S: THE OREGON TRAIL
FC: The oregon trail
2: Cities Along the Way
3: The jumping off cities were... Westport, St. Joseph, Omaha and Council Bluffs.
4: The Missouri River heads due west from St. Louis so most emigrants loaded their wagons onto steamships for the upstream journey. It was easy traveling, but it didn't last long. Two-hundred miles from St. Louis, the Missouri takes a cruel turn to the north.
5: Independence was the first option. Further upstream was Westport, St. Joseph, Omaha and Council Bluffs. The economies of these frontier towns depended on emigrants passing through, so many hired agents to go east and badmouth the competing cities.
6: Hardships and Diseases
7: Accidents The emigrant wagons didn't have any safety features. If someone fell under the massive wagon wheels, death was instant. Many lost their lives this way. Most often, the victims were children.
8: Because most emigrants grossly overloaded their wagons, few could ride inside. Instead most walked. Many made the entire 2,000 mile journey on foot.
9: River crossings were a constant source of distress for the pioneers. Hundreds drowned trying to cross the Kansas, North Platte and Columbian Rivers among others. In 1850 alone, 37 people drowned trying to cross one difficult river, the Green.
10: The one disease that killed many emigrents was cholera. It is a deadley disease that there was no cure for. Often, an emigrant would go from fine to in their bed dead. Usually the emigrants would suffer and die alone. To make things even worse animals would come along and eat the body and leave bones scattered on the trail. This desease comes from contaminated water, and food. Cholera is also from contact of bacteria in poo. It is extreamley contagious. This disease is still on in foregon countries.
11: Illness Arthritic pain Congestion Allergies Sluggish liver Tape worms Impurities from blood Colic in babies Rheumatism Gas, gout, colic Low blood pressure Sore throat Kidney stones (expels) Gallstones Infection Hemorrhaging General pain | Cure Alfalfa Bayberry bark Bee pollen Beet root Black walnut hulls Burdock root Catnip herb Celery seeds Fennel seed Ginseng Horehound Horsetail Parsley Red clover Sage Willow bark | This is a person with Rheumatism. | This is a person with gout. | This is fennel seed used to cure gout.
12: Native Americans
13: Relationships The first section of the Oregon Trail bisected two major Native American tribes the Cheyenne to the north and the Pawnee to the south. the people where worried But the expected attacks did not come.
14: In fact, there were many instances of Native American kindness helping pull out stuck wagons rescuing drowning emigrants even rounding up lost cattle. The emigrants offered clothes, tobacco or rifles, in exchange for Native American horses or food.
15: Within a few years, the emigrants had the prairie grasses, burned all the available firewood, and depleted the buffalo. The emigrants worried a great deal about possible Native American attacks, but very few were ever actually killed by the native tribes this was a good thing.
16: Grattan Massacre Just about the most important engagement with the native tribes occurred near Ft. Laramie in 1854, and is known as the Grattan Massacre. It began innocently enough a single cow wandered away from an emigrant wagon train. When the cow showed up at a nearby Sioux village. The tribe promptly ate it. An aggressive Lt. Grattan and 28 men then left Fort Laramie with a single objective punish the Sioux. The Sioux recognized their mistake and offered a horse in return for the cow, but Grattan wasn't interested. He ordered his men to fire on the tribe.The Sioux chief told his warriors to withhold retaliation. Grattan fired again and killed the chief. Strikes and counterstrikes escalated into all out war the battles continued for decades.
17: Massacre Rocks Incident For years, the Hudson's Bay Company had been a stabilizing force on the Native Americans who lived near the Snake River but when the British company pulled out in the early 1850s, attacks on emigrants increased substantially. The best known incident happened near Massacre Rocks in what is now Southern Idaho. On August 9th, 1862 the attack came without warning. Within minutes, five emigrants were dead. The next morning the survivors regrouped and fought back.
18: Bear River Massacre By the early 1860s, many felt a need to punish the tribes along the Trail. Patrick Conner, stationed in Salt Lake City, was among those who wanted to teach the Native Americans a lesson. In January of 1863 Conner and his California Volunteers marched north to the Bear River. There, Conner's men brutally killed 400 Shoshoni men, women and children. More Native Americans died at Bear River than any other battle in western history. This grotesque attempt at genocide did have its intended effect. The Trail was safe for the emigrants for a while. But word of the Bear Rive Massacre, and a similar event in Sand Creek Colorado, soon spread to tribes across the west. Natve Americans had had enough and they were about to begin fighting back!
19: African Americans | African Americans | Oregon Trail | Oregon Trail
20: In June, 1844 the Provisional Government of Oregon enacted it's first law regarding the status of black slaves in Oregon Country. Slavery was declared illegal and settlers that currently owned slaves were required to free them within 3 years.
22: Although slaves were illegal in Oregon many familys traveled with few slaves due to the difficulty of the journey of the Oregon Trail. In 1859 a bill was proposed to protect slave owners rights.
23: Some slaves traveling with familys traveling on the oregon trail were Ricahrd and America Bogle, George Washinton Bush, Moses Harris, Reuben Shipley and Mary Jane Holmes, Rose Jackson, William (John) Livingston, and George Washington.
24: Women on the Oregon Trail
25: Women were in charge of chores such as cooking, cleaning, mending clothes, minding the little ones, and other "women's work".
26: • Using the embers of the fire to slow-cook a kettle of beans for breakfast the next day | Women on the Oregon Trail shared time saving tricks such as:
27: •Filling the butter churn before hanging it off the back of the wagon, as a rough road would bounce the wagon around enough to churn a small lump of butter for the evening meal.
28: Supplies | Some women only had a few weeks notice that the family was moving, while others had enough time to prepare as best they could. Here are some supplies they would've packed.
29: Wash basin Chamber pot Lantern Matches Riffle Gunpowder Pistol Knife Bandages Scissors Shovel
30: Ax Hoe Rope Plow Hammer HardtackBacon Coffee Dried beans,meat, and Fruit Ladle Butcher knife Teapot Ladle
31: Table of Contents Cities Along the Way Diseases and Hardships African Americans Supplies Native Americans Women on the Oregon Trail
32: Works Cited All about the oregon trail. 9 June 2009
33: Digital image. Coals. 8 June 2009
34: Digital image. Housewife Sewing Kit. 5 June 2009
35: Digital image. Old Fashioned Wash Basin. 8 June 2009
36: Digital image. NAtive Amiricans.
37: Digital image. Old Chamber Pot. 8 June 2009
38: Digital image. Riffle. 8 June 2009
39: Oregon Trail Supplies. 5 June 2009
40: We dedicate this book to everyone who wants to learn. We hope you find the information you need in our text. -Jh, TB