the thought of black athletes playing alongside white athletes. I played for all the black kids who came to see me play. I played to give them hope that one day they could be where I am now. Q. What did you think when Branch Rickey response to your question, "Are you looking for a Negro who is afraid to fight back?", and he said he wanted a negro player "with guts enough not to fight back." A. This statement showed me that I was respected by not only black people but also whites. He (Mr. Rickey) knew I would have terrible problems and wanted me to know the extent of them before I agreed to play. | Interview with Jackie Robison
12: There have been many opinions about who’s strategy work better during the Civil Rights movement, Dr. Martian Luther King Jr. or Malcolm X. Just as lots of whites at the time, in 1960’s, my opinion is that Dr. Kings Gandhian (peaceful and nonviolent even when hatred was in the way) way of protesting was much better. He believed that the only way to get along was for the blacks to adapt to the American way of doing things. The way in which he held the movement together through thick and thin. He knew that not only would the black people believe his preaching, but also white and all colored people. His hope was that the whites who believe in equality just as he did, would stand up with him. He hoped they’d would join him in saying that the judgment from the color from another man’s skin color was not only injustice but also inhumane. This view was able to be seen by all racises, ethnicity groups and age groups people all over America were able to relate. On the other hand, Malcolm X was much pro-violence advocator. He said that the only way for the black to be ok was for the blacks to have independence. He said that the only way this peace was going to happen was through violence. This concept went over very well with the younger people. Even though both men were fighting to accomplish the same types of thing, the ways these 2 no so different men tried to accomplish their goals were very different. I think that Martin Luther King Jr. way was much more effective and helped the movement a lot more. This is because he did not waste innocent people’s lives like they were little insects. Also, he would be there with the people doing the marches and saying speeches to excite people about the cause. | Martian Luther King Jr. VS. Malcolm X
13: Albert Einstein was a physicist and mathematician who proposed the theory of relativity. He also made major contributions in quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and cosmology. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. He wrote over 450 books. He is known as the smartest man while he was alive and maybe ever. He was born to March 14, 1879 in Switzerland(at the time part of Germany). His parents were Hermann Einstein, a featherbed salesman, and his wife, née Pauline Koch. He and his family was Jewish. Around 1884, Einstein got his first compass. He began to self-education himself in science. He built models and mechanical devices for fun. He began to learn mathematics around 1891. He had many advancements in physics all across Germany overcome before coming to America in 1933. This includes his research for the1921 Nobel Prize for Physics. He did this research while at the University of Berlin. He fled to America because of Hitler rising to power and calling his work “Jew physics”(false physics). He came to America and died 22 years later. He died onApril 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey. | Person of the Century
14: BARACK OBAMA CROSS-WORD PUZZLE
15: Top 10: Most Devastating Wars | Top 10's
16: Jingles | Diamonds are forever (DeBeers) Just do it (Nike) The pause that refreshes (Coca-Cola) Tastes great, less filling (Miller Lite) We try harder (Avis) Good to the last drop (Maxwell House) Breakfast of champions (Wheaties) Does she ... or doesn't she? (Clairol) When it rains it pours (Morton Salt) Where's the beef? (Wendy's) | You deserve a break today (McDonald's) Be all that you can be (U.S. Army) Pepsi Cola Hits the Spot (Pepsi-Cola) M'm, M'm good (Campbell's) See the USA in your Chevrolet (GM) I wish I was an Oscar Meyer Wiener (Oscar Mayer) Double your pleasure, double your fun (Wrigley's Doublemint Gum) Winston tastes good like a cigarette should (Winston) It's the Real Thing (Coca-Cola) A little dab'll do ya (Brylcreem) | Slogans
17: AD Icons | The Marlboro Man - Marlboro cigarettes Ronald McDonald - McDonald's restaurants The Green Giant - Green Giant vegetables Betty Crocker - Betty Crocker food products The Energizer Bunny - Eveready Energizer batteries The Pillsbury Doughboy - Assorted Pillsbury foods Aunt Jemima - Aunt Jemima pancake mixes and syrup The Michelin Man - Michelin tires Tony the Tiger - Kellogg's Sugar Frosted Flakes Elsie - Borden dairy products
18: Purdue OWL. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 10 May 2008. Web. 15 Nov. 2008. Karsh, Yousuf. "George Eastman House Yousuf Karsh Series". George Eastman House. 4/30/10
19: AJ. "Manhattan Project: Definition from Answers.com". Manhattan Project. 4/30/10