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FC: Carline St. Victor | Your Name Here | ROCKS AND SOIL
1: INTRODUCTION This Web 2.0 technology-based lesson for 4th or 5th graders directs students through activities to learn about rocks and sediment. The lesson is aligned with Grade Level Expectations.
2: To the right is the Mixbook lesson plan for Rocks and Soil On the following pages are: Table A - Scoring Guide Table B - Rocks Characteristics Table Table C - KWL Chart
3: Knowing Rocks and Soil Subject Area: Science/Earth, Grade Elementary (4-5) Objective •The student will be able to observe and describe the physical properties of rocks and soils. •The student will also be able to describe the different components of soils. •The student will be able to observe and recognize examples of changes in the Earth's surface due to erosion and weathering and observe and describe ways humans use earth materials. •Students will be able to do a KWL chart at the end of the lesson on rocks and soil. Instructional Strategy: Testing Hypothesis Process Standards: Goal 1.3 design and conduct field and laboratory investigations to study nature and society Content Standards: SC7, G.L.E. Time Allowance: 5/ 30-45 minute class periods Technological Resources: Videos about soil and weathering and erosion or books and articles Integration: 1.Work with students collectively and or individually 2.Provide resource materials explaining concept. Diversity will be addressed by providing assistance on nature walks, for various students depending of assistance needed. Weathering and erosion stations will be set on tables. Assessment: See Lesson Description: Students will observe and describe the physical properties of rocks and soil. They will learn how the Earth's surface changes due to weathering and erosion and how humans use the Earth's materials. | Knowing Rocks and Soil Subject Area: Science/Earth, Grade Elementary (4-5) Objective •The student will be able to observe and describe the physical properties of rocks and soils. •The student will also be able to describe the different components of soils. •The student will be able to observe and recognize examples of changes in the Earth's surface due to erosion and weathering and observe and describe ways humans use earth materials. •Students will be able to do a KWL chart at the end of the lesson on rocks and soil. Instructional Strategy: Testing Hypothesis G.L.E: The SWBAT observe and describe ways humans use Earth’s materials (e.g., soil, rocks) in daily life (GLE Science, Strand 5: Processes and Interactions of the Earth’s Systems (Geosphere, Atmosphere, and Hydrosphere, 3. Human activity is dependent upon and affects Earth’s resources and systems, Concept A, Grade 2) (Performance Standard 1.3 design and conduct field and laboratory investigations to study nature and society) Time Allowance: 8/ 30-45 minute class periods Technological Resources: Videos about soil and weathering and erosion or books and articles Integration: 1.Work with students collectively and or individually 2.Provide resource materials explaining concept. Diversity will be addressed by providing assistance on nature walks, for various students depending of assistance needed. Weathering and erosion stations will be set on tables. Assessment: See Scoring Guide, Table A in the Mixbook Description: Students will observe and describe the physical properties of rocks and soil. They will learn how the Earth's surface changes due to weathering and erosion and how humans use the Earth's materials. Classroom Component: Day 1 How Rocks are formed •What are sedimentary rocks? •What are igneous rocks? •What are metamorphic rocks? Now that we know what rocks are and how to identify some of their properties, ask questions such as “Who can tell us how they think the rocks formed? Have students log on to provided web-sites http://www.sciencespot.net/Pages/kdzethsci3.html find out what forms rocks. (Pressure, temperature, erosion and friction). Show students pictures of each type of rock and ask them to identify their properties. The sedimentary rock is sandstone. It was taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sedimentary What is the rock cycle? The Rock Cycle is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into sedimentary rock or into metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock can change into metamorphic rock or into igneous rock. Metamorphic rock can change into igneous or sedimentary rock. Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. The minerals can form crystals when they cool. Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly. When it pours out on Earth's surface, magma is called lava. Yes, the same liquid rock matter that you see coming out of volcanoes. On Earth's surface, wind and water can break rock into pieces. They can also carry rock pieces to another place. Usually, the rock pieces, called sediments, drop from the wind or water to make a layer. The layer can be buried under other layers of sediments. After a long time the sediments can be cemented together to make sedimentary rock. In this way, igneous rock can become sedimentary rock. All rock can be heated. But where does the heat come from? Inside Earth there is heat from pressure (push your hands together very hard and feel the heat). There is heat from friction (rub your hands together and feel the heat). There is also heat from radioactive decay (the process that gives us nuclear power plants that make electricity). So, what does the heat do to the rock? It bakes the rock. (Refer to Rock Characteristics Table B) Day 2 Baked rock does not melt, but it does change. It forms crystals. If it has crystals already, it forms larger crystals. Because this rock changes, it is called metamorphic. Remember that a caterpillar changes to become a butterfly. That change is called metamorphosis. Metamorphosis can occur in rock when they are heated to 300 to 700 degrees Celsius. When Earth's tectonic plates move around, they produce heat. When they collide, they build mountains and metamorphose (met-ah-MORE-foes) the rock. The rock cycle continues. Mountains made of metamorphic rocks can be broken up and washed away by streams. New sediments from these mountains can make new sedimentary rock. The rock cycle never stops. Ask the students questions about the rock cycle to build knowledge: a. How does igneous rock become sedimentary rock? b. What animal goes through metamorphosis? c. What is produced when Earth's plates collide? How does this change rocks? What are the two ways igneous rock can form? See Exhibit D & E for rock cycles Materials: Books, Internet Day 3 Soil - In pairs, students will brainstorm what they know about soil. A video will be shown or books read giving information about different types of soil. Each pair of students will be provided with sandy soil, humus, and clay which they will observe through magnifying glasses. Students will complete a sheet comparing how each soil looks, feels, smells, and the shape of the soil when it is wet. Whole group, the students will share their findings. Materials: Sandy soil Humus Clay Newspapers Plastic spoons Straws Water Magnifying glasses Day 4 Rocks - Review properties and how it applies to rocks - Each Student will use the rock they found during nature walk, that they will observe through a magnifying class. Students will predict the mass of their rock and then use a balance scale. They will also find the length and diameter of their rock. Students will record the color, texture, shape of their rock and draw its picture. Students will share their findings and compare their rocks in small groups. Materials: Variety of rocks collected Activity sheet Magnifying glasses Balance Tape measure Day 5 Using the Earth's Resources - Students will take a walk around the school and grounds recording uses of the Earth's resources (examples, bricks made from clay, glass made from sand, rocks in the parking lot). Students will make "The Earth We Have" booklets with each page for a different resource (examples, gold glitter for jewelry, modeling clay for clay for bricks and pottery, soil for farming, graphite for pencil lead). Materials: •Paper •Glue •Glitter •Soil •Sand •Modeling clay •Pencil lead shavings Day 6 Weathering and Erosion - View a video or read books providing background information. Students will brainstorm if wind, water, and ice change the Earth's surface, and if so, how. Stations will be set up to demonstrate wind (blowing sand or fine soil through a straw), water (pouring water out of a cup onto soil), and ice (rubbing ice through soil) erosion. Write About It - What is erosion? Describe erosion you have seen where we live and what might have caused it. Draw a picture of your evidence. Materials: •Sand •Construction paper •Soil •Shoe box lids, 9 Day 7 Review Resources: Various web-sites provided by the instructor Day 8 Test and Performance Event Rock and Soil Test Name: _______________________________ Date_____________ True/False Put a T before the sentences that are true and an F before the sentences that are false. ______ 1. Cocoa powder stirred into milk is a mixture. ______ 2. Soil is a mixture of small rocks and decaying plants and animals. ______ 3. Clay soil does not hold together unless you add water. When it dries it falls apart. ______ 4. Not all rocks are heavy. Multiple Choice – Circle the letter to the correct answer to the question. Be careful! There may be more than one letter circled. 5.Circle each sentence below that describes mixtures. A. A mixture is made up of one substance. B. A mixture is made up of more than one substance. C. A mixture can be easily separated into single substances. D. A mixture cannot be separated into different single substances. 6.Which tool would you use to separate a mixture of rocks and soil. A . ruler B. A microscope C. A screen D. A balance 7.Which of these objects are man-made? Circle all those that are man-made. A Mountain B. A brick building C. A bridge D. A sidewalk E. A river 8.Which of these objects are made by nature? Circle all those that are made by nature. A School building B. A stream C. A mountain 9.Which of the following describes a balance that has rocks on each side that have the same mass. A. The right arm of the balance is closer to the table. B. Both arms of the balance are the same distance from the table. C. The left arm of the balance is closer to the table. 10.Which of the following properties will tell you if these rocks were found in a river. Choose all that apply. A.The rocks have sharp edges. B. The rocks have a rough surface. C. The rocks have a round or oval shape. D. The rocks are smooth. 11.Name a mixture. How can the mixture that you name be separated? 12.What does erosion mean? 13.Name three things that cause erosion. 14.Performance Event: On my desk there are three rocks. Circle the number of the rock you have chosen 15. 1 2 3 You are to measure the rock with a string and a centimeter ruler. Write your measurement: _____________cm What is the mass of your rock? ____________ grams List some of your rock’s properties (for example its color, size, how it feels.) KWL Chart is Table C in the Mixbook
4: TABLE A - SCORING GUIDE
5: TABLE B - ROCK CHARACTERISTICS
6: SAMPLES What follows are examples of the kind of work students would be producing following the lesson plan found at the end of this Mixbook.
10: The following are samples different types of soil and the rock cycle.
11: Soil Samples
13: Rock Samples
17: Lab Activity Sheet
18: TABLE C - KWL CHART