BC: Drew Litrenta 9th | Bill Tilden | Red Grange
FC: Man O’ War | 1920s: Change has come | George Herman Ruth Jr.
1: Table of Contents Chapter 1: Popular Culture Chapter 2:Intolerance and Suspicion Chapter 3: Prohibition and Crime Chapter 4: Women Chapter 5:Harlem Renaissance and the Emergence of Black Independence Vocabulary of each Chapter
2: Chapter 1 Popular Culture of the 1920's Automobile Henry Ford's Model T changed life for all Americans. He made the automobile more affordable so all people could have their own car. With this new invention, people could now take jobs further away from where they lived because they could drive to work and visit family and friends away from home. Not only this, but it changed recreation. People would just go for rides with no specific destination. Along with this, the economy got boosted because everyone was buying these cars. Due to the automobile, everyone, including teenagers, gained freedom.
3: Radios and Movies The radio and movies made a great impact on life in the 20's. In the 1920's, 800 movies were created per year. Today on average, 500 movies are made a year. Companies like Warner Bros, 20th-Century Fox, and Famous Players-Lasky made many of these movies. With the new Model T, people from out of town could drive to the cities and watch the new movies being made. The radio may have had an even greater impact than movies. 60% of people bought radio receivers. Due to this, the receivers had to be mass produced which helped the economy. With these receivers, people could get news instantly from not only here, but around the world. Families would gather around the radio at night to listen to music, sporting events, and newscasts. Because so many people were listening, radio companies tried taking advantage of each other by broadcasting past their time slot. Eventually, the Federal Radio Commission was created to oversee and stop this.
4: Airplane Airplanes advanced a lot during the 1920's. During World War I, airplanes were deemed unsafe and for military use only. After, the airplane took off. The federal government got the idea of Air-Mail, where instead of receiving mail in a few weeks, it could be brought in a matter of days. It was then used in entertainment, where people at carnivals would walk on the wings in flight! When people realized it was rather safe, it became a large part of business. Businessmen across the country could meet face to face over deals in no time. Then, Charles A. Lindbergh flew across the Atlantic. Americans gained great pride because an American was the first to fly across the Atlantic ocean. Now, not only could businessmen across the country do business, but diplomats could fly from America to European countries in a matter of days.
5: Advertising Because of advertising, things were sold in different ways. These advertisements were printed in magazines and newspapers throughout the country. Now instead of just hearing about the product by the means of the radio and other people, consumers could now see it. Now, people in California would see products being made and sold in New York. They took more chances in buying things they didn't have things right in front of them. | Sports The 1920's was known as the Golden Age of Sports. Baseball, football, basketball, and boxing all became loved by many Americans because of the recent war. People needed a reason to enjoy life and put the memory of the war behind them, so they took up sports. With the radio, people could now listen to the games instead of just reading in the newspaper the next day. Also, the new ballparks being made had many seats that were affordable for the middle class people. The Model T allowed people to come to the ball games from far away. For these reasons, sports boomed in the 1920's.
6: Essential Question Popular Culture in the 20's was much different than the previous decades for many reasons. After the war, America was in an economic boom and had money to spend. The government supported consumerism, so the consumers were being protected. Because America was prospering, the consumers could buy things like Ford's Model T, the radio, and go to movies or a ball game. The emergence of the car changed pop culture forever. Prior to the 1920's, Americans were essentially locked into the place where they live. However, they could now go visit family members and friends by car or airplane. Consumers also bought things across country much more than compared to before. America went from a country too large to be completely united to the truly United States of America.
7: Thinking Like A Historian: Cause and Effect Because of WWI, America was in an economic boom and had money to spend. Because America had money to spend, consumers could do many things. They could buy things like tickets to a movie or a game, radios, and automobiles. Americans, especially producers, supported this by doing things like advertisements. They knew the consumers would buy their products, so they loved this. The government supported this as well. With more consumers buying things, the economy got even better, which was intended to happen with the governments support. Events such as the modernization of the radio changed things greatly for everyone around the world. World news could spread instantly. Life completely changed, and the whole world, especially America benefited from the new pop culture created in the 1920's.
8: APPARTS A- A writer from the Literary Digest. This magazine company was an extremely influential magazine on public interests. It was eventually bought out by Times. It states this writer was a baseball fanatic. P- It was written in April, 1923. The new Yankee stadium was just built and it was during the Golden Age of Sports, which means they are trying to make sports look important. P- I know it was the Golden Age of Sports and baseball was at a new high. A- This was intended for everyone besides kids and Red Sox fans. It talks about how important Yankee Stadium was to immigrants and people of every economic level. Had it been written by a Red Sox fan, it would have praised Fenway Park rather than Yankee Stadium. R- This source has made because it showed that having a new stadium brought in people from all over the world. People would come to America to see the Statue of Liberty and Yankee Stadium. It shows the importance of baseball throughout the world.
9: T- The authors key point was that sports bring people together. Rich, poor, and everyone in between could go to a game together. If you had a stadium that had both nice and cheap seats, a lot of money could be made and everyone would get along. S- This source is important because it showed Americans that sports are just not for fun, but they are revenue creating. Instead of just sitting at home, people could come together, watch a game, and have fun collectively. http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5088/
10: Chapter 2 Intolerance and Suspicion Scopes Trial The Scopes Trial was the old Victorian values and beliefs vs. the new ideas of the evolution. The fundamentalists believed strictly in god and that god was the creator of everything. The evolutionist on the other hand believed we as humans evolved from a simpler life form such as a monkey, and we were not created by some all mighty being. Due to the belief that we evolved from monkeys that is how the case got the name the "Monkey" trial.
11: Klu Klux Klan The KKK was a group of native,white, protestants who exhibited character, morality, Christian values, and "Pure Americanism". The Klan stood for the traditional values and tried to protect whites and preserve the "Golden Age". Many people think the Klan just terrorized blacks but in all actuality the KKK did not tolerate Asians, and other immigrants. During the 1920's the Klan were much more violent and hostile towards immigrants, Catholics and Jews. At the Klan's peak they had a total of 5 million member and, although the common misconception is the Klan was in the south the majority of the members were located in the mid-west. The Klan ended up dying in the late twenties because of some embezzling problems. D.C Stephenson the Grand dragon of Indiana got caught embezzling money and he raped his secretary and allowed her to die after her suicide attempt.
12: Immigration Restriction Immigration restriction happened because the United states started to realize that the economy could function without the immigrant labor. Immigration was also restricted with quotas on how many immigrants were allowed to enter the us and become citizens each year. Many whites were becoming worried for their jobs and that the cheap immigrant labor would end up stealing their jobs. In 1924 the immigration restriction act was made. The immigration restriction act of 1924 was a United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, according to the Census of 1890. It superseded the 1921 Emergency Quota Act. The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of Middle Easterners, East Asians and Asian Indians. According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, "In all its parts, the most basic purpose of the 1924 Immigration Act was to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity."
13: Red Scare The Red Scare also known as the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia was nation wide fear in America of communists and socialists. The Revolution gained more attention after a series of Anarchists bombings in 1919. Alexander Mitchell Palmer, leader of the United States Department of Justice, lead the Palmer Raids. The raids rounded up suspected communists and deported them, but some of the people were deported were U.S citizens which obviously angered the people greatly. The a Palmer raids were an attempt to protect democracy and we were afraid of the Russian Revolution.
14: Socco and Vinzetti Sacco and Venzetti were two Italian immigrants who went on trial for an armed robbery of $15,000, but when the case was over and they received their sentence it was much harsher than the normal sentence for a crime of that nature. The two immigrants fell that the decision was bias and the sentence was lengthened because they were Italian immigrants. The government did not like them and were intolerant towards them, because they supported anarchists journals and were seen as anarchists. Fundamentalism Vs. Pentecostalism Fundamentalism are the belief in traditional values and literal interpertaion of the Bible. Pentecostalism on the other hand is the charismatic belief that one could heal the sick and the crippled.
15: Essential Question It shows we were not very accepting of the immigrants and we were paranoid for the immigrants we felt we were better than them. With all the people still following th old victorian values and the new moderna ideas sprouting up at his time there was bound to be some fights. Thinking like a Historian: Through their eyes The people of the past viewed their world as world of great change and that they were losing their traditional values. These peoples views affected their choices pretty greatly with the intolerance of the immigrants many felt threatened by them and their new ideas and decided to fight against the immigration. The people needed to understand what life for the immigrants was like and know what they had to go through on a daily basis.
16: APPARTS A- Elsie Thornton. Unable to find background on Elsie Thornton P- Alabama KKK Newsletter, June 1926. P- I know that the KKK were not a very good group of people and were a very organized group of people. A- The intended audience of this piece is other fellow KKK members of Elsie Thornton R- The purpose of this poem is to show how ridiculous catholicism seemed to the Klan and expose the failure of that religion. T- The document is about the pope talking to the devil and how the pope is running a hell on earth and kills anyone who refuses to bow. S- This document is some what significant in showing the failures and the awful truths of catholicism at that point in time. http://www.alabamamoments.state.al.us/sec46ps.html
17: Chapter 3 Prohibition and Crime The 18th Amendment The 18th amendment was effective in the very beginning but extremely ineffective after a short while. The 18th amendment was ineffective due to the mas number of speak easys and bootleggers in America. Many people really enjoyed their liquor and found secret ways to sell it and distribute it. It was innefective because the demand for liquor was higher than the demand for prohibition.
18: Federal Government Punishment To enforce the 18th amendment the government did all they possibly could, but the demand for liquor was just too high to control. By the year 1929 over 500,000 people were arrested for the illegal production/ distribution of liquor. Just in New York City alone after the 18th amendment was passed the number of saloons jumped from 16,000 saloons to 30 to 100 thousand speakeasies. The government simply didn't have the man power to control the liquor.
19: Gangsters during Prohibition The 18th amendment and prohibition caused a large number of gangsters and bootleggers to appear, none more famous than Al Capone. Al Capone is one of the biggest gangsters in history. Capone was one of if not the most successful person in the bootlegging industry. Capone led the Chicago Outfit which was the biggest bootlegging group ever. He knew the demand for liquor was high and he could make crazy amounts of money and he did. The demand for liquor was just higher than the demand for sobriety.
20: Essential Question I feel the 18th amendment was a huge over reaction to the alcohol problem. It just made the demand for the alcohol that much higher because now it was illegal and harder to get than it was before and it ended up just creating a bigger problem in th end. The gangsters prove this point exactly there would not nearly have been as many gangsters and bootleggers had the government just let the alcohol problem fix itself. Thinking like a Historian: Through Their Eyes The people of this time period viewed liquor as no big deal and they should be able to drink it whenever they please and the government should not be able to limit or take that away from them. The people viewed the 18th amendment as a law which they did not have to abide by and they went on drinking and distributing liquor. The government should have realized right way there was no possible way they could have stopped the alcohol problem and thought about the repercussions of their actions.
21: APPARTS A- No author (poster) P- July 1st, 1918 Wisconsin The place is interesting, because Wisconsin now is a huge drinking state and to think 75% of Wisconsin was going dry is very shocking. P-I know that prohibition was a serious problem and that it was not very effective. A- The intended audience of this source was the people of Wisconsin. R- This source was produced, because it was during the time of prohibition and many states were taking in the new amendment. T- The main point of this source is to inform the people of Wisconsin is that Wisconsin is going dry. S- This source is very important because it shows the power of prohibition and how many people wanted it.
22: Chapter 5 Women The Women's Movement Because the view of the woman was changing, women believed they deserved more rights than they had. In Canada, made extensive gains for their rights, and it inspired the women in America. Prior to this movement, women had low salaries and few hours. Many had to look to prostitution just to survive. Flappers organized the National American Woman Suffrage Association, which urged protests and riots for political equality. Their main focus was the right to vote, which they received with the 19th Amendment. They also got the right to vote, serve on juries, and hold public office. The people for this movement split over the Equal Rights Amendment. This would have banned discrimination against women, but because the people split, the movement came to an end.
23: Flappers The Flappers completely changed the view of women in the 1920's. Prior to the 20's, women were very modest and always lived under the shadows of men. Flappers were anything but. A Flapper is considered a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behavior. When World War I began, millions of men left the factory jobs and headed overseas. This left women and blacks to work factory jobs. Many men died, and instead the women decided they shouldn't live life being sad, but they should have fun. Women began to take risks like smoking and drinking. They changed their appearance by cutting their hair, wearing makeup, and other clothes. Instead of wearing traditional long dresses, the hems rose until they were above the knees. Flappers also changed the idea of dating. Before, women waited for a respectable man to ask them for marriage, but now women experimented with dating. They also took part in many nontraditional dances like the Charleston, the Shimmey, and the Black Bottom.
24: Essential Question The Flapper represents the "new woman". They set the foundation for the way women live today. They no longer had to live boring lives and live under the shadow of their husband and other men. They could dance, smoke, drink, date, drive, and do whatever they wanted to their appearance. The Flapper also represents a new woman because they are resilient and fight for what they want. During the women's movement, they fought and fought for more rights. They gained more political rights and always fought for more. Life for the women in the 1920's was different than the Progressive Era. The new consumer based culture they were living in made suffragists and settlement house workers look old fashioned. They were no longer just teachers, settlement workers, or people in reforms, but they were now getting jobs that were previously only worked by men.
25: Thinking Like A Historian: Through Their Eyes The Flappers saw their life as boring and not fair compared to men's. Because they knew that many of their husbands would not be coming home from World War I, they decided they would not just sit and moan about their losses. They decided to do things like form the National American Woman Suffrage Association to get rights they thought they deserved. They also saw men smoking and drinking, having a great time. They thought, why can't I do that? So they did it. To become a Flapper, you had to be a risk taker and strong willed. People saw them as a disgrace, but they had to shrug it off and continue doing what they did. These women succeeded in changing the view of women as the world had known it.
26: APPARTS A- U.S. Congress, it was the 19th Amendment passed, they took Elizabeth Cady Stanton's and Susan B. Anthony's ideas. P- Passed August 18th, 1920. It was written during the Women's Movement and after WWI. Women had done tons to support Americans in Europe, and they felt like their contributions to the war effort were enough to gain the right to vote. P- Women have been working to get the right to vote for about fifty years, so this was extremely important to them. Before this, many states gave partial suffrage to women, but this guaranteed the right to vote for all citizens.
27: A- This was intended for all Americans forever. It is extremely straight forward so no loopholes could be found by people trying to avoid the law. Had it been written for another group of people, it may not have been as written using the strong words it did. R- It was produced at the time it was because the Woman Suffrage Association was pushing extremely hard for it, and the country believe woman earned the right to vote. T- The 19th Amendment states, " The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." No state could take away the right for women to vote forever, unless another amendment was made to get rid of this one. S- This is extremely important because America took another huge step towards more democracy. Without women voting, the U.S. could not truly say it was fully democratic. It could definitely swing political races, just as when African Americans were granted the right to vote. This was the biggest success the Women's Movement achieved, and it was the cornerstone of everything they worked for.
28: Chapter 5 Harlem Renaissance and the Emergence of Black Independence Development during WWI During World War I, millions of white factory workers were sent to Europe to fight. This left the northern factories without worker. The factory owners knew that to keep their factories going, they had to hire black workers; however, three out of four blacks lived on farms, and nine of ten lived in the south. The Great Migration occurred, and millions of blacks moved north. They assembled in large cities to work these jobs. The new capital of black America became Harlem, where 200,000 people moved. Once they were all settled in, groups like the Universal Negro Improvement Association, the NAACP, and the National Urban League took off, in part because of things that happened to black soldiers in Europe. After the Americans helped with the war, there was a victory march in Paris, but blacks were not allowed to march. This is one reason why so many groups for the advancement of colored people formed.
29: Contributions of Blacks to Music, Art, and Literature Blacks helped create the Harlem stride style and the band was made mainly of brass instruments and was considered a symbol of the south. In the 1920's the musical styles of black artists were becoming more appealing to white people and were becoming more widely used in whit e productions. For literature there were many pro black writers and journalists. One of the most famous was W.E.B Dubois who created the Crisis magazine. During the 20's the view of black people went form inferiority to articulate and racially conscious.
30: Marcus Garvey's UNIA Marcus Garvey was the creator of the UNIA . After only three months of the UNIA's existence it had already had 3500 members. The main goal of the UNIA was to unite blacks and gain better conditions and more equal rights for the African American citizen. The newspapers and magazines they created helped spread the sense of African American pride. Along with showing off their culture, the UNIA worked on creating colleges for black kids in America, and helping out tribes in Africa. They had an effect both on American and African people.
31: Racial Pride Racial pride was extremely evident in the Harlem Renaissance. Black newspapers and magazines were created to show the world that they were proud of their roots and their skin color. They were proud of their heritage, and went back to old African culture in areas such as literature, art, and music. Pride grew only stronger as more and more people joined this cultural revival. The same people who had been scared to show off their culture because of hate crimes were coming together and showing it off.
32: Thinking Like a Historian: Change and Continuity With the Harlem Renaissance, a lot has changed. The Great Migration has brought blacks from living on southern farms to living in northern cities. Rather than being isolated from each other, they formed associations to fight for their rights. They also formed groups just to show off their culture, and they were not afraid of it. However, the constant discrimination has stayed the same. Many groups of people, such as the KKK, did horrible things against these people. Factories owners benefited from this change because they had another source of labor to work their factories. African Americans benefited because they came closer together and celebrated their cultures. Nativists did not benefit from this, because they were against all immigrants, including black people. Current factory workers also did not benefit from this movement, because if they decided to go on strike, cheap labor could be picked up no problem. Though some things continued and stayed the same, great change came from this period.
33: APPARTS A- Marcus Garvey. He organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association, and tried to bring back the African American culture to the United States. P- It was written in 1914, but it set the foundation for what the UNIA would try to do throughout the Harlem Renaissance. It is important because this is what they wanted to get done, and they had an idea of what they were going to work for. Every successful group has to have strong goals to work for. P- I know Marcus Garvey was from Jamaica, where mostly blacks lived. He lived how the blacks used to, and could see what has changed in the United States. If he knew what changed, he could help bring it back to how it was before.
34: A- These goals were written for the members of the UNIA to show what they wanted to get done. Had Garvey intended this for people against the movement, he probably would have given reasons why he wanted to accomplish these goals, and how they would have benefited everyone, not just blacks. R- These objectives were produced to show the members what they wanted to do, because it was created at the time the UNIA was first being formed. T- Garvey had ideas for what he wanted to do. He wanted to promote pride among the race, reclaim a fallen race, help the needy, assist tribes in Africa, promote Christianity in Africa, and make universities and secondary schools to further education of colored children in America. He wanted to do many of the same things in Jamaica.
35: S- This source is important because set the foundation to regain the status blacks had in Africa. In order to get back to their old ways, they had to have goals and these goals gave them something to work for. Without these goals, they may have never done as much as they did. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/filmmore/ps_objectives.html
36: Vocabulary Chapter 1 Mass Media- The means of communication that reaches large numbers in a short time, such as radios, magazines, and newspapers Consumerism- The protection or promotion of the interests of consumers Prosperity- Successful, flourishing Mass Production- The production of large quantities of a standardized article
37: Chapter 2 Immigrant: A person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country. Anarchist: a person who advocates the abolition of government and a social system based on voluntary cooperation Communism: A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs Race: Each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics. Bolsheviks: A member of the left-wing majority group of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party that adopted Lenin's theses on party organization in 1903.
38: Chapter 2 Fundamentalism: A form of Protestant Christianity that upholds belief in the strict and literal interpretation of the Bible. Evolution: The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth Quota: A limited or fixed number or amount of people or things, in particular.
39: Chapter 3 Speakeasy: An illicit liquor store or nightclub. Bootlegger: someone who makes, sells, or distributes illegal liquor. Chapter 5 Renaissance- A revival or rebirth Jazz- A type of music developed by black Americans characterized by improvisation and a regular or forceful rhythm.