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The Borana

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S: The Borana of Ethiopia

BC: ngari.norway

FC: BORANA | Betty Anne Reid

1: Location (Page 3) The Market (Page 4 & 5) Gender Roles (Page 6 & 7) Living Arrangements (Page 9) Elders (Page 10) Speaking Up (Page 13) Borana Now (Page 14 & 15) Tourism (Page 16) In Conclusion (Page 17) References (Page 19) | TABLE OF CONTENTS | Eric Lafforgue

2: Eric Lafforgue

3: The Borana people can be located in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya. The tribe is a small part of a larger tribe known as the Oromos. It is estimated that a staggering 7 million Borana people still live and practice their beliefs in Ethiopia and Kenya. (Marco, 2005) They reside in desert conditions where drought leaves them with poor vegetation and few water sources. | * | Eric Lafforgue | Dave Blume

4: The Borana people rely heavily on the land to sustain economic stability. The land is worshiped and adored as it provides the Borana people with a place to grow their crops and graze their livestock. (Eshelby, 2005) .The areas in which the Borana reside suffer drought and cause some difficulty to farmers. Cows are farmed mostly for milk products and it is a rarity that the Borana tribe eat the beef as the cows are seen as far more valuable alive and producing milk. (Borana Tribe, 2010) | Dave Blume | Mark Eveleigh

5: For the Borana tribe, the link between their religious beliefs to their herds is inseparable. Their herds are not only for food but also vital for sacrifices and rituals to guarantee fertility, health, and assistance from spirits. (Doyle, 2004).The men of the tribe spend many hours with their herds to ensure they develop a spiritual relationship with the animal, causing the animal to feel further inclined to produce milk.(Borana Tribe, 2010). | ric Lafforgue

6: Women of the Borana tribe are responsible for many things, but most importantly is their responsibility to the children of the tribe. (Hallpike, 1973). The Borana women care for their own children as well as helping to care for the other children in the tribe. ( Gerretis, 2006). This acts an important bonding experience for the women amongst the tribe. (Eshelby 2006) | Borana tribal families consist of one man, who may have one or two wives. Each family has (on average) three or four kids and it is not uncommon for extended family members such as grandparents to live amongst the household families. (Marco, 2005) | Eric Lafforgue | Dave Blume | 10b travelling,

7: Men in the Borana tribe are responsible for the herding of the livestock. As well as caring for the livestock and the crops. It is through these activities that economic stability is achieved anf sustained. (Doyle, 2004). The hierarchal views in the Borana tribe state that the men shall provide for the women and children, hence the men carry out the laborious tasks. (Borana Tribe, 2010) | In the Borana areas of Ethiopia and Kenya the men also extract salt as a resource that is used for economic growth. (Marco, 2005). This is less common than the growth of crops and livestock, but is practiced nonetheless. (Gerrestis, 2006). | Eric Lafforgue | Dave Blume

8: ngari.norway

9: The people of the Borana tribe most commonly reside in sturdy modular houses. The huts are constructed by the women and consist of interwoven branches thatched with grass all the way to the ground. ( Borana Tribe, 2010) .When movement of the homestead is required, the transportable portions are loaded onto the back of a camel or a woman and carried to the new location. (Eshelby, 2005). They settle temporarily in groups of ten to thirty houses. (Legesse, 1954) | The areas of Kenya and Ethiopia that are inhabited by the Borana tribe are most often an open, dessert span of land. (Hallpike, 1973). This allows for the children of the tribe to enjoy entertainment in things such as soccer. This is an important aspect of the Borana culture as it brings the children together, forging friendships that last into adulthood. These relationships are the foundation of the Borana community. (Eshelby, 2006) | Dave Blume | ngari.norway

10: Elders are vrey important to the Borana tribe. | Customs are passed down verbally in the tribe. | Elders pass down traditions through singing. | Elders are also responsible for all story telling. | World_Discover | (Doyle, 2004)

11: Borana tribe members wear necklaces as a sign of wealth. These necklaces can be given as a dowry given to women by their fiancées. The necklace is viewed as a lesser valuable dowry in comparison to sheep or cattle. (Gerretis, 2006) | ric Lafforgue | ric Lafforgue | Eric Lafforgue

12: Eric Lafforgue

13: In recent years the Borana people have began to speak up against the developmental interventions put in place to support the Borana rangeland. These interventions have left the Borana rangeland weakened and disturbed. (Borana Tribe, 2010). This has caused a massive upheaval amongst the Borana people as their land is very important to their economic and religious stability. Without the rangeland the tribe could not properly develop their livestock herds. The Borana people already face the challenge of growing crops and grazing livestock on drought stricken land. Now they are faced with the challenge of developing more efficient and sustainable use of their natural resources. (Marco, 2005). | ric Lafforgue

14: Over the years the Borana culture has grown and adapted to certain modernizations. These modernizations include the use of motorized vehicles (as shown below) for transportation of harvest and livestock to and from the markets. (Eshelby, 2006). Also, the Borana have adapted their farming techniques to better suit the dry, desert land and to increase their lively hood. (Eshelby, 2005). | Although the Borana religion has adopted a more Muslim tone in the past decade, they have not lost their ancestral belief systems as a whole. The land and herds are still highly worshiped, as they have been for centuries. (Doyle, 2004). The Borana culture is often infiltrated by tourism and missionaries, but the relations between these groups and the tribe are civil. (Borana Tribe, 2010). | Eric Lafforgue | ngari.norway

15: In the background of the above photo it is evident that the Borana have also adapted their building structures. As a whole, the average household family continues to live in the woven grass huts. The buildings showcased in this particular photo are believed to be part of the market system. Because the Borana rely almost entirely on the markets for food and income, it is reasonable to assume the markets would be seen as an area to improve upon for missionaries and help groups who wish to support the Borana communities. | World_Discover

16: The Borana culture has recently been infiltrated by large amounts of tourism to the areas of Kenya and Ethiopia that are inhabited by the Borana people. (Gerretis, 2006) .Tourists come for the landscape and are often intrigued by the culture of the Borana people. The tourism is not entirely detrimental to the Borana people but it is not seen as a welcome advancement. Tourists often do not understand the sacred aspect of many things such as the land and the livestock which can lead to disagreement between the tribal people and the tourists. (Borana Tribe, 2010). As shown in the photo, tourists often travel over the rangeland in large motor vehicles which are harmful to the environment and have negative effects on the land which the Borana plant their crops on. | ngari.norway

17: In conclusion, it can be said that the Borana are a unique culture. Surviving off the land, eating a diet almost entirely dependent on milk and milk products, living in grass huts, dressing in vibrant colours. Their culture has adopted and adapted many aspects and continues to grow even today. But the Borana are still a strong tribe with a strong belief in their land and their herds. A truly inspiring indigenous group. | 10b travelling,

18: REFERENCES | Mark Eveleigh

19: Borana Tribe. (2010). Retrieved March 12, 2010, from Enhols website: http://www.enhols.com/kenya_safari/people/borana/ Doyle, L.R. (2004). The Borana Calendar Reinterpreted. Retrieved March 12, 2010, from Current Anthropology website: http://www.tusker.com/Archaeo/art.currentanthro.htm Eshelby, K. (2005). Patoralists Under Pressure. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Bnet website: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3120/is_7_77/ai_n29191678/ Eshelby, K. (2006). The Way of the Borana. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Bnet website: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5391/is_200506/ai_n21373715/ Gerretis, J. (2006). Borana Beauty. Retrieved March 18, 2010, from Tribal Diversity of Southern Ethiopia website: http://www.pbase.com/image/69153055 Hallpike, C.R. (1973). The Origins of the Borana Gada System. New York, NY: Free Press. Legesse, A. (1954). Some Records of Ethiopia Society. Huntingford, Dorset: Beckingham and G.W.B. Marco, B. (2005). Decisions in the Shade. Political and juridical processes among the Oromo-Borana. Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press. ALL PHOTOS FROM: Flickr.com (list of Photographer's profiles below) Eric Lafforgue, Dave Blume, ngari.norway, 10b travelling, World_Discover and Mark Eveleigh.

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  • Title: The Borana
  • A pastoral indigenous group found mainly in Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya.
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  • Published: over 6 years ago

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