S: A Proposal to Linbrasia
FC: A Proposal to Linbrasia
1: By: Colin Abray & Zhi Lin | sanity
2: THIS IS RECONSTRUCTION !!!!!!!!
3: WHY WE'RE HERE ... | A bloody civil war has just ended in Linbrasia. This civil war was the result of debate over the issue of slavery. The states in the West felt that they should be able to keep slaves because their agrarian economy depended on slave labor. However, the states in the East strongly opposed slavery. | After years of debate over this issue, the West decided to secede and created a new country. The President has declared war against the West. He is sure that the East will win the war and wants to have a Reconstruction plan. The President is not knowledgeable of the Reconstruction period in American history. Therefore, he has hired us as his advisor.
4: One of the Major Reconstruction Plans by Abraham Lincoln. It was basically proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction. After 10% of those on the 1860 voting lists took an oath of allegiance, a state could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress. Under these terms,AR, LA, TN, & VA moved towards readmission into the Union. -Zhi | PLAN | Dec 8 1863
5: RadiCal Reactions July 1864 | Radical Republicans proposed another plan called the Wade-Davis Plan, it proposed that Congress, not the president, should be responsible for Reconstruction. It also declared that a majority, not just 10% of those eligible to vote in 1860 would have to take a solemn oath to support the Constitution.Lincoln used a pocket veto to prevent this bill from being passed. Lincoln was suspected of vetoing this because it gave congress more power over reconstruction than the president. Radicals were furious. -Zhi | <<< Pro-south cartoon depicting Lincoln and Davis playing cards, with Lincoln's document being the president's last desperate card
6: Johnson's Plan May 1865 | After Lincoln's assassination, Andrew Johnson became president. His plans and policies pardoned many former Confederate leaders and allow them to take part in Federal government. He also ignored any policies that would be for the benefit of former slaves. This upset Radicals and former slaves alike. -Zhi | Black Codes 1865 | In direct defiance of the members of Congress, Johnson allowed many slaves to pass "Black Codes". These codes would often forbid Blacks from testifying in court, serving on juries or carrying weapons. This was a major setback for the Reconstruction movement. -Zhi
7: Democrats who opposed to the Republican plan for reconstruction, called white Southerners who joined the Republican Party's Scalawags. The majority were small farmers who wanted to improve their economic and political position and prevent the former wealthy planters from regaining power. -Zhi | Politics in the Postwar South | Carpetbaggers was used by the democrats, it was an unflattering name for the Northerners who moved to the South after the war. This name referred to the belief that they arrived with so few belongings that everything could fit into a carpetbag. Most Southerners believed that they wanted to exploit the Southerners postwar turmoil for their own profit. -Zhi
8: 13th amendment | This is an Amendment to the United States Constitution which officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery. Ratified by the states on Dec 6, 1865, with limited exceptions that prohibits involuntary servitude. Prior to its ratification, slavery remained legal only in Delaware and Kentucky. The slaves had been freed by state action and the federal government's Emancipation Proclamation executive order. -Zhi | Congressional Reconstruction
9: Congress drafted the 14th Amendment, it was ratified in 1868 which made all persons born or naturalized in the US including former slaves, citizens of the country and guaranteed equal protection of the laws. -Zhi | 14th Amendment | 15th Amendment | Radicals introduced the 15th Amendment, it was ratified in 1870, prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This amendment would also affect northern states, many of which at this time barred African-Americans voting. -Zhi
10: Johnson Impeached Horace Greeley, who was the secretary of war, was the leader of Johnson,s impeachment. He was backed by many Radicals and moderates who disapproved of many elements of Johnson's Reconstruction Plan. And it was claimed that Johnson was breaking the law by removing Greeley. It was required that 66% of congress vote for Johnson's impeachment. And it was passed.-Colin | Grant Elected!!!! In the election of 1868, the Republicans nominated the Union General Ulysses Grant. His opponent was Horatio Seymour. Grant won and along with Grant's victory came the introduction of the 15th amendment. This amendment would forbid states from barring people from voting because of their race.-Colin
11: States Refuse to Enforce 14th and 15th Amendments!!!!! | Many states refused to enforce the 14th and 15th amendments especially the ones in the South. This caused Grant to put the "Enforcement Act of 1870" into effect. This would give severe punishments to those who violated the 14th and 15th Amendments.-Colin | As a response to the Enforcement acts and the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments themselves, the Ku Klux Klan began to become very prominent. Founded in 1866, this organization existed in every state by 1868. They mainly intimidated blacks from voting. Their aggression grew even more after the enforcement acts were passed.-Colin
12: Freedman's Bureau | As a part of Presidential Reconstruction, it was established by Congress in the last month of the Civil War, it assisted former slaves and poor whites in the South by distributing cloths and food. It also set up more than 4,000 schools, 40 hospitals, 61 industrial institutions, and 74 teacher-training centers. -Zhi
13: Changes in the Southern Economy | Sherman's Special Field Order, Number 15 | It gave freed slaves the right to find their families members who had been sold away. While settling aside the Sea Islands, black families can gain 40 acres tracts of land in South Carolina and Georgia for . Gave 40 acres and a mule to blacks who wished to move to the unsettled American Southwest. Sherman gave his army instructions to burn their way through the South to the coast Establish the Freedmen's Bureau to help blacks make the transition from slavery to freedom. -Zhi
14: Sharecropping v. Tenant Farming | Economic problems forced African-Americans to sign labor contracts with planters. In exchange for wages, housing, and food, freedmen worked in the fields. Sharecropping- landowners divided their land and gave each freed African American or poor white workers a few acres along with seeds and tools. At harvest time, each worker gave a share of his crop, usually half, to the landowner. Tenant Farming- a system in which farm workers supplied their own tools and rented farmland for cash. -Zhi
16: An effort to prepare newly freed people for full participation in post-Civil War society with educational and land ownership opportunities. The program was created during the American Civil War to establish freedmen and women in a successful community to work the land abandoned by plantation owners. A second component of the experiment was to recruit and train men of African descent for soldiers in the military campaigns and have them fight next to white soldiers on equal footing of pay and promotions. -Zhi | The Port Royal Experiment
17: Map of early African American involvement in the Civil War, including the Port Royal Experiment
18: Charles Sumner | Sumner was a radical Republican. He strongly opposed Johnson's methods. He wanted to exclude anyone from government who was affiliated with the Confederates' rebellion. He also supported the voting rights of African Americans along with the propositions of land grants for freed slaves-Colin. | Military Reconstruction | Efforts were made by the U.S. Military to contribute to Reconstruction. This act placed ten former Confederate States under military control after the Civil War. Tennessee was the only former Confederate State that this rule gave an exception to because it had already been readmitted to the Union-Colin.
19: Civil Rights Act of 1866 | This was an act that intended to prevent any states from passing any laws that restricted the rights of African Americans in any way. This law gave former slaves the rights to own property, enforce contracts, and give evidence in courts. Passed on April 9th 1866 Unfortunately, this was never officially passed and African Americans continued to be poorly treated.-Colin | Colfax Massacre!!! | One of many violent acts following the Civil War, this occurred in April1873 around the time that Louisiana was to elect a governor. A white militia attacked and murdered several black Republicans as a method of intimidation to Republican voters and freedmen, An estimated 70 blacks were killed, some of whom were members of the state militia-Colin.
20: Hiram Revels. My Man!!!! | Hiram Revels was the first African American to serve on the U.S. Senate. He was elected in April of 1870. He was the Senatorial representative for the State of Mississippi. He was elected to finish out the term for a seat that had been left vacant since the Civil War. During his time as a senator, Revels was an advocate for racial equality. He opposed a bill proposed by another senator to keep Washington DC schools segregated. He didn't want punishments issued to former Confederates as long as they swore loyalty to the new Union.-Colin
21: Civil Rights Act of 1875 | This was an act proposed by Senator Charles Sumner. It was intended to guarantee that all people, regardless of their race would be given the same public accommodations. Any offenders would be subject to fines and or prison time. This act was indeed passed on March 1st 1875 but not strictly enforced in the south. This bill was even used to back up the "Separate but Equal" justification for segregation.-Colin
22: U.S. V. Cruikshank | This was a famous U.S. Court case that related to the Colfax Massacre. It resulted in the overturning of two convictions of perpetrators in the Colfax attacks. The perpetrators were saved by a claim that they were exercising their 1st amendment right to assemble and their 2nd amendment right to bear arms. Outraging many radicals due to the fact that the perpetrators were violators of the enforcement acts. If anything, this case caused blacks to be less protected by the government and the 14th amendment was negated.-Colin | Redemption! | This was a movement mainly led by wealthy southern Democrats. It was intended to restore the social order in the South that had been present before the Civil War. It pushed for absolute inequality among races in the south. Redeemers also despised the presence of Carpetbaggers and Scalawags. Other groups such as "Red Shirts" spawned from this movement.-Colin
23: Panic of 1873 | This was an economic depression that effected many nations. It was caused in the U.S. mainly by the coinage act when Germany stopped making Silver coins. This hurt mining interests in the West. Jay Cook and Company's failure to market a great sum of money in the Northern Pacific Railroad Company also caused this. This led to many protests among factory workers and union factory workers. This lasted nearly until 1879. This was the worst economic depression until the 1930s-Colin. | Slaughterhouse Cases | The slaughterhouses cases were cases against butchers upstream from New Orleans that were contaminating the local Water supply with waste. New Orleans won this case because the 14th amendment didn't negate something that states had called "Police Power". This meant that Louisiana had the right to regulate in favor of public welfare. The butchers had to relocate.-Colin
24: Compromise of 1877 | This was arguably an end to Reconstruction. It was a compromise that assured that Democrats would accept Republican electors. This allowed Hayes to succeed. In exchange, the Republicans had to appoint Democrats to the cabinet and to patronage positions in the South. They also had to remove troops from the South and make efforts to industrialize the South. This was a let down to many freedmen because their southern Democrat oppressors had an amount of power restored to them. It was a great victory to redeemers.-Colin
25: After reading this material, one should agree that Linbrasia should not follow the Reconstruction plan of the United States. There were much more failures than successes that resulted from the Reconstruction plans. The Reconstruction plan caused an economic crisis. Also because of the flaws in America's Reconstruction plan, the White Southern democrats were able to return to power, causing Blacks ended up being at the bottom of the barrel again. The reconstruction plan even instigated many acts of violence against African Americans It wouldn't be until nearly 100 years later that blacks would achieve equality. Reconstruction in the United States after the Civil War was clearly a failed experiment!!!!!!!!! | FINAL CONCLUSION
26: 8 Final Arguments! | -Reconstruction led to the formation of the Ku Klux Klan which continued to engage in violent activities-Colin -Reconstruction led to the Panic of 1873 which was an economic depression-Colin -Many former Confederate leaders with anti-black and harshly antiquated/conservative views were put into political offices-Colin -None of the laws passed in favor of the rights of African Americans were strictly enforced throughout the entire nation-Colin
27: -The failure of the Freedmen's Bureau caused many blacks to remain uneducated-Zhi -Many states passed anti-black laws called "Black Codes" that were not challenged despite the fact that they were unconstitutional-Zhi -The Southern economy remained poor after Reconstruction, because the efforts to improve it were cut off after 12 years-Zhi -Many blacks had to become sharecroppers which was only one step above being a slave again-Zhi