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Mix Book Assignment

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BC: The End

FC: Westward Expansion | Mix Book Assignment By: La Rae Jones

1: http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/westwardexpansion/timeline.html August 18, 1807: Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston Demonstrate the Speed of the Clermont Fulton and Livingston demonstrate the power of the steamboat by traveling from New York City up the Hudson River to Albany in 32 hours, a trip that would take a sailing sloop four days. July 1821: Mexico Wins Independence from Spain In the culmination of a long revolution, Mexico wins independence from Spain and takes control of the territories of New Mexico and California. October 26, 1825: The Erie Canal is Opened Completing construction begun in 1817, the 363-mile canal connects Buffalo and Albany New York, which then connects to New York City via the Hudson River. The Erie Canal links New York City to the Great Lakes, and thus the West. This begins a period of rapid canal development in the North and Northwest, revolutionizing domestic trade and transportation. May 26, 1830: The Indian Removal Act is Passed The Indian Removal Act grants President Andrew Jackson the funding and authority to remove the Indians residing east of the Mississippi River, a goal he pursues with great zeal. 1832: Worcester v. Georgia In the case of Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees comprised a "domestic dependent nation" within Georgia and thus deserved protection from harassment. However, the vehemently anti-Indian Andrew Jackson refused to abide by the decision, sneering "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it." November 1835: The Texas Rebellion Begins A group of Texan leaders convenes to draw up a provisional government and declare independence from Mexico. Shortly after, fighting breaks out. December 29, 1835: Treaty of New Echota is Signed Federal agents persuaded a pro-removal Cherokee chief to sign the Treaty of New Echota, which ceded all Cherokee land for $5.6 million and free transportation west. Most Cherokees rejected the treaty, but resistance was futile. Between 1835 and 1838 bands of Cherokee Indians moved west of the Mississippi along the so-called Trail of Tears. Between 2,000 and 4,000 of the 16,000 migrating Cherokees died. March 6, 1836: The Alamo is Taken by Mexican Troops Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Mexican force of 4,000 troops lays siege to the town of San Antonio, where 200 Texans resist, retreating to an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After inflicting over 1,500 casualties on Santa Anna's men, the defenders of the Alamo are wiped out on March 6, 1836. The Alamo becomes a symbol of the Texans' determination to win independence. | 1832: Worcester v. Georgia In the case of Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees comprised a "domestic dependent nation" within Georgia and thus deserved protection from harassment. However, the vehemently anti-Indian Andrew Jackson refused to abide by the decision, sneering "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it." November 1835: The Texas Rebellion Begins A group of Texan leaders convenes to draw up a provisional government and declare independence from Mexico. Shortly after, fighting breaks out. December 29, 1835: Treaty of New Echota is Signed Federal agents persuaded a pro-removal Cherokee chief to sign the Treaty of New Echota, which ceded all Cherokee land for $5.6 million and free transportation west. Most Cherokees rejected the treaty, but resistance was futile. Between 1835 and 1838 bands of Cherokee Indians moved west of the Mississippi along the so-called Trail of Tears. Between 2,000 and 4,000 of the 16,000 migrating Cherokees died. March 6, 1836: The Alamo is Taken by Mexican Troops Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Mexican force of 4,000 troops lays siege to the town of San Antonio, where 200 Texans resist, retreating to an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After inflicting over 1,500 casualties on Santa Anna's men, the defenders of the Alamo are wiped out on March 6, 1836. The Alamo becomes a symbol of the Texans' determination to win independence. Spring 1844: John Tyler's Treaty Proposing the Annexation of Texas is Defeated in the Senate Congressmen wary of inciting further sectional conflict defeat the treaty for annexation. However, annexation becomes the major issue in the 1844 election. February 1845: Congress Passes a Measure to Annex Texas After James K. Polk becomes President of the United States in January, Congress passes a measure approving annexation, trusting Polk to oversee Texas' admission more effectively than John Tyler would have. | Westward Expansion (1807-1912) Timeline

2: July 4, 1845 Five months after the United States Congress votes to annex Texas, a Texas convention votes to accept annexation, despite the warning by the Mexican government that any agreement to join the United States will be equivalent to a declaration of war. December 29, 1845: Texas is Admitted to the Union Texas is officially granted statehood and becomes the 28th state. May 9, 1846: Polk Receives Word that Mexican Forces Have Ambushed Two American Companies Polk, waiting for Mexico to strike the first blow, hears of these attacks and declares the Mexican War begun. He demands that Congress vote for appropriations to carry out the war. November 1846: The Donner Party is Snowbound Due to the erred advice of a guidebook, the Donner Party finds itself snowbound in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and arrives at its destination in California only after turning to cannibalism to survive. January, 1848: Gold is Discovered in California An American carpenter finds gold at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, sparking a gold rush which brings tens of thousands of new settlers to California, establishing towns and cities, and accelerating the drive toward statehood. February 2, 1848: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is Signed At the close of the Mexican War, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Texas, New Mexico, and California to the United States, which now controls land stretching all the way across North America. September 9, 1850: California is Admitted to the Union Under the Compromise of 1850, engineered by Henry Clay, California is admitted to the Union as a free state. | May 10, 1869: The First Transcontinental Railroad is Completed The first transcontinental railroad is completed when the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads join their tracks at Promontory Point, Utah. The railroad rapidly affects the ease of western settlement, shortening the journey from coast to coast, which took six to eight months by wagon, to a mere one week's trip. June 1876: The Battle of Little Bighorn Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his men are wiped out by Sioux forces while attempting to control the Great Plains and confine all Indians to reservations. The battle symbolizes the strength of the Sioux resistance, and the US Army is forced to pursue a long war of attrition, rather than go head to head with the Sioux forces. February 8, 1887: The Dawes Severalty Act is Passed The Dawes Act calls for the breakup of the reservations and the treatment of Indians as individuals rather than tribes. It provides for the distribution of 160 acres of farmland or 320 acres of grazing land to any Indian who accepted the act's terms, who would then become a US citizen in 25 years. The act is intended to help the Indians to integrate into white society, but in reality helps to create a class of federally dependent Indians. December 29, 1887: The Massacre at Wounded Knee After an excited Native American fires a rifle shot, US Army troops massacre 300 Indians, including seven children. The massacre is the symbolic final step in the war for the West, and after Wounded Knee the Indians succumb to the wishes of the federal government, resigning themselves to reservation life. February 14, 1912: Arizona is Admitted to the Union Arizona, the last of the 48 contiguous United States, is admitted to the Union, completing the century-long process of conquering and organizing the American West.

3: Causes

4: www.americanwest.com Traditionally, when one thinks of the expansion of the American West, the event most likely to come to mind is the California Gold Rush of 1849. While that profitable discovery did boost California's population by 80,000 eager prospectors, there remained an awful lot of land between the Pacific Coast and, say, St. Louis, Missouri. "Why mention St. Louis?" you might be asking. Because in actuality the young United States started exploring the vast land mass to the west from that very point and almost fifty years before those gold nuggets started hitting the pan in California. In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson sent a secret message to Congress calling for an expedition into the area west of the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. He felt that an intelligent military man with perhaps a dozen hand-picked men could successfully chart the entire route and do it on an appropriation of roughly $2,500. Jefferson's message was secret because France owned the territory in question and such an expedition would surely be considered trespassing.

5: Texas/ Mexican War | Oregon Territory | California Gold Rush

6: Consequences

7: Indian Removal The Louisiana Purchase and the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812, effectively removed all foreign infringement on American territory in North America. This had the ancillary result of removing all the protection that the region's Native Americans had received from foreign powers, most notably Britain. Free to expand, American foreign policy throughout the nineteenth century worked to the disadvantage of the Indians. The Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles--whom whites referred to as the "Five Civilized Tribes"--occupied sizable tracts of land in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida. Portions of these tribes had accepted the teachings of white missionaries and accepted Christianity, white inventions, and even the concept of slavery. The Cherokee chief Sequoyah devised a written form of the Cherokee language and the tribe published a newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix. While a significant number of Indians ceded their lands to the US government, many resisted removal. Many of the "civilized" Indians resisted knowing that they depended on interactions with whites for survival. Others, who had clung to their ancient customs, were reluctant to abandon their ancestral lands. Many of the latter were full- blooded Indians, as opposed to the many mixed bloods produced from years of intermixing with whites. . | Full bloods were often resentful of mixed bloods, who were more likely to give in to the wishes of the US government. When Andrew Jackson became president in 1829, he quickly instituted a coercive removal policy. In 1830, the Indian Removal Act granted Jackson funds and authority to remove the Indians by force if necessary. The Georgia legislature passed a resolution stating that after 1830, Indians could not be parties to or witnesses in court cases involving whites. Treaties signed in 1830 and 1832 had begun the removal of the Chickasaws from Alabama and the Choctaws from Alabama. In 1836, the Georgia militia attacked Creeks residing in the state. In that year, 15,000 Creeks were removed and forced west of the Mississippi. Between 1835 and 1840, the federal government spent 420 million on a war to eject the Seminoles from Florida. The Cherokees attempted legal resistance to removal. In 1827, they declared themselves an independent nation within Georgia, only to have the Georgia legislature pass laws giving it jurisdiction over the nation. The Supreme Court ruled that the Cherokees were neither a state nor a nation. However, in Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Cherokees were a "domestic dependent nation" and were thereby entitled to protection. This decision carried only minimal weight. Andrew Jackson reportedly responded to the decision saying "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it." The Cherokee nation itself was divided between factions favoring and opposing removal. In 1835, federal agents persuaded a pro-removal chief to sign the Treaty of New Echota, which ceded all Cherokee land for $5.6 million and free transportation west. Most Cherokees rejected the treaty, but resistance was futile. Between 1835 and 1838 bands of Cherokee Indians moved west of the Mississippi along the so-called Trail of Tears. Between 2,000 and 4,000 of the 16,000 migrating Cherokees died. The Northwestern Indians put up mild resistance to removal but met with a similar fate. Most notable among the resistance was that of chief Black Hawk, who mounted significant resistance in both 1831 and 1832 in Illinois. In the end, federal troops crushed this rebellion and others, and between 1832 and 1837, the US acquired nearly 190 million acres of northwestern land in return for about $70 million in gifts. | http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/westwardexpansion/

8: Oregon Territory | WHEN THE TRAIL BEGINS On maps, the Oregon Trail starts just west of St. Louis, Missouri. In time, the beginning of the Trail is a bit harder to place. The first wagon train rolled onto the Trail in 1841 and emigrants eventually wore the road into a great highway, in some places a hundred feet wide and ten feet deep. Before then, however, many travelers had come to Oregon by a variety of routes: early explorers and traders from the west by sea; French Canadians and British emigrants overland from the north; companies of traders out of Spanish California from the south; and, following the fur trade, a small number of American trappers and missionaries from the east. Any number of trails already crisscrossed Oregon before the arrival of the first Europeans. The earliest Oregon newcomers found that coastal tribes, who had never before seen whites, already possessed a few guns, knives, kettles, and even silver spoons. Native Americans of the Oregon Plateau traded west of the Cascades and east of the Bitteroot Mountains while coastal tribes traveled far inland for a lively yearly commerce at traditional sites on the Columbia River.

9: HIDDEN IN THE RAIN Traditionally, the story of the Oregon Trail begins with the European/American discovery of the Columbia River and the voyages of captains Gray and Vancouver in 1792. These explorers' ships were just two of the 28 trading vessels in the Northwest in that year. After the mid-1780's, a thriving sea-otter fur trade centered at Nootka Sound (on present-day Vancouver Island) as part of a vast trading network which linked London, New England, Hawaii, Canada's coastal islands, Russian Alaska, and China. In spite of well-traveled trade routes along the Pacific Coast, the mouth of the Columbia River remained hidden from explorers behind constant rain and mist until 1792. GATHERING THE PIECES This Time Frame is designed to help researchers place individuals and events on the Oregon Trail into context. As well as a great number of very diverse people, the formation of the Trail involved many shorter journeys on future segments of the Trail. Sometimes the context of the Trail shifts to its western end in Oregon, sometimes to the fur trade out of St. Louis and Canada, and often to the travels of the mountain men who explored the region in between.

10: Te | Texas American War http://www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/mexicow.htm

11: The Mexican War between the United States and Mexico began with a Mexican attack on American troops along the southern border of Texas on Apr. 25, 1846. Fighting ended when U.S. Gen. Winfield Scott occupied Mexico City on Sept. 14, 1847; a few months later a peace treaty was signed (Feb. 2, 1848) at Guadalupe Hidalgo. In addition to recognizing the U.S. annexation of Texas defeated Mexico ceded California and , New Mexico (including all the present-day states of the Southwest) to the United States.

12: California Gold Rush | http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_Gold_Rush

13: The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James Wilson Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California.[1] News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.[2] Of the 300,000, approximately 150,000 arrived by sea while the remaining 150,000 arrived by land. These early gold-seekers, called "forty-niners," (as a reference to 1849) traveled to California by sailing boat and in covered wagons across the continent, often facing substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly-arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. At first, the prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. More sophisticated methods of gold recovery developed which were later adopted around the world. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required - increasing the proportion of corporate to individual miners. Gold, worth billions of today's dollars, was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with little more than they started with. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. San Francisco grew from a small settlement to a boomtown, and roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. A system of laws and a government were created, leading to the admission of California as a free state in 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850. | New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service and railroads were built. The business of agriculture, California's next major growth field, was started on a wide scale throughout the state. However, the Gold Rush also had negative effects: Native Americans were attacked and pushed off traditional lands, and gold mining caused environmental harm.

14: MixBook Lesson Plan SECTION ONE Author: LaRae Jones Email Address: clkajones@gmail.com Semester Created: Summer 2009 LESSON OVERVIEW Title: Westward Expansion Brief Description: The students are going to put together a Mix Book on the Internet of their research on Westward Expansion. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS/GENERALIZATIONS: What is the one big idea that you want the students to leave your class with? The student understands the causes and consequences of Westward Expansion through the Texas/Mexican War, Oregon Territory, and the California Gold Rush. ENGAGING QUESTION/SCENARIO: How will you engage students and set up the lesson? To engage this lesson, I will ask the students if they have ever played the game Oregon Trail. If the majority says no, then we will take a day to play the game. If the majority say yes, then we will talk about what they people are doing and how they survive. We will also read a book called What Would it Be Like to Be on The Oregon Trail. The students will then get to do research on the internet. SUBJECT AREA(S) (Put an X by all relevant subject areas.) ___ Math ___ Science ___ Reading ___ Writing _X__ Social Studies/History ___ Foreign Language ___ Art ___ Music ___ PE ___ Information and Technology Literacy

15: ___ Music ___ PE ___ Information and Technology Literacy GRADE LEVEL (Put an X by all relevant grade levels.) ___ Kindergarten ___ Grade 1 ___ Grade 2 ___ Grade 3 ___ Grade 4 _X__ Grade 5 ___ Grade 6 ___ K-12 Elementary ___ K-12 Middle ___ K-12 Secondary ___ Secondary DETAILED LESSON DESCRIPTION The SWBAT identify the causes and consequences of Westward Expansion involving the Texas and Mexican War, Oregon Territory, and the California Gold Rush in a photo book off of MixBook.com . (GLE : 3a. Knowledge of continuity and change in the history of Missouri and the United States, F. Westward Expansion and settlement in the US, a. Investigate the causes and consequences of Westward Expansion, including: 1. Texas and the Mexican War, 2. Oregon Territory, 3. California Gold Rush-Grade 5) (Performance Standards 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.1, 2.7, 3.8, 4.2) 3a. Knowledge of continuity and change in the history of Missouri and the United StatSTUDENT ASSESSMENT The students will be given a checklist for the material that needs to be in their books. They will also receive a self-assessment form to see how they think they did. The teacher will also observe them and make sure that they are on task and on the right path. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA LeSSON IMPLEMENTATION

16: Length of Unit: 9 days Prerequisite Skills: Students must be able to Use the computer to look up images and put them into a book. The students must also be able to do research using the internet to look up items for their projects. Students must also be able to send a link to the teacher with their mix book. ACCOMMODATION OPTIONS Accommadations will be handled as necessary. Some students can work in pairs, some students can have another student write or type for them. All students who have need assistance in any way will receive it. MANAGEMENT/ORGANIZATION TIPS; The students need to be able to work on the internet and only use the sites you provide. The students who are paired up need to be able to work together. You as the teacher need to be up and making sure that the students are doing what they are told and are were they are supposed to be. MATERIALS AND RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR UNIT: The students will need the internet, and a computer. TECHNOLOGY Web-based resources: www.mixbook.com, and www.google.com, e-mail. UNIT PLAN FLOW CHART/TIMELINE Day 1: Play Oregon Trail if majority of students have not played it. Day 2: Play around on the interent with Mix Book and start looking at ideas for your project. Day 3: Start researching the Texas/Mexican War, Oregon Territory, and the California Gold Rush. Day 4: Researching again (causes and consequences). Day 5: Putting the researched information into the MixBook Day 6: Search for pictures of the different expansions. Day 7: Put the pictures into the Mix Book. Day 8: Extra Work day for all students. Day 9: Send the link of your mix book to the teacher to be graded.

17: Rubric |

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