S: By: Pd. 1
FC: Movers, Shakers & News Makers | Journalists and inventions that changed our world
1: Contributors Samantha Beverly Cayla Everhart Raquel Filburn Savannah Fugate Kaitlyn Hollan Kristen Hollan Megan Lykins Kasey Middleton Dion Newby Sarah Reece Elisha Riley Kenzie Sedam Earl Smith Jared Taylor Logan Trowbridge Katie Wampler Alisha West
2: Newspapers are an important aspect in life. Without it we would be a more boring nation. The Earliest recorded effort to inform the public of the news was the Roman Acta Diurna, originated by Julius Caesar and posted daily in public places. During the late 1600's, most people received Their news either form the local town crier or from a pint at the local tavern. One of the most important events in American Journalism history occurred in 1735. This was the John Peter Zinger trial. More than fifty year's before the Bill of Rights was ratified, John Peter Zenger went to prison for nine months because he printed the truth. Zenger was criticizing the governor in the New York Weekly Journal, therefore he was thrown in jail. August 4, 1735 after eight months in prison, Zenger was brought to trial and charged with seditious libel.After a brief statement from defense co-counsel John Chambers, Andrew Hamilton rose to announce that his client sitting in an enclosed box in the courtroom would not contest having printed and published the allegedly libelous materials contained in the Weekly Journal . Following Hamilton's surprise announcement, the prosecution's three witnesses (Zenger's journeyman associate and two of his sons), summoned to prove that Zenger had published the offending expression, were sent home. | Life is so much better with newspapers!
3: His arguments might have been well received by jurors, but Hamilton had almost no law to support his position that the truth should be a defense to the charge of libel. The trial was a milestone in lending an ethical, or political, dimension to American law.The effect of the Zenger trial on American ideas and attitudes towards press freedom is harder to measure. Press freedom in America began to blossom. A half-century after the Zenger trial, as members of the First Congress debated the proposed Bill of Rights to the U.S. | Constitution and its guarantees of freedom of speech and of the press, the trial would be remembered by one of the Constitution's principal drafters, Governor Morris, the man who wrote the famous words of the Preamble to the Constitution | John Peter Zenger Trial
4: Imagine there were no telephones, newspapers, or communication outside of your city. Before newspapers were easily purchased it was like a guessing game for civilians. Friedrich Koenig helped communication by inventing the steam driven rotary press in 1814. Owner of "The Times" at that time was John Walter the second and he was impressed but complained about the speed. So Koenig set out on making a steam press with two cylinders for faster speed. After two years Koenig finished his double cylinder rotary press. Walton bought two machines for 3,078.44 dollars. On November 29, 1814 the first issue was printed with the rotary press. The machine was able to print 1,100 sheets per hour, selling 7,000 copies a day at the end of the year. | The rotary press. https://wikis.otis.edu/graphicdisgna/images/7/7d/Rotary_Press.jpg. | Change of communication By: Katie Wampler | Friedrich Koenig. gerald-massey.org.uk/smiles/c_industry_3.htm
5: Communication was changed greatly. The printing press allowed information and opinions to be spread more easily and openly throughout a democratic area. Now scientists could print and spread their work combating with the church views. This contributed to the Penny Press in the 1830s. Most famous for its low prices, the price of one paper being only one penny! Other papers were around 6 cents making the one cent paper very popular. This made the newspaper available to everyone. | Early newspapers emeraldinsight.com/.../Articles/2390250703.html
6: If we didn't have yellow journalism, we wouldn't read newspapers, or what the details were about a story. Our newspapers would be boring, and we would not read them. Yellow journalism is what makes us want to read more about the story, or the details about what happened. Its exaggerated or biased writing that is disguised as a fact. | Yellow Journalism all started in the 1800’s with two cartoonists. Joseph Pulitzer started yellow journalism by making a cartoon called, “Yellow Man” that made jokes, and made people laugh. It was a little man that had jokes on its outfit, or above it what it was saying. The comic trip for the paper used a special no-smudge yellow ink. | Yellow Journalism in the 1800's | One of the cartoons that was in the New York World, and New York Journal | http://cartoons.osu.edu/yellowkid/1896/november/1896-11-29b.jpg
7: Then William Randolph Hearst took the cartoonist away from Pulitzer to create the comic strip in his paper. Pulitzer was not happy with this move, so he hired two cartoonists to duplicate the work of the first yellow man. After the fight was over a cartoonist, the papers were in war over who could sell the most copies. | The New York World, run by Joseph Pulitzer and The New York Journal, run by William Randolph Hearst. Some people believed that this cartoon lead to the Spanish-American War. This war was a significant event; it may very well have been started largely due to the influence of propaganda and the practice of Yellow Journalism. | The Yellow Man that was in Pulitzer's and Randolph's newspapers. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2008/08/yellowkid.jpg
8: Yellow Journalism of the 1990's | Have you ever read something that didn't sound true? Well thats probably because it was Yellow journalism. Yellow Journalism that exploits, exaggerates the news to create sensation and attract readers. Yellow journalism was led by newspaper owners, Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer | "Yellow press" was a term used to the popular newspapers of New York City, circa 1890s. Today, "yellow journalism" refers to lurid publications that emphasize the sensational side of news stories.
9: Twentieth-century American journalism was born in a little-remembered burst of inspired self-promotion. It was born in a paroxysm of yellow journalism the first issue of the New York Journal of 1 January 1901 fell from the newspaper's complex of fourteen high-speed presses. | There was a lot of yellow journalism in Smith's turn-of-the-century run to Washington. The occasion illuminated the qualities that made the genre - of which the New York Journal was an archetype - both so irritating and so irresistible: Yellow journalism could be imaginative yet frivolous, aggressive yet self-indulgent. It advocated an ethos of activist journalism, yet did so in bursts of unabashed self-adulation.
10: Magazines Little storehouses of information. The word magazine comes from the Arabic word “makhazin” which means storehouse. The early magazines looked like books. Some people say magazines began as genteel soapboxes from which literate men expounded their points of view. | Johann Rist, a poet of Hamburg and was a theologian, started the first magazines. The magazine was started in 1663 and was printed in Germany. It was called “Erbavlince Monaths Unterredunger.” The first English magazines was created by Daniel Defor called “The Review” and the first American magazines is called “American Magazines.” It was published in 1741. | Early magazine articles focused on self enlightenment. Later in the articles had bits of information here and there. Also novels in serial form and entertainment was added into the early magazines. | Magazines, and Their Life | Early magazines was read by the educated few and contained essays, government reports, book lists, and book reviews. Then inexpensive magazines began to be published in the mid 1800s making it easier for the less rich to purchase and buy magazines. | One of the first magazines. They looked like books. http://aejmcmagazine.bsu.edu/testfolder/AmericanMag1835.jpg
11: Without magazines Americas advertisers would have to go somewhere else to inform their consumers some other way because magazines play a big role in the media and advertising worlds. | Americas trend of magazines today consists of a small but interested audience. As the famous Transcontinental Railroad was completed, the trend of magazines took a huge hike. The want for magazines became big. The congress passed a bill that gave magazines a special mailing privilege. Sadly this trend didn't last very long. Even though, from the end of World War II to the mid 1960s, magazines wanted to appeal to everyone. | When television and tabloids started to become big, the trend of magazines began e. to die. Another cause of this dying trend was that it was getting to expensive to print and make magazines. | Later on in history computers and the Internet was beginning to become a big thing. This happening was a great thing for magazines. It completely eliminated the cost of printing and magazines. | The first magazines to go digital was in 1984 and it was called the “Newengland Journal of Medicine.” | American Magazines. Of of the early magazines published. http://botany.si.edu/bdg/americas.html | By: Alisha West.
12: The Lady that Changed Journalism By Jared Taylor Nellie Bly conquered being the first reporter to go undercover, the first person who traveled the world in 72 days, and the first woman on the front lines during war. Nellie Bly is the first reporter to go behind the scenes. Her first big story was in 1888 when she had herself commented into a mental institution. Nellie exposed how cruelly the patients were being treated. Because of this, the mental institutions were reformed. | When we asked her if she thought she was going to make it in the beginning she said, "Could I pass a week in the insane ward at Blackwell's Island? I said I could and I would. And I did." | Nellie Bly's trademark: a satchel and a coat. http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/93/21693-004-36C96144.jpg | Nellie Bly's fame peaked in 1889 when she traveled the world in 72 days. She wanted to beat the fictional character Phileas Fogg, a character in the book "Around the World in Eighty Days." Nellie Bly traveled by ships, trains, and a burro. She arrived home on January 25, 1890. We asked her why she did this and her response was " I was getting bored and wanted and challenge to overcome." | http://www.seattlepi.com/dayart/20090313/200bly.jpg | http://www.nellieblyonline.com/images/uploads/nellie_bly_signature.gif
13: After the fall of her company in 1911, Nellie went and covered WWI in Europe in 1914 till 1918. She is the first woman reporter to go to the front lines. All of Nellie Bly's articles had her personality in it. She is one of the few who sided with the poor and the disenfranchised. Nellie Bly changed journalism by the way she did things. She went undercover and always kept an open mind about things. Nellie helped with journalism by bringing new ideas to the journalist, like going undercover keeping an open mind, and helping prove that a woman can be a reporter. If Nellie Bly didn't do what she did, journalism wouldn't be the same today. The mental institution would not have been reformed when it did, and the reporters would not have the idea to go undercover. It would have taken longer for women to be recognize as reporters. Nellie Bly's real name is Elizabeth Jane Cockran. The Pittsburgh Dispatch gave Elizabeth the pen name of Nellie Bly after the Stephen Foster song. She was born on May 5, 1867 and died on January 27, 1922 due to pneumia. Nellie Bly is a model of achievement. She changed the world and journalism for the better. | Nellie Bly getting information. | http://photos.state.gov/libraries/usinfo/3234/Week_5/043008_Nellie-Bly2_200.jpg | http://www.nwhm.org/media/category/education/biography/biographies/nbly.jpg | http://www.nellieblyonline.com/images/uploads/NB_corbis_4.jpg
14: ~People who changed News~ | Jessica Mitford-"Queen of the Muckrakers" | Muckraking was used from the fictional character in John Bunyan's Pilgrim Progress. Success of the Progressive movement owes a great deal to the muckrakers, who showed that social reforms was really needed. | ~Muckraking movement lost support in about 1912~ | The Mitford Sisters | http://www.observer.com/files/full/120406_article_book_johnson.jpg | http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2010/01/10/article-1242170-00B67A2D00000259-883_468x410.jpg | By: Sarah Reece
15: The names muckrakers is described to American journalists, novelists, and critics who attempted to show the abuses of business and the corruption in politics. | When President Roosevelt turned the reform press on in April of 1906 branding them muckrakers in a much publicized speech, the partnership between Roosevelt and Baker became clear. | Around the turn of the last century, no magazines were more popular than McClures, Everybody's , and Success.Ray Baker was the reporter for McClure's. | Ray Baker | http://img.amazon.ca/images/I/51TGBGPQHFL._SL500_AA300_.jpg | http://history.journalism.ku.edu/1900/images/journalists/baker.jpg
16: Ida Tarbell Focused,determination,risk taker,honest all describe Ida Tarbell. Ida Tarbell was born in Erie county Pennsylvania in 1857. When she was young she wanted to become a scientist. Instead she became a reporter. IN 1876 she attended Allegheny college, and graduated in 1880. Ida was the only woman in her class. One job she had was a teacher in Portland, Ohio. Tarbell returned to Titusville Pennsylvania in 1833. That is where she took a job as a reporter for the local newspaper. During that time she wrote on several topics. Most notable the unprivileged of the area. In 1890 Ida's work had caught the eye of the editor Samuel mcClure of McCXlures magazine. At that time McClures magazine was the most popular magazine in the country. McClure hired Tarbell full time. In 1902 Tarbell started researching and writing on the topic of the standard oil. Her discoveries shocked many Americans. She discovered: Bribery,manipulation, cutthroat business tactics and criminal actions that given Rockefeller a near monopoly aft the American oil industry. Rockefeller ran most northeastern oil industries in Pennsylvania. From ida Tarbell's account federal government prosecuted standard oil under terms of Sherman anti trust act. IT broke up and ended Rockefeller's oil monopoly. ROckefeller privately called Ida, "Miss. Tarbarrel." in public he held back saying,"not a word about that miss guided woman." Tarbell became a national celebrity after her piece on standard oil. She became the most prominent woman among investigative journalist.
17: President Theodore Roosevelt labeled Tarbell a muckraker. muckrakers meant journalist/reporters who raked through the unsavory issues of society. Tarbell then moved to Hartford Connecticut where she became the owner of "The American" magazine. She wrote on different social and economic topics. Although nothing would equal her writing on standard oil. Ida Tarbell was a reporter who threw herself into her task.She was always determined to get the point across to the reader. Her work always bold and with reality. Tarbell changed the journalism world for everyone by showing how far a reporter will go for the truth. To showing many Americans her passion for journalism in her writing. Ida Tarbell a muckraker for a lifetime. | By:Savanah Fugate | Ida Tarbell picture information :google | newspapers picture information: google
18: The Uncovering of Watergate Almost 38 years have passed since the famous reporters Bob Woodward (right) and Carl Bernstein (below) uncovered the mysteries of the Watergate Scandal. Carl was a very good writer. He also had an uncanny ability to be where he could get some success in a story. | Mr. Woodward attended one of the Ivy League Colleges, Yale. He, unlike Carl, finished and came to work at the Washington Post 5 years after Bernstein. As would be expected, Bob got along better with his colleagues than Carl. Now to the really juicy news. In 1972 Cuban burglars broke into the the Watergate Hotel which was the Democrat HQ, and bugged the phones.
19: President Nixon knew about the crime and kept tapes from the bugged phones. Woodward and Bernstein received information from a secret source whose code name was Deep Throat who was really an FBI agent. It was Deep Throat who gave them the information they needed to figure the case out. They changed Journalism in a great way. Journalists would want to follow in there example, and people would respect journalists more.
20: 2 things that has changed journalism! | Camera's over the years. The camera is one of the many things that has changed Journalism over time. The camera allows people to keep memories that are close to them last forever.Not only memories but they also allow people to look at events that has accrued over time. Cameras has changed journalism over time because without pictures stories or events that journalist has written about would be boring. | A picture tells 1,000 words! | http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&q=cameras&safe=active&um=1&ie=UTF-8&http://www.quotegarden.com/internet.htmlsource=og&sa=N&tab=wi | By:Kenzie Sedam
21: Laptop computers Can help Journalist all over the world. Laptop computers is a really good source to have when you are in journalism. A laptop can help you in many different ways like it has spell check which can help you correct your mistakes and also help you spell words you don't know. They also help you edit your work and make projects or stories more pleasing to the eye. Laptops has changed in many different ways over time. Now days they are more advanced and a lot more helpful to journalist. A laptop can also help journalist save,edit, and allow them to look up any information they need anywhere in the world for stories and etc. | A journey of a thousand sites begins with a single click. ~Author Unknown | http://www.google.com/images?q=laptop&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&tbs=isch:1&ei=MQ-vTNOmD4O78gac0fieCQ&sa=N&start=18&ndsp=18
22: The first sports broadcast was of a UM football game. A Michigan student was highly interested in letting others know about the Michigan game that occurred. On the campus of Michigan, the telephone company ran special phone lines to the University Hall Auditorium. At the football field they arranged a tower that stood 40 feet high at the 55 yard line. At the top of this tower was a wooden telephone booth. Mattice, the college student, and used a headset and transmitter. When he spoke into the transmitter, over 3,000 people gathered in the auditorium and listened to his broadcast. He would look through binoculars as he described the progress of the game. This experience started the world of broadcasting and televised sport events. | First Sports Broadcast EVER! | http://eslpod.com/eslpod_blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/sports_item_american_football.jpg | http://www.creativevideo.co.uk/public/product_images/altimage/25%2005%2020081211754294sony_pdw-700_1.jpg
23: After waiting years for some kind of entertainment while on the road, the automobile radio has finally been created! A Westinghouse radio has been installed in a 1922 Chevrolet. The actual first car radio was fitted to the passenger door of a Ford Model T by 18-year-old George Frost. He was president of Lane High School in Chicago and was in use around May 1922. After that was created, the first commercially produced car radio was the Philco Transitone. It was introduced by the Philadelphia Storage Battery Company in 1927. By 1933 there were claimed to be 100,000 cars fitted with the radio in the USA. | First Automobile Radio | http://listverse.files.wordpress.com/2008/07/1922modelt3.jpg | http://www.stellar-tv.com/car_radio
24: The Evolution of Radio Many people contributed in making the modern day radio. In 1906, Lee de Forrest patented a key element of radio. He discovered how to detect electromagnetic radiation. That made it possible for the first radio broadcast of a presidential election in 1916, with democrat Woodrow Wilson and republican Charles Evan Hughes. Since early radio, broadcasting has become more and more provocative.At first, radio broadcasting consisted of news and music. Now, shock jocks have come on the scene. Shock jocks are broadcasters that uses humor that would offend a good portion of the audience to attract attention.' It has affected the journalism world by making it easier to quickly reach a portion of the population. | http://cdn-images.hollywood.com/site/anchorman_ferrell.jpg | http://www.popwuping.com/stuff/picts/radio.jpg | http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/29/fashion/29djam.html | Old radios and new radios, and tthe jockeys that use them.
25: Television and its Anchors Television was, like the radio, invented by several people working alone over many years. There are three types of television, electric, broadcast, and electromechanical. Broadcast is the most useful to journalism because it allowed the first anchorman, Edward R. Murrow to broadcast news in 1951, and still allows quick information. Influential broadcasters are Walter Cronkite who reported on important events such as WWII, the Nuremberg Trials, and Barbara Walters, who was the first female anchor. | "Its anchor*man*, not anchor*lady*, and that is a scientific fact."- Champ Kind | Television and who is on it. | http://cdn-images.hollywood.com/site/anchorman_ferrell.jpg | http://cdn-images.hollywood.com/site/anchorman_ferrell.jpg
26: In September of 1960, 70 million U.S. viewers watched Senator John F. Kennedy and V.P. Senator Richard Nixon for the 1st televised debate The great debates marked the grand entrance into the presidential politics. In August, Nixon injured his knee and spent 2 weeks in the hospital. By the time of the first debate, he was still 20 lbs. underweight. | 1960's First Televised Presidential Debate Between John F. Kennedy & Richard Nixon | http://www.google.com/images?hl=en&q=kennedy+nixon+debate&safe=active&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi&biw=1281&bih=617
27: Nixon & Kennedy were both evenly matched. But Nixon won. Most television viewers payed attention to what they saw, not what they heard. Kennedy obviously had a better speech & more charisma. So Kennedy was perceived the winner of the first debate. The impact of the election of 1960 was significant. But it seemed like the debates were not the turning point to the election. The debates appear to have simply solidified prior allegiances. Lots of people would argue that Kennedy could have won the election with/without the Debates. | By: Cayla Everhart
28: Almost 1/3 of the 6.8 billion people on the planet use it. Without this, people would have to find the information in the forever and a day long book. To know what is going on in the world, people might have to get that information by scanning the T.V for a certain piece of news that might not be covered on that channel. The device that no one can do without and nothing can replace is the Internet. Just imagine what life would be without it. | The first computer was as big as a deck. When the Internet was first invented, the system was very weak and easy to crash. The development of the Internet started with packet switching. This was developed by Leonard Kleinrock. In 1965, Lawrence Roberts connected a Massachusetts computer with a California computer over dial up telephone lines. The dial up form was super slow and crashed a lot. When Charley Kline first used the Internet and he did not even get to officially log in and the system crashed. At first, the only people that got to use the Internet were Librarians, computer experts, engineers, and scientists. Now, the Internet is open to the public and anyone who owns a computer. | The Early Years of the Internet | People use this search engine everyday to find information. www.googleimages.com
29: People use the Internet everyday to find the information that they need. You can receive or share your info throughout the world. You can interact with people that do not live around you without worrying about the Internet crashing anymore. The Internet has drastically improved through the years. Now you can get where you need to in a second, rather than a few minutes. The Internet is used by people everyday, whether it is in the United States or across the globe. Without the Internet it would be hard to keep up with current events around the world. You would have to find your information through the T.V, when the news you need finally comes on, or on the radio, when you only get certain details, and newspapers do not always give you the information you need, if it is about a certain country. People use the Internet to find information for your homework or certain projects. Without being able to look it up on the computer, you would have to find a book with whatever you need in it. There are a lot of online newspapers or | professional newspapers or school. If we did not have the Internet, and the phone lines were down, then you could not communicate with anybody. By: Samantha Beverly | People get almost all their information from online newspapers. www.theonlinebooster.com
30: Internet is important because it gives people a lot more information then the newspapers do. The first online newspapers was the Columbus Dispatch. | Internet In the 1980s | The world wide web has changed the role of newspapers because of instead of people going to the store and buying a newspaper, now people can get on the internet and see what is happening around the world.
31: Mark Andreesen turns 8.14 more years till he revolutionaries the web. In 1982 the Internet is used for the first time. TCP/IP becomes the universal language of the Internet. | In 1985 corporations begin to use the Internet to communicate with each other and with their customers. In 1988 Internet viruses were unleashed. | By: Elisha Riley (:
32: Tim Berners Lee was working with Robert Callina in 1990 to create the first hypertext system and it was the start of the Internet. They also created WWW. on August 6th. It was around 1992 that Microsoft introduced windows 3.1 it sold more than 1 million copies within the first 2 months. | Internet Developments of the 1990s | By:Earl Smith | i got this pic of the cnn sign from cnn.com
33: ; | In 1993 President Bill Clinton made a world wide web page and a email address for him and the first lady. 50 world wide web servers exists as of January. in 1994 commodore computers files bankruptcy. in the late 1990's Microsoft releases Internet explorer.EBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar. | i got this pic of a laptop from apple.com
34: The Internet has changed rapidly over the last few years. With advancements in social networking such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter people across the globe can share information faster than ever before. Podcasting has made in impact on the way information is shared and sites like Wikipedia have caused change even more. The technological advancements dealing with the internet have came quickly and are sure to continue. | Recent Internet Developments | http://phonereport.info/wp-content/uploads/facebook-and-twitter-logo.jpg | http://weblogs.asp.net/blogs/lduveau/WindowsLiveWriter/MicrosoftCodeNames_13829/Wikipedia-logo.jpg | By: Logan Trowbridge
35: Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger, the co-creators of Wikipedia, created the online encyclopedia in 2001. The website began to become popular in 2004. Now it is know by many as a resource for finding information. MySpace, Facebook, Twitter, and many other social networking websites have made it easier to communicate with people in far away locations. E-mail can be used to communicate as well, but is an easy way to send and receive computer files. Journalists can attach a file and send it directly to the company servers. | With the ability to send and receive files through e-mail, journalists can get information to and from other journalists faster than ever before. A reporter doing an interview in one country can send the information to their company or boss. Websites like CNN.com, and MSNBC.com have been made to be used like on-line newspapers. They can be used by the general public to stay informed on current news all over the world. Advancements like these have been discovered in recent years and are sure to continue in the future. | http://www.cnn.com/ | http://www.pc1news.com/articles-img/small/MSNBC_logo.jpg