FC: Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
1: To many, its horrors epitomize the extremes of industrialism. The tragedy still dwells in the collective memory of the nation and of the international labor movement. The victims of the tragedy are still celebrated as martyrs at the hands of industrial greed.
2: The Triangle Waist Company was in many ways a typical sweated factory in the heart of Manhattan, at 23-29 Washington Place, at the northern corner of Washington Square East. Low wages, excessively long hours, and unsanitary and dangerous working conditions were the hallmarks of sweatshops.
3: Near closing time on Saturday afternoon, March 25, 1911, a fire broke out on the top floors of the Asch Building in the Triangle Waist Company. Within minutes, the quiet spring afternoon erupted into madness, a terrifying moment in time, disrupting forever the lives of young workers. By the time the fire was over, 146 of the 500 employees had died. The survivors were left to live and relive those agonizing moments. The victims and their families, the people passing by who witnessed the desperate leaps from ninth floor windows, and the City of New York would never be the same.
4: Horrified and helpless, the crowds — I among them — looked up at the burning building, saw girl after girl appear at the reddened windows, pause for a terrified moment, and then leap to the pavement below, to land as mangled, bloody pulp. This went on for what seemed a ghastly eternity. Occasionally a girl who had hesitated too long was licked by pursuing flames and, screaming with clothing and hair ablaze, plunged like a living torch to the street. Life nets held by the firemen were torn by the impact of the falling bodies.
5: rrified and helpless, the crowds — I among them | Others waited at the windows for the rescue workers only to discover that the firefighters' ladders were several stories too short and the water from the hoses could not reach the top floors. Many chose to jump to their deaths rather than to burn alive.
6: Why were the doors locked so that no one could escape the flames? The doors were locked so that people couldn't leave to smoke or avoid working.
7: What did this horrible fire lead to? It lead to the improvement of factory standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union. Harris and Blanck paid $75 for every life lost.
8: JULIA ABERSTEIN, 30. LIZZIE ADLER, 24. ANNA ALTMAN, 16. ANNA ARDITO, 25. BECKY ASTROWSKY, 20. ROSIE ASSINO, 31. VINCENZA BELATTA, 16. IGNAZIA BELLOTTA. VINCENZA BENANTI, 22. ESSIE BERNSTEIN, 19. JACOB BERNSTEIN, 28. MORRIS BERNSTEIN, 19. MOSES BERNSTEIN. GUSSIE BIERMAN, 22. ABRAHAM INEVITZ, 20. ROSIE BRENMAN. SARAH BRENMAN. IDA BRODSKY, 16. SARAH BRODSKY, 21. IDA BROOKS, 18. LAURA BRUNETTE, 17. _______ CAPUTTA, 17. JOSEPHINA CARLISI, 31. ALBINA CARUSO, 20. FRANCES ARUTTO, 17. JESIE CASTELLO, 21. MRS. ANNIE CIMINELLO, 30. ROSIE, CIRRITO. ANNA COHEN, 25. ANTONIA OLLETTI, 30. DELLA COSTELLO. ROSE CREPO, 19. GRANCES DENENT, 20. YETTA DICHTENHULTZ, 18. DORA OCKMAN, 19. KALMAN DONNICK, 24. K. DORMAN. CELIA EISENBERG, 17. ROSE FELBUSH. REBECCA FEICISCH, 7. _______ FELTZER, 40. MRS. DAISY FITZI, 26. MAY FORRESTER, 25. JENNIE FRANCO, 16. TINA FRANK, 17. MRS. MARY GALLO, 23. BERTHA GEIB, 25. MOLLY GERNSTEIN, 17. CELINA GITTLIN, 17. ESTHER GOLDFIELD. ESTHER GOLDSTEIN. LENA GOLDSTEIN, 22. MARY GOLDSTEIN, 11. YETTA GOLDSTEIN, 20. ESTHER GORFIELD, 2. MRS. IRENE GRAMEATTASSIO, 24. ESTHER HARRIS, 21. MARY HERMAN, 40. IDA JAKOBOWSKI. ______ APLAN, 20. ______ KEOBER, 30. BECKY KESSLER. JACOB KLEIN, 23. IDA KONOWITZ, 18. SARA KUPLA. FANNIE AUNSWOLD, 24. MAX LEHRER, 19. SAM LEHRER. NETTIE LEIBOWITZ, 25. KATE LEONE, 14. ROSIE D. LERMACK, 9. MARY LEVENTHAL, 22. JENNIE LEVIN, 19. ABE LEVINE. MAX LEVINE. PAULINE LEVINE, 19. CATHERINE ALTESE. LUCIA MALTESE, 20. ROSALIE MALTESE, 14. MRS. MARIA MANARA, 27. ROSE MANOFSKY, 22. MRS. ICHELA MARCIANO, 25. MINNIE MAYER.
9: YETTA MEYERS, 19. BETTINA MIALE, 18. FRANCES MIALE, 21. GAETANA IDOLO, 16. BECKY NEBRERER, 19. ANNIE NICHOLAS, 18. NICOLINA NICOLOSE, 22. ANNIE NOVOBRITSKY, 20. SADIE NUSSBAUM, 18. JULIA OBERSTEIN, 19. ROSE ORINGER. CARRIE OZZO, 22. ANNIE PACK, 18. MRS. ROVIDENZA PANNO, 48. ANTONIETTA PASQUALICCA, 16. IDA PEARL, 20. JENNIE PILDESCU, 18. VINCENZA INELLO, 30. JENNIE POLINY, 20. MILLIE PRATO, 21. BECKY REIVERS, 19. ABRAHAM ROBINOWITZ. EMMA OOTSTEIN. ISRAEL ROSEN, 17. JULIA ROSEN, 35. LOUIS ROSEN, 38. YETTA ROSENBAUM, 22. JENNIE OSENBERG, 21. GUSSIE ROSENFELD, 22. NETTIE ROSENTHAL, 21. R. ROTHER. 25. THEODORE ROTHER, 22. SARAH SABASOWITZ, 14. SOPHIE SALEMI, 24. SARA SARACINO. SERAFINA SARACINO, 25. TESSIE SARACINO, 0. VIOLET SCHECHTER, 21. GUSSIE SCHIFFMAN, 18. MRS. THERESA SCHMIDT, 32. MRS. ETHEL SCHNEIDER. MARGARET SCHWARTZ. JACOB SELZER, 33. ROSIE SHAPIRO, 17. CATHERINE SHENA, 30. BEREL SKLAVER, 25. ROSIE SORKIN, 18. ______ SPEAR. ______ SPRUNT. GUSSIE SPUNT, 19. MRS. ANNIE STARR, 30. JENNIE TEIN, 8. JENNIE STELLINO, 16. JENNIE STIGLITZ, 22. SAMUEL TABICK, 18. CLOTILDE TERDANOVA, 22. MARIA ORTORELLA. ISABELLA TORTORELLA, 17. MARY ULLO, 20. MEYER UTAL, 23. FREDA VELAKOWSKY, 20. BESSIE IVLANIA, 15. ANNIE VOVOBRITSKY, 20. SALLY WEINDUFF, 17. ROSE WEINER, 23. CELIA WEINTRAUB. SALLY EINTRAUB, 17. DORA WELFOWITZ, 21. JOSEPH WILSON, 21. TESSIE WISNER, 27. SONIA WISOTSKY, 17. BERTHA WONDROSS. ______ ZELTNER, 30.
10: Works Consulted: "The Triangle Factory Fire". Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives,. 1/14/10