Christmas Standard Delivery Deadline 12/18
: :
Get up to 50% Off! Code: GIFTS Ends: 12/7 Details
Apply
  1. Help

The Wines of Australia

Hello, you either have JavaScript turned off or an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.

The Wines of Australia - Page Text Content

S: The Wines of Australia Jo Sullivan

FC: The Wines of Australia | Written by Joseph Sullivan

1: Wine in Australia Contents Introduction..........................................................................................................................................2 Wine history and legends/Australian History................................................................................2, 3, 4 Politics..................................................................................................................................................4 Economic...............................................................................................................................................5 Society..................................................................................................................................................5 Technology .........................................................................................................................................6, 7 Law......................................................................................................................................................4 Environment.........................................................................................................................................8 Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................8 Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................9

2: This book examines the Australian wine industry and the main factors involved in production, known as “viniculture”. I have chosen the PESTLE analysis tool which is an acknowledged strategic management plan used for market research and gives companies factors that they should consider. PESTLE stands for Politics, Economic, Society, Technology, Law and Environment. The PESTLE analysis will be effective to describe Australia’s wine culture and lifestyle. Australia’s seasons characterise the grapes as well as the history they were formed on. Wine has been a part of Australia’s culture for over 200 years and it has now evolved into more than just a drink. Australia is exporting over 800million litres of wine each year resulting in them being the fourth highest wine exporter in the world. | INTRODUCTION

4: Archaeologist discoveries date wine back to 5400-5000BC in Iran/Persia and in Georgia in Europe. Paintings indicate that wine may have been in existence further than 6000BC. A recent archaeological find in the Armenian mountains dates the first wine making facility to 6000 years ago. A vat to press the wine, fermenting jars, drinking bowls and cups were discovered at the site now known as Areni-1. | Additional to be being an important commodity in European countries it was also used and still is for toasting at weddings, funerals and religious purposes such as commune. A toast is a ritual where a drink is taken as an expression of honour or goodwill. It was also used in medical treatments such as gangrene and stress relief. Wine has also been used over the centuries for celebrating the winning of battles. | HISTORY

5: Wine was such a significant part of Greek and Roman culture they named a God after it. Dionysus was the Greek God of wine. After the Romans conquered Greece they adopted their Hellenic legends and Gods as their own. Bacchus is the Roman version of Dionysus. The Earliest known legend of wine was in Persia. King Jamshid banished a princess who overwhelmed with shame drank a jar of spoiled grapes to try and kill herself. Instead of dying she started to feel happy; she kept drinking spoiled grapes until her mood changed significantly. The princess won back the King’s favour and was allowed back into the kingdom. This tale although not proven demonstrated how wine could have been discovered by pure luck. (The grapes weren’t spoiled they were just fermenting or turning to alcohol).

6: In 1788 Captain Arthur Phillip arrived in Sydney Cove with vines from the Cape of Good Hope and Brazil. The first vines planted were in 1788 but died because of the high temperatures and humidity in Sydney. In 1791 Watkin Tench wrote “On 24th January two bunches of grapes were cut in the Governor's garden from cuttings of vines brought three years before from the Cape of Good Hope.” Camden Park in Sydney was owned by John Macarthur, he planted his first vines there in 1817. This was Australia’s first commercial vineyard and the start of its booming industry. Macarthur grew different varieties of wine on his vineyard; he unfortunately died 17 years later in 1834. Commercial vineyards were established in most states by 1850.

7: The 1850's gold rush in Eastern Australia brought thousands of people from Europe and Asia. The Australian wine industry increased for the growing demand by the new population. Between 1851 and 1871 the area under vines increased from 2,510 hectares to 6,880 hectares. | In 1875 Australia was invaded by phylloxera which attacked and killed a large amount of its vine population. In Europe it destroyed two thirds of their vines. Fortunately South Australian vines were not affected and some vines planted before 1875 still remain today. After World War One vines were planted in disused military settlements which lead to increased wine production and consequently an overproduction. This lowered the prices of some grape varieties, which meant that some vineyards couldn't compete economically and thus collapsed. During World War Two Australia experienced a shortage of beer. To compensate for this, the wine industry needed to produce more varieties of wine for everyday drinking. By 1960, 80% of the wine produced in Australia was either sweet fortified sherry or port styled wine, known in the UK as ‘Colonial Wine’. It still took many years to get the wine industry to produce multiple varieties of wine.

8: POLITICS AND LAW | The wine industry in Australia is governed by laws and regulations to allow for the production, selling and distribution of wine. The main wine tax in is the WET TAX which stands for Wine Equalization Tax . It came into effect after the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in the year 2000 which replaced sales tax on products. Under the former tax system the government collected 41%. In order to maintain the same 41% collection rate a WET TAX of 29% was created in addition to the GST. A bottle shop would have to sell a $100 bottle of wine for $141.90. Eg. 100x29% = $129 129x10%= $141.90 | The tax appears high however many Australian wine producers receive a rebate of all or most of the money if they are under a certain income threshold. Some examples of the wine law in Australia are listed below.

9: Some examples of the wine law in Australia are listed below. The legal drinking age is 18 Basic wine labels must have a brand name which isn’t misleading, states vintage, alcoholic volume, country of origin, region and variety The legal drink driving limit is 0.05g/100ml this is around 2 standard drinks in an hour for a male If a person is caught drink driving the penalty will result in loss of licence and/or heavy fines Australian wineries are not allowed to add sugar into the wine because the soil is so rich

10: The Australian wine economy is vast and employs 28,000 people in its work force. In 2006-2007 Australia produced 1.23billion litres of wine. The economy is further boosted by the export of 800million litres of this wine each year worth $2.87 billion. The main international buyers of Australian wine are the United Kingdom (269 million litres worth $977 million) and the United States of America (215 million litres worth $856 million). | ECONOMIC

11: Australian wine is sold through cellar doors, straight to restaurants and through distributors who take around 30% of turnover by selling the wine overseas and to bottle shops across the country. To be able to purchase a bottle of Australian wine in London it endures a long journey. After being bottled, it is package in a carton and taken to the distributor who transports it to the docks to be shipped overseas. Several weeks later it arrives at its final port in the UK where the local taxes are applied. The bottle goes onto another distributor who sells it on to UK bottle shops and supermarkets where it can be purchased. This illustrates some of the complexity and expenses the wine industry has to face. Vineyards also bear the expenses of advertising such as television, magazines, billboards and the cinema.

12: Australian wine is a social drink mainly consumed in Australia, England and America. Wine is a great choice to have on occasions like weddings, meals at restaurants, formal events and even the backyard barbeque. In the 21st century an increasing amount of people are abusing the definition of a social drink. The definition of social drinking refers to casual drinking in a social setting without intent to get drunk. Binge drinking is one of modern society biggest issues and sees people drinking with the sole intention of becoming intoxicated. Binge drinking can affect the abusers themselves as well as others around them. Some effects of binge drinking on abusers include hangovers, headaches, nausea, shakiness, possibly vomiting and memory loss. Some detrimental effects are alcohol poisoning, brain and liver damage and alcohol dependency. Binge drinking affects society by the manner they can act in public, their aggressive behaviour and the poor decisions they make like drink driving. Wine is a social drink although it is easily abused by many in society today. Health experts recommend wine should be enjoyed in moderation without causing harm to oneself or others.

13: Wine can be an investment as well as a social drink and has the potential to appreciate or depreciate. Wine enthusiasts collect as a hobby or as a job as wine has a profitable appreciation range usually 20-120% depending upon the vintage. Wine values change depending on the length of time the wine is kept, the conditions it is stored and the original value of the wine. The year the wine was produced can vary from very good to poor wine years. Even though the wine industry wasn’t meant for collectors a t thriving market has evolved.

14: The industrial revolution and modern technologies increased the production and quality of the Australian wine industry. Advancements such as refrigeration, mechanical grape pickers and pneumatic presses have been contributors. Refrigeration kept the ferment cool in the warmer climates to increase the quality of the wines. Also a main factor in the modern wine production has been keeping the equipment sterilised which has helped prevent contamination. Herbicides have prevented diseases in the vines. The above is important; however the main equipment needed in the wine industry is fermentation vats, destemmer, grape picker and press. The vats can vary in size and allows the red or white wine grapes to ferment in before they are put into barrels to ferment further. A destemmer is an essential piece of technology when making white wine as it is where the skin of the grapes is peeled off and the juice remains. This process is not needed for red wines as they ferment in their skins and they get their colour through the pigment in the skins. The grape picker is simple it shakes the vines so the grapes fall into the box below. This job would use a lot more labour if it wasn’t machine operated and vineyards wouldn’t be able to produce as much wine each season.

15: Wine is a chemistry experiment to blend the perfect amount of ingredients together to get the best taste. With technology rapidly increasing, it has enhanced wine makers capabilities to make great wines. Wine is made from a fermented grape juice. It is produced by fermenting crushed grapes and using either natural or cultured yeast. Natural yeast is the fungi found on the skin of the grapes whereas cultured yeast is raised in the laboratory to develop certain characteristics. The latter yeast is preferred as it is more reliable than the natural yeast. Yeast turns the sugar from the grapes into alcohol, the higher the sugar content the higher the alcohol level. Without the technology the likeliness of a successful blend would be low and the wine makers wouldn’t know whether to add more sugar or acid to the wine. | A grape press has two main types, a hydraulic press or a pneumatic (bag) press. A pneumatic press is a bag blown up with air and pushes the grapes together to get a better press. The first juice that comes out is called the “free run” and this is saved for the premium wines.

16: Technology

20: The Making of Blackburn Estate 2011

22: "Believe in happily ever after, and it will come true"

24: My Wine Making Journey

25: & | I love you not only for what you are, but for who I am when I am with you.

Sizes: mini|medium|large|colossal
Default User
  • By: kylie m.
  • Joined: over 5 years ago
  • Published Mixbooks: 0
No contributors

About This Mixbook

  • Title: The Wines of Australia
  • A short description of the history of wines and the factors which has lead it to being a successful industry.
  • Tags: None
  • Started: over 5 years ago
  • Updated: over 5 years ago

Get up to 50% off
Your first order

Get up to 50% off
Your first order