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The Time Travelers

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S: The Time Travelers A.Kandel and Y.Yang

BC: La Fine

FC: The Time Travelers! | By Anish and Yanzhao

1: Dedicated to our social teacher: Mrs.Proudfoot | & | The class of Room 112, Vernon Barford, 2011-2012

2: Andrea Bartolo was born on January 17th, 1346 in the town of RiddleHamHope Hill. He was but a mere little peasant who would amount to almost nothing during his time. This is because he was born into the lowest class of the hierarchy. His mother, who was only 16, was abandoned by her husband and left to take care of young Bartolo by herself. She raised him into a very fine child who was very kind and loving. Even at the age of 4 he had already started taking to doing chores around his small house. Although he was illiterate, he was still a very smart boy. As he grew older he started to realize that he didn’t want to live the life of a boring old peasant, he wanted to become something more, something better, like an artist or a sculptor. He believed that the feudal hierarchy was an injustice to the people of lower classes. We should have more rights he always thought. Power should be earned, not built into the hierarchy. But he knew that this wouldn’t change, the rich would still be powerful and poor would have to suffer.

4: The hierarchy was a ranking of the people in a society. The higher they were on the hierarchy pyramid the more wealth and power they had. The reason it’s a pyramid is because of the fact that more people were in the lower classes, and less people were in the higher classes. The lowest class in which Andrea belonged to was called the peasant or serf class. They had very little rights and were bound to the land their noble lord had assigned them to. Day and night they worked, through the rain and sweltering heat, to feed their family and have enough tithe to pay the church and also their landlord. It was a very tough life and there was little change in classes so almost no peasants would live the great life of a noble. The most powerful person in a city would be the king who had control over all affairs and made decisions based on his own thoughts and beliefs.

5: Nobles were also one of the top classes in the feudal pyramid, which meant that they had no work to do but gained money from their peasants that they owned. Another class, the knights, were also born into the noble class and would go through an apprenticeship to become knights who would defend their city from any wars or such. So everyone lived a happy life except for the peasants. The separate classes also had what was called a Sumptuary Law which limited the goods that each person from a certain group could buy. even if a person at the bottom of the hierarchy had enough money (although they rarely did) to buy goods such as silk clothing and fur hats, they were not allowed to buy it because of their status in the society. The groups of people in charge of the prices of goods that each class could obtain were called the guilds.

6: Since the most numerous people in a society would be peasants, often they would be hit the hardest if any disease or famine would strike. Actually, The feudal system was soon wiped out due to a particular famine called the Black Death. What is the Black Death you ask? Well it was a disease that stroke far and wide all the way throughout Europe and killed many innocent lives. Back then the people believed that the black plague was a punishment from god for all the sins they committed. This was because they did not have developed information about health and science so they only followed the teachings of the church, which was a very influential part of religion back in the early Renassiance or Late Middle Ages.Heaven was what almost everyone in the late 1300s thought about, and if they paid more tithe to their church, they thought they would gain a good afterlife. Anyone who defied the teachings of the Catholic Church was usually killed because science or logic was often associated with heresy. Anyways, moving back into the story; young, 13 yr old Andrea was devastated by his loss, as the plague had taken his mother from him. He desperately hoped that she would be safe in heaven. Most of RiddleHamHope Hill, including the landlord, had been claimed by the black plaque, and not many people survived. Putting his miserable position aside, Bartolo decided that he could finally fulfill his wish and become a free man. He packed his bag which was made out of his mother’s old clothes and put some food and clothing into it. With his plan was finally falling into place, Andrea decided that he would travel to an Italian city-state, where the feudal system didn’t really belong and would settle down to earn the living of an Artist. Andrea set pace and travelled far and wide on the silk road since his town was located on the outskirts of an interconnected trade line that was usually used by foreigners to bring their goods in and trade. | Since the most numerous people in a society would be peasants, often they would be hit the hardest if any disease or famine would strike. Actually, The feudal system was soon wiped out due to a particular disease called the Black Death. What is the Black Death you ask? Well it was a disease that stroke far and wide all the way throughout Europe and killed many innocent lives. Back then the people believed that the black plague was a punishment from god for all the sins they committed. This was because they did not have developed information about health and science so they only followed the teachings of the church, which was a very influential part of religion back in the early Renassiance or Late Middle Ages.Heaven was what almost everyone in the late 1300s thought about, and if they paid more tithe to their church, they thought they would gain a good afterlife. Anyone who defied the teachings of the Catholic Church was usually killed because science or logic was often associated with heresy.

7: Anyways, moving back into the story; young, 13 yr old Andrea was devastated by his loss, as the plague had taken his mother from him. He desperately hoped that she would be safe in heaven. Most of RiddleHamHope Hill, including the landlord, had been claimed by the black plaque, and not many people survived. Putting his miserable position aside, Bartolo decided that he could finally fulfill his wish and become a free man. He packed his bag which was made out of his mother’s old clothes and put some food and clothing into it. With his plan was finally falling into place, Andrea decided that he would travel to an Italian city-state, where the feudal system didn’t really belong and would settle down to earn the living of an Artist. Andrea set pace and traveled far and wide on the silk road since his town was located on the outskirts of an interconnected trade line that was usually used by foreigners to bring their goods in and trade.

8: These routes were also used by crusaders, who back in the 1200s went to the land of Palestine to fight the Muslims for the land that belonged to the Christians, or so they thought. Andrea, being a wise child, had an opinion that the land of Palestine should be shared, as the Muslims and the Christians had a right to the land, so it should not be fought over. Andrea had heard stories from his friend, Ulric Derwinwater, that the silk road was a treacherous route, that there were many hijackers and that it had very treacherous conditions when travelling on it. | His destination was set for Florence, what attracted Andrea to the Italian city state was the city’s economy, its writers, painters, architects, and philosophers who all made Florence a model of renaissance culture. The main aspects that made Florence successful were its Climate, Geography, Leadership and Social organizations . So after a few days of hard trekking, he finally arrived at the gates of Florence.

9: In the city-state of Florence, he saw many wonderful things, such as great buildings, structures, and many stalls filled with merchants and traders selling their many exotic goods and items. But the most fascinating thing of all to Andrea was the many sculptors and artists that lined the streets of Florence. It was all really amazing to young Bartolo, who had dreamed of becoming one of them for his whole life. As he strolled down the stone paved road and gazed hungrily at the many paintings and sculptures, Andrea suddenly realized, that, without a doubt, he had come to the right place, especially if he was to be interested in the arts. As Andrea wandered around, he accidentally bumped into an old man.

10: “Sorry!” exclaimed Bartolo. But the old man didn’t reply. Instead, he gazed at him calmly, and asked a simple question “What are you doing here young man? You do not look like you are from here. You are neither a rich man’s son to me, but neither do you look like a merchant, or a farmer’s son, for that matter. Who are you?” Andrea stared at the man, unsure of how to reply at first. Were people in cities always like this? He didn't know, so he stammered “I... I.. I was a serf working in Riddlehamhope Hill. My mother has died, and I have come to Florence, hoping to be an artist, like I’ve always dreamed to be.” The old man didn’t reply at first, but instead looked admirably. “You have a great future ahead of you, young lad. Now come with me, if you are hoping to learn to become a great artist.”

11: After following the man on a short trip through the winding, busy streets of Florence, they finally arrived at a huge mansion with a plaque on the gate that read {Lodovico Manor}. When they walked up to the huge door in the front, the man knocked and a maid opened it. He beckoned for Bartolo to follow him in, and upon arriving into the hallway that led into the living room, Andrea gaped at the massive oil paintings that lined the wall. When they got into the living room, the old man put a kettle on the fire. The old man looked warmly at Andrea as he said,“I do not believe that I have introduced myself. I am Don Rafael di Lodovico .”

12: Andrea held out his hand “And I am Andrea Bartolo. I am pleased to meet you.” “Same goes to you young child. Do you know anything of the time period that we live in boy?” interrogated the old man. Andrea took a sip of the warm, sweet tea that the old man had handed to him before speaking. “ I have heard many people calling it the Renaissance, which is the French word for rebirth, I believe.” Replied Bartolo. “Good, Good, I see that you have kept up with the current events, and I also see that you have been studying your literacy. do you know why it is called that?”

14: Andrea thought for a few seconds before replying “I guess its because the society is changing so much, because of the death of the all the landlords and powerful people who kept the society so rigid. I’m pretty sure this was caused by the Black Plague.” “I would think so too.” They sat in silence and drank to warm, sweet tea for a while. It was the Don who broke the silence. “So you say you have come to Florence to be an artist you say?” “Ah, yes,” replied Andrea. “Well, I have to say, you have come to the right place. The City-State of Florence is filled with the arts and other lush fruits of life.” He wagged his finger as he continued, “ Also, there has not been a better time in Florence. With the black death, the church has lost some of its power, and now we artists and writers have access to the Classical Roman and Greek artifacts, which, if I do say so, are much more realistic and advanced than what we had in the medieval times, or as Petrarch calls it, the Dark Ages.”

16: “I have heard about Petrarch...” said Bartolo thoughtfully, “And about the many other people called the-” “-humanists." interrupted Rafael."They call us this name because we, including myself, value human values, capabilities and skills, we try to think of ways to improve life for this race. I’ve always been wanting to contribute to this world...but I haven’t had the chance before because of the Church.” he smiled as he continued, and gazed thoughtfully upon Andrea “you know, in the end, improving one’s skills and developing one’s talents to one’s full potential is to serve god, as god gave you the gifts in the first place.” Andrea looked down thoughtfully at the drink in his hand. He did agree with his new mentor, but only to a certain point. As much as he wanted to serve god, he also wanted to serve this society too, in some way or another. They sat in silence. After a while, the old man got up, poured more tea into his and Bartolo’s cup, and said “I want to show you something.”Andrea followed the old man into bright room, where the sunlight shone through 5 grand windows on a huge wall. On a stilt, there was a beautiful painting of a young lady, dressed in a luscious gown, with a tear running down one eye and a unicorn in hand. She had brunette hair, and was sitting, with her hands wrapped around the animal. In the background of the picture there was a nature scene, with powerful mountains and and a flat, blue, white river running through it.

18: .

19: “What a beautiful picture!” exclaimed Andrea. He pointed at the lady as he continued “she looks so real! Not like the ugly, 2-D and geometrical pictures that I see in a church!!!” Rafael looked at Andrea, and pointed at the picture again “Well, my boy, you have discovered another wonderful change that the rebirth has brought us. Now, unlike in the dark ages, we artists have brought great realism into our work, especially, as you have noticed, the human figure. The backgrounds are now also more colorful, detailed and vivid. As you probably noticed, there is a lot more expressions, emotions and such in the paintings as well. On top of that, you may also notice that the objects are getting smaller as they get further away. This is something that we call perspective, first discovered by a mathematician named Filippo Brunelleschi.” He held up an old medieval painting beside his own as he explained.

20: “Also, though you do not see it on my unfinished painting, we artists have started to sign our work, as now, art is regarded as a form of accomplishment, which should have been the case long ago. Although, the humanist movement has brought about change to art it has also changed Medicine and Mathematics. Before we used to believe that headaches and such were caused by increased blood in the head. And also they thought that to cure somebody, we had to cut them open so the blood would escape. Now we know that headaches are caused by changes in stress levels or such.The enhancements of our knowledge given by humanists have rather changed many aspects of how we view our world. “Come, Andrea, we shall eat and then sleep. Tomorrow we will take a walk through Florence.”

22: The next morning, Andrea got up from the luscious bed in Don Rafael’s guest room, and went down stairs. The old man was enjoying his breakfast of oven baked eggs and porridge while a maid worked in the kitchen. “I see that you have wakened,” said Rafael, “how did you sleep?” Andrea took a sip of the brown liquid in the cup on his side of the table, sat down, and replied “Very well, thank you. That bed was the best I’ve ever slept in.” “I am so glad to hear that.” said the old man. “Eat. Then we will take a stroll through the streets of Florence.”

23: After a hearty breakfast of Hard-boiled eggs which, Mr. Ludwig, the farmer, charged extra for, washed down with some sheep’s milk, Don Rafael took Andrea on the promised walk. “So,Andrea, how do you find Florence so far?” asked the Don as they strolled through the streets cobblestone streets. “I find it very interesting, and I think its a nice place, even though I have only stayed here for a day.” replied Andrea as he kicked a small stone on the side walk. He looked up and saw a sign saying: ALL OF GALILEO GALILEI’S BOOKS WILL BE BANNED! ALL THOSE CAUGHT WITH HIS BOOK OF UNTRUTHFUL TEACHINGS WILL BE PUNISHED TO THE FULLEST EXTENT OF THE LAW.

24: “What is that suppposed to mean?” questioned Andrea. “Well, many interesting thing have been happening here in Florence for the last few weeks. That fellow Galileo has just recently published a book that says Aristotle was wrong about the fact that the Earth is the center of the Universe. Now the book is officially banned, because it goes against Aristotle’s teachings which are bound into the bible” said Rafael. “Well, even though the guy’s going against the church’s teachings, I don’t think he should be arrested like that. After all, he is only trying to express his point of view. And if he could prove his theory then it should be taught to other people.” said Andrea. “Well, my lad, you still have a lot to learn about the world. The world isn’t as kind as it seems, and the Church will not accept new teachings as easily was you would think.” He paused and looked at a dove resting on a rooftop.

25: Suddenly, a man ran by, clutching a pile of white papers. One of them fell out of his hands, and Andrea picked it up. "Hey, whats this?" he asked. "That, is a Bill of Exchange. The banks recently started using it in Florence. What you do is you deposit money into the bank, and the they give you a bill of exchange-" Rafael pointed at the slip of paper, "-with a written record to show that you have that amount of money in the bank. To take out your money, you to the bank and give them the slip of paper. And by the way, you better give that fellow back his money, it was probably his month's earnings. " "That is interesting. OK, I'll give it back." Andrea ran to the man and gave the note to him, whereupon the man was really grateful. he ran back to Rafael.

26: "Rafael, I have a question." "What is it?" "I heard about people talking about a woman named Isabella d'Este. What did she do?" "Well, Andrea, that is another very world changing part of the Renaissance. Isabella was married to the duke of Mantua, and because her husband was often away, she had to rule the kingdom. And, she was a amazing ruler. She listened to the people's opinions. In fact she is the first female ruler. " "Oh, that is nice. What about that other guy...Martin Luthy.. Lutha.. . or something..." "Oh, it must be Martin Luther. He is a very interesting figure. As you know, the church was quite corrupt before, so Luther got very angry and accused the pope of corruption, in which he nailed a something called the 95 thesis to church doors, which listed the 95 things he wanted changed. He was accused of heresy, and was to be killed, but a German Noble "kidnapped" him and took him to Germany, where his version of the Catholic religion, Lutherism, is hugely popular. " Andrea felt that something was bothering him. After a while, he realized that it was about Galileo's book.

27: “Hey, wait a second. If Galileo's book is illegal, then how does it spread so fast? i mean, when the Church wants people to know something, they get lots and lots of Scribes to copy the books and teachings for them. How did this fellow ever manage to make enough copies? its not like he could have copied them himself!” “Well Andrea, you probably haven’t heard of this yet, but some fellow from Deutschland named Johann Gutenberg invented this new machine called a Printing Press, which can mass produce, or print, many, many, many copied of a book really fast. What happens is the operators arranged a bunch of metal letters on a grid, or some common words, then they dip it in ink, and after that all they have to do is lower it on peice after piece of paper, and as long as there is ink on the metal grid, they can print as much as they want. In fact, I heard that some of them can even make ink bleed to make effects and other-”

28: “Wow, that is amazing, “interrupted Andrea, “but how did he get his books to a printing press, I mean, its not like he could have had one inside his house, correct?” “Well, legend has it that a friend of Galileo's carried the only copy of his book after he died across many borders toHolland, where it was mass printed and vastly read and accepted there.” “Wow,” said Andrea. “I can’t believe it, what a story to tell!” “Well, in fact, although religion is the golden rule, which I'm sure you know, most church officials up until recently are more concerned with power than the welfare of our citizens. You see, the thing is that when new things are discovered, and they go against the church, that makes the church officials look stupid. That is why the Church is trying to suppress all change, so they can be Superior. ” he looked at a sign on a apothecary they passed, which was labeled The Leaky Cauldron and advertised new scientific equipment such as a device to relieve headaches.

30: "Do you know about those things they call indulgences, Andrea?” asked Rafael. “Yes.” “Did you know that through indulgences are the way the church gains money? And to tell you the truth, most of the money actually goes to the church worker’s pockets. Of course, this isn’t the only corruption happening among the ranks of the church, but now, I believe it is getting a little better, as the Church seems to be more concerned with religion than money. But as you saw, new ways of thinking are still not accepted. Come inside.” With out Andrea noticing it, they had somehow wound up in the Leaky Cauldron. “ There is something that I want to show you when we get home. Come and pick you own your own science set. There is something that I want to show you when we get home.

31: When they got home, Rafael took Andrea to the kitchen and they sat down with Andrea's new scientific set. “Boy, have you heard of the Scientific Method?” asked the Don. “Not really.” said Andrea. “Well, my lad, it is something that is completely new in this world, or at least in our part of the Earth. When using the Scientific method, one is encouraged to test and find results by experimentation and observation, so we do do not have to listen only to the Church’s teachings. “ said Rafael.

32: “Wow, that is completely new!” exclaimed Andrea. He looked at his new scientific Equipment. Suddenly, he thought out loud “ Isn’t it illegal to go against the church?” “Yes,” replied the old man, “but here in Florence, the church can’t catch everything, especially if its someone like me, who has status in society. Also, this isn’t technically illegal, because even the Church sometimes needs equipment to do experiments, even sometimes in religious practices. ” “Ohhhhhhhhh” said Andrea.he look at his set. “So what are we going to do?“ “I will show you an experiment. We will make a mixture-preferably a new shade of green for the painting. You will notice how well the scientific method works with experiments like these.” The old man got some green plants and mashed them up in the Mortar and Pestal. carefully, he poured the juices into the the beaker. Then, he got up and took a can of thick olive oil from his cupboard. Then he mixed it with the green pigment. Slowly, he stirred and turned it with a stick. It slowly became thicker and thicker as he stirred it.

34: “It’s too thick,” said the old man. “I will have to add more oil.” As he added the oil, he spoke to Andrea “See, this is where the Scientific Method comes in. Part of it is trial and error and experimentation, which is what we are doing now. Ah... this is perfect.” he finished adding the oil, and tested it on a nearby piece of parchment. It was a rich shade of green, perfectly oiled.And that is how you use the scientific method to test your theories and prove them correct or incorrect.” said Don Rafael. Andrea looked on. Come, lets eat. I plan to take you on a trip to Portugal tomorrow.” said Rafael. That night, they ate roast pork and the old man drank wine while Andrea drank cranberry juice.Then they went to bed. The next day, they pack their bags and they the went out side. “We will take a carriage to the port, and then I will get a boat to take us to Spain.” said the old man. “So, what is the reason for this trip to the Spain?”interrogated Andrea. “The reason being is that i want to educate you a little about imperialism. You are probably guessing what imperialism is, well you will see when we get there.”said Don Rafael. The Don took out a wristwatch and checked the time. “Ah, blast it. The horse man is too slow. We’ll just walk to the port of Florence.”

35: after a short journey through the Mediterrenean, they got off the boat in a sunny port. Andrea looked around at the scene around them. Spanish people with funny moustaches walked around them, speaking Spanish. Andrea didn’t understand most of it, but because of his language studies, he picked up phrases here and there. Rafael was gazing around curiously too. “Ah, I have always wanted to come to Espana,” exclaimed the Don. “ I have never seen such a beautiful place before!”

36: “What city this?” wondered Andrea aloud. “Ahh, I think this is Sanlúcar de Barrameda. A new explorer sponsored by Charles V,Ferdinand Magellan, is due to leave port in 2 days time.” “Can we see him leave?” asked Andrea. “Of course, my boy,” said the old man. “but first, we rest. Then tomorrow I will take you on a sightseeing trip across the city." The ship was majestic. Simply amazing. It was moored gracefully beside the dock, waves lapping gently against its side, lightly bouncing off the dock edge. Workers carried barrels of supplies and crates of items aboard, unloaded from a big horse drawn carriage and carried up a long wooden ramp. At the wheel of the ship stood a man, dressed in a sailor's jacket and a Captain’s cap, valiantly shouting orders and waving his sword in the air.

38: “Who is that?’ questioned Andrea. “Why, that is the explorer I told you about who was sponsored by The Holy Emperor of Rome, Charles V: Ferdinand Magellan.” replied the Don. They watched as the men finished loading the boat, and suddenly the man ran down from the wheel and to the front of the boat. “People of Spain!” he shouted, “I shall now depart to find a westward route to Asia!” The people and spectators cheered. The man brought down his sword in a fearsome slashing motion and cut the ropes that tied his boat to the dock. As the boat drifted away, he lifted his sword and shouted “ Long Live Portugal!” before turning around. “Now here comes the good part...” said the old man, “as you are aware of, there was a number of debates about the Earth’s shape. We shall see that debate solved in a number of minutes.” He pointed toward a bunch of people on the dock-”You see those people over there? They are from the Church. They still think the Earth is flat.” Suddenly, a gasped went up from the crowd. When he turned toward the horizon, Andrea discovered that the Trinidad was disappearing into the horizon. Seconds later, it vanished.

40: “Well, there you go.” spoke Rafael, breaking the silence. “What do you mean?” asked Andrea. “Well,” explained the Don, “you see, if Ferdinand Magellan’s ship goes over the horizon, uh, that is to say it disappears, then that must mean the Earth is a sphere, because if it was flat, we would be able to see it further.” ‘Ah, I see. “ “The three main reason the Spanish and Portuguese explore and colonize new lands is for God, Glory and Gain otherwise known as the 3 G’s. The explorers that Spain and Portugal send to claim land for their country are called Conquistadors and they use special navigation technology like the astrolabe, compass, back-staff, and cross-staff to find their way around these monster infested waters.” “Wow I bet without those instruments they would be dead at sea, i heard that there are creatures in the dark waters that will eat your eyes out if they smell your blood. Hearing about the monsters curdles my blood (He shivers).

42: “Ah, Andrea, my young apprentice, I think by now you should understand that there are not any REAL man eating monsters like the ones drawn on maps. I mean, there are sharks, but no Serpents or Krakens in the Ocean. But yes, you are right that instruments like the compass and astrolabes help sailors not get lost in a watery grave.” Andrea stared at the waves a little while before answering “hmm... are you sure? Because there are alot of legends about Monsters in the sea.” “Andrea. The human race is a very superstitious one... we often make up fake ideas to fill up things that we can not explain, such as why ships disappear in the ocean sometimes.” “And how would you know all of these ideas Rafael, you are of course going against the church.” “ That is just my way of thinking, I am a humanist and we often follow our own principles to find the truth.”, replied the Don. “Now you also may be wondering why the spanish and portuguese are exploring a water route to Asia, whether it be east or west. Well, where Columbus the Spaniard, had failed, meaning that he didn’t actually find asia, Magellan is hoping to succeed. Magellan is going to travel down all the way to south america and around a treacherous straight then beyond to asia. You see, columbus’s calculations were wrong and his math led him to a new continent that we have

44: never known of before: The Americas. Magellan has found a way to travel around This new continent and through to asia. The Portuguese are trying to find an eastern route because of the blockade provided by the Americas. Although there isn’t much to the new land, many rulers are wondering if they want to colonize the land. It may or may not bring them resources and wealth. The motive behind all of this land conquering is called Imperialism. Is this information getting into your head young boy?” “Oh sorry, i was just compelled to know about the people living on these new lands. Whether they will give up the land for us, surely we need it more than them.”, questioned Andrea “By god! Have i not taught you anything? This whole world isn’t ours to conquer. We have to respect the cultures of others also. But most of us Europeans are ethnocentric. We think we have the rights to everything and that we are the superior ulterior to the rest of the world. But that isn’t the case, i believe that when we take control of other lands, we are rupturing the lifestyle of the native aboriginals living on that land.

45: The Positive effects of conquering new lands would be gain of glory and wealth for the home country but as for the indigenous, the cultural contact might ruin their culture. They also are not immune to diseases or flues that we might have. Exploration can change the way we think about our world and can also change the attitudes between one and another.” “Wow, what an inspirational speech. It’s making me want to become a humanist. I think i am beginning to understand the whole world around me. Everything seems much more clear and i feel free. Thank you Don Rafael de Lodovico for bringing up onto me this experience, I will never forget you.”

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  • Title: The Time Travelers
  • This is the story of the Renaissance.
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