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FC: Cells | Authors: James Yun/Peng, and the other Asian kid, Anthony Nguyen.
1: begins with cells.
2: Cell Theory - Three Principles | 1. All living things are made up of cells. 2. Cells are the most basic unit of structure for living things. 3. All cells arise from previous cells.
3: 1.Robert Hooke (1665)-First one to calls the spaces in a cork, Cells. 2.Matthias Schleiden (1831)- Realized that plants are essentially made up of cells. 3.Theodor Schwann (1839)- Found cells in the Peripheral Nervous System, and also determined that animals are also made up of cells. 4. Rudolph Virchow (1855)- Declared that all living things are made up of cells after the similarity between animal and plant cells was confirmed. | Contributing Scientists
4: Prokaryotic VS. Eukaryotic Cells | 1.Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, while prokaryotic do not. 2.Eukaryotic cells have organelles that are bound by the membrane, while prokaryotic cells do not have their organelles bound by the membrane. 3.The eukaryotic cells are much more complex and they have more functions than the prokaryotic cells. 4.Eukaryotic cells have linear DNA while prokaryotic DNA is circular (it has no ends)
5: Animal VS. Plant Cells
6: Ten Cell Structures | 1. Cell Membrane-The cell membrane surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell. In animal cells, it keeps the organelles separated from the outside. 2. Cell Wall-Cell walls act as a pressure vessel, preventing over-expansion when water enters the cell. Only found in plant, bacteria, fungi, algae, and some archaea cells. Not found in animal or protozoa cells. 3. Chromosomes-Chromosomes contain the DNA of the organism.
7: 4. Cilia/Flagella-Cilia and flagella move liquid past the surface of the cell. 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum- Rough ER synthesize proteins while Smooth ER synthesize lipids and steroids, metabolize carbohydrates and steroids (but not lipids), and regulate calcium concentration, drug metabolism, and attachment of receptors on cell membrane proteins. 6. Golgi Apparatus-processes and packages proteins after their synthesis and before they make their way to their destination.
8: 7. Lysosomes- digest excess or worn-out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteria. 8. Mitochondria- produces energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The cell uses this energy to perform the specific work necessary for cell survival and function. 9. Nucleus- It stores all of the genetic information of the organism, and also controls all other cell activity. 10. Ribosomes- Ribosomes produce protein using Protein Biosynthesis.
10: Homeostasis | Cells maintain homeostasis in order to function properly. The main part of the cell that works to accomplish this is the cell membrane. It acts as a gatekeeper to what goes in and out of the cell. The state of homeostasis also keeps the cell constant with what it needs to function. This means that the waste is being transported away from the cell while it receives the nutrients it needs to continue to function.
11: Lipids | Proteins | + | Cell Membrane | Maintains the shape. Monitors substances that go in and out. | While lipids help to give membranes their flexibility, proteins monitor and maintain the cell's chemical climate and assist in the transfer of molecules across the membrane.