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Western Expansion

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FC: Western Expansion | By: Michael

1: Table of Contents I.N.S.P.E.C.T Ideas Natural/Geographic Social Political Economic Culture Technology

2: Welcome to my mixbook! This book will include all of the areas of I.N.S.P.E.C.T on the westward expansion of America. | All great expansions have started from some sort of idea. A country needs a "plan" of expansion before it will happen. | Ideas

3: A very large part in the western expansion for America was the Manifest Destiny. The Manifest Destiny stated that America was destined to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent, to expand from the Atlantic | seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. The idea of the Manifest Destiny was spread through newspapers, posters, and other advertisements started byJohn o'Sullivan, a New York newspaper editor. The Manifest Destiny itself was not a government policy, but it led to other government policies such as the Homestead Act.

4: The Oregon Trail was another large part in settling westward. American began traveling to Oregon in the 1830's. The fertile land persuaded many to make the long and arduous journey. And troubles at home made it look better | The settling began with missionaries trying to spread Christianity to the Native Americans. Dr. Whitman and his wife went to Oregon in 1836 to build a mission among the Cayuse tribe. They didn't know that they were bringing measles to the mission. This epidemic killed many Cayuse children. The Cayuse attacked the expedition in 1847 and killed them, but this did little to affect other settlers from continuing.

5: "We are creeping along slowly, one wagon after another, the same old gait, the same thing over, out of one mud hole into another all day," -Amelia Stewart Knight, 1853

6: Geography is a very important part of expanding. America couldn't start to expand unless they had some idea of what the land as like. Expansions could be greatly influenced by mountains, rivers, and rainy regions. | In the late 1800's, settlers only had one way to get to the west, and that was through pre-made routes. These routes had been carved through the most easily passable parts of the Rocky Mountains. These trails led mostly to California and Oregon , and the path was very bumpy and difficult to pass. Many people would die attempting to travel along the tougher routes such as the Oregon Trail in the North or the Morman trails in he south. | Natural/Geographic

7: Settlers also had problems in the middle of the west. Food and water became scarce in places such as the desert. Without water the settlers fell victim to diarrhea and other illnesses. Many people dies from traveling through the desert.

8: The Indian Removal Act allowed federal government to pay Native Americans to move west. President Jackson sent officials to write treaties with the Indian tribes. Many were compelled o accept this payment fr their land, but some nations refused this, such as the Cherokee Nation, which led to the Trail of Tears. | The Trail of Tears began when the Cherokee Nation refused to give up its land. The government recognized the Cherokee as a separate nation, but Georgia did not want to accept this. They brought it to the Supreme Court in 1832 and the result was that Georgia had no right to interfere with the Cherokee. President Jackson, however, supported Georgia's desire to claim the Cherokee land. In 1835 the government persuaded a few of the Cherokee to give sign a treaty to give up their land. The majority of the Cherokee was against this decision and would not honor the treaty. | Social

9: In 1838 General Winfield Scott took an army of 7,000 troops to remove the Cherokee. Scott threatened that he would use force if the Cherokee didn't cooperate. Eventually the Cherokee agreed, knowing that destruction would be inevitable, and began their long march to the West. The terrible weather took many lives. The march was remembered by the Cherokee as "the trail where they cried" and was respectively called the Trail of Tears. | "Even the aged, nearly ready to drop in the grave, were traveling with heavy burdens attached to their backs, sometimes on frozen ground and sometimes on muddy streets, with no covering for their feet"

10: Political | Four candidates ran for president in the election of 1824. The republicans nominated William H. Crawford, a former congressman from Georgia. He was a weaker candidate though due to his poor health. Andrew Jackson came from Tennessee, and was a war hero of 1812. Henry Clay, from Kentucky, was the speaker for the House of Representatives. Lastly, John Quincy Adams received help from merchants of the Northeast. Jackson received the largest amount of popular votes. None of the candidates received a majority vote, but Jackson, with 99 electoral votes, got the plurality. The twelfth Amendment of the Constitution says that if no candidate gets a

11: majority vote, then the House of Representatives chooses the president. Before the House voted,Henry Clay told Adams that he would influence the House to vote for Him. It worked and Adams; was chosen as president. Jackson's men accused the two of "corrupt bargaining". | The campaign in 1828 was of the most vicious in American history. Supporters of John Quincy Adams portrayed Jackson in a pamphlet as a heartless, ferocious killer. Adams, in turn, was accused of kidnapping a young American girl and selling her to the ruler of Russia. The party had divided into two separate parties, theDemocratec Republicans , who supported Jackson, and the National Republicans, who supported Adams. That campaign got rough when each side started mudslinging, or attempting to ruin the other candidates reputations through insults. Jackson won the election with 56% of the popular vote and 178 electoral vote.

12: Jackson had a great battle against the bank during his presidency. He said that the bank was an organization of wealthy Easterners over which ordinary citizens had no control. The bank had become to powerful. Nicholas Biddle, the president of the bank, represented everything that Jackson hated. Jackson had rose to power whereas Biddle was born into it. In 1832 Jackson's opponents, Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, planned to use the bank | Economic

13: to defeat Jackson in the 1832 election. They convinced Biddle to apply for an early charter, but the current one didn't expire until 1836. When this bill came to Jackson he was sick in bed. Jackson simply told his friend Martin Van Buren, "The bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill me. But I will kill it!" Jackson continued to veto the bill. | The Indian Removal Act was a large part of Jackson's first term. It was passed in 1830. This new act would allow the government to pay the Indians to move west. Jackson would sent official to work out treaties with the Natives. In 1834 Congress created the Indian Territory, an area in Oklahoma for the Indians to move to.

14: Some Indian tribes played a game that resembles modern day Lacrosse. Each team had a gaol that was set at roughly 25 feet high and six feet wide with a pole across the top. The two goals were set about 40-50 rods, or 660-825 feet apart.Their was a small stake marking the center where the ball was to be thrown at the start. Each team had about 300 players that would try to catch the ball in a net at the end of their sticks and throw it in tho r the respective net. Games went to 100. | Culture

15: The first people to explore California had been Spanish explorers and missionaries. The mission system was an important part in the plan for colonizing California. The Spanish converted many Native Americans. By 1820, California had 21 missions, with about 20,000 Native American living in them. | In 1873 the blue jeans were invented by a dry goods merchant living in San Francisco. Jacob Davis developed and marketed denim pants reinforced with small copper tacks called rivets. Originally blue jeans were associated with hard work, but know they are worn very commonly.

16: Railroads in the United Stated started out with short tracks that connected mines with rivers. The first seam-powered passenger locomotive was invented in Britain in 1829. Peter Cooper was the designer of the first American locomotive in 1830. It lost a race against a horse-drawn train. Ten years later, after improved engine designs, the steam locomotive was being used in the U.S. | Technology | The growth of travel and industry created a need for a better way of communication. This need was completed with the telegraph invented by Samuel Morse. On May 24, 1844 he demonstrated his product and showed that he could send a message along telegraph wire

17: Railroads were a very important invention in America during the 1800's. From 1840 to 1860 America went from 3,000 to 31,000 miles of railroad track. Railroads linked all of the major cities such as New York City, Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. Railroads transformed trade. Before the railroad, goods had to be shipped along the Mississippi River to New Orleans and from their to other countries. The railroad allowed these goods to be shipped faster and cheaper.

18: Conclusion | Who/what made change happen? Leaders and participation made change happen. Without the leaders stepping up and stating ideas and plans, we would never have thrived the way we did. We also needed he people to follow through with these plans. Who has not benefited The Native Americans have not benefited from change. Before the colonists came the Indian's way of life was thriving. The colonists took most of their land that they had been living on for hundreds of years. What can we learn from the past? We can learn not to make the same mistakes as we did in the past. We can take the problems we solved and grow from them. We can learn to better spend our money and use our resources. How did people in the past view their world? The people in the past viewed themselves very highly. Some believed that they were the dominate era and were advanced as they could be. How did past decision or actions affect future choices? Our past decisions, whether good or bad, taught us what not to do in the future,or vice-versa. We now had a better understanding of how to run ourselves as a nation, and we grew from that.

19: Works Cited | Appleby , Joyce. The American Republic To 1877. New York City: Glencoe, 2005. 304-375. Print.

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