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A Reader's Guide To: The Odyssey

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A Reader's Guide To: The Odyssey - Page Text Content

FC: A Reader's Guide To: | The Odyssey | MICHAELA BLOOM

1: Contents: | Section One: Section Two: Section Three: Section Four: | Odysseus Men and Women of The Odyssey Gods and Goddesses Monsters, Animals, and More

2: Section One: Odysseus

4: The Hero: Odysseus | Odyseus' many names (epithets): Zeus' equal in his mind's resource Son of Laertes Resourceful Nimble-witted Famous spearman Godlike Sacker of cities Much-enduring Gallant Stalwart Loved of Zeus Famed Hardy Royal Great glory of the Achaians

5: The city of Troy was known for it's high, unbreakable walls. Being the great warrior that he was, Odysseus was called to help bring Troy to an end. When countless attempt to break, climb, and evade the walls of Troy. He used his "mind's resource" to fool the Trojans. He had his men construct a giant, hollow, wooden horse and he hid inside of it with his men. When the Trojans came to investigate, they thought it was a gift from Odysseus as a sign of surrender. They brought the horse into their city and unknowingly allowed Odysseus and his men to enter. They waited there until nightfall, and then they slipped out and eventually conquered the great city. Odysseus was honored for his intelligence by his people and the Goddess Athena. But, he also made an enemy of Poseidon, God of the Sea. | The Trojan War:

6: The Family Tree | Laertes and Anticlea | Periboesa and Ikarios | Odysseus and Penelope | Telemachus

7: Resume: Name: Odysseus, Son of Laertes Alias': Ulysses (Roman), Nohbdy Objective: I am seeking a rewarding career involving adventure and danger. Education: School of Hard Knocks Experience: Pillaging the City of Ismarus. Planning the escape of the Island of the Lotus-eater. Blinding the Cyclops and escaping the Land of the Cyclops. Exploring the Aeolus Island and dealing with a mutinous crew. Exploring the Laestrygonian land and saving my crew from the cannibal inhabitants. Exploring the Aeaean Island and saving my crew from remaining in Circe's control as pigs. I unselfishly gave of myself to learn tactical maneuvers to return my crew and myself back home to Ithaca. Searched the underworld and lived to tell about my experiences and the dead whom I spoke to. Planned out a scheme to ward off the Sirens (and listen to their singing without dying). Fought off the Scylla and the Charybdis with minor loss to my crew. My mutinous crew slaughtered and ate the Sun God's Sacred Cattle, I alone managed to live hanging on to a tree branch. I have experienced being kept captive on the Island of Ogygia as the husband to Calypso. Interests: Exploring the Seas, Sacking cities and Nymphs with gorgeous braids, Telling Tales In my spare time I prove that I am still in good physical shape by shooting n arrow through 12 axeheads. References: Name: Method of Contact: Athena Pray Calypso Visit Ogygia Island King Menelaus Visit Sparta

8: Section Two: The Men and Women of The Odyssey

10: Antinous - The most arrogant of Penelope’s suitors. Antinous leads the campaign to have Telemachus killed. He is the first to die when Odysseus returns. | Amphinomus - Among the dozens of suitors, the only decent man seeking Penelope’s hand in marriage. Amphinomus sometimes speaks up for Odysseus and Telemachus, but he is killed like the rest of the suitors in the final fight. | Agamemnon - Former king of Mycenae and commander of the Achaean forces at Troy. Odysseus encounters Agamemnon's spirit in Hades. Agamemnon was murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra, and her lover, Aegisthus, upon his return from the war. He was later avenged by his son Orestes. | Alcinous - King of the Phaeacians, who offers Odysseus hospitality in his island kingdom of Scheria. Alcinous hears the story of Odysseus’s wanderings and provides him with safe passage back to Ithaca | Men and Women of The Odyssey

11: Eurymachus - A manipulative, deceitful suitor. He has some influence over the other suitors. | Eumaeus - The loyal shepherd who, along with the cowherd Philoetius, helps Odysseus reclaim his throne after his return to Ithaca. Even though he does not know that the vagabond who appears at his hut is Odysseus, Eumaeus gives the man food and shelter. | Eurycleia - The aged and loyal servant who nursed Odysseus and Telemachus when they were babies. Eurycleia is well informed about palace intrigues and serves as confidante to her masters. She keeps Telemachus’s journey secret from Penelope, and she later keeps Odysseus’s identity a secret after she recognizes a scar on his leg. | Laertes - Odysseus’s aging father, who resides on a farm in Ithaca. In despair and physical decline, Laertes regains his spirit when Odysseus returns and eventually kills Antinous’s father.

12: Nausicaa - The beautiful daughter of King Alcinous and Queen Arete of the Phaeacians. Nausicaa discovers Odysseus on the beach at Scheria and, out of budding affection for him, ensures his warm reception at her parents’ palace. | Nestor - King of Pylos and a former warrior in the Trojan War. Like Odysseus, Nestor is known as a clever speaker. Telemachus visits him to ask about his father, but Nestor knows little of Odysseus’s whereabouts. | Menelaus - King of Sparta, brother of Agamemnon, and husband of Helen, he helped lead the Greeks in the Trojan War. He offers Telemachus assistance in his quest to find Odysseus.

13: Telemachus - Odysseus’s son. He was an infant when Odysseus left for Troy, but is about twenty at the beginning of the Odyssey. He is a natural obstacle to the suitors desperately courting his mother, but despite his courage and good heart, he initially lacks the confidence to oppose them. His journey to find his father helps him gain confidence and become a better leader. Athena often assists him. | Penelope - Wife of Odysseus and mother of Telemachus. Penelope spends her days in the palace waiting for her husband to return from Troy. She tries her best not to lose faith that he will return. | Tiresias - A Theban prophet who inhabits the underworld. Tiresias meets Odysseus when Odysseus journeys to the underworld in Book 11. He shows Odysseus how to get back to Ithaca and allows Odysseus to communicate with the other souls in Hades.

14: Gods and Goddesses

16: Gods and Goddesses: | Athena - Daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom, purposeful battle, and the womanly arts. Athena assists Odysseus and Telemachus with divine powers throughout the epic, and she speaks up for them in the councils of the gods on Mount Olympus. She often appears in disguise as Mentor, an old friend of Odysseus. | Calypso - The beautiful nymph who falls in love with Odysseus when he lands on her island-home of Ogygia. Calypso holds him prisoner there for seven years until Hermes, the messenger god, persuades her to let him go. | Circe - The beautiful witch-goddess who transforms Odysseus’s crew into swine when he lands on her island. With Hermes’ help, Odysseus resists Circe’s powers and then becomes her lover, living in luxury at her side for a year.

17: Poseidon - God of the sea. He despises Odysseus for blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, and constantly hampers his journey home. Ironically, Poseidon is the patron of the seafaring Phaeacians, who ultimately help to return Odysseus to Ithaca. | Zeus - King of gods and men, who mediates the disputes of the gods on Mount Olympus. Zeus is occasionally depicted as weighing men’s fates in his scales. He sometimes helps Odysseus or permits Athena to do the same. | Hermes – the messenger for the gods; god of wealth, luck, and travelers. Delivers the message to Calypso to let Odysseus go. Helps Odysseus resist Circe's powers.

18: Monsters, Animals, and More

20: Monsters, Animals, and More | Charybdis: A giant whirlpool monster that swallows Odysseus' ship when he is returning from Thrinacia. She is opposite Scylla. Charybdis opens for a period of time, and closes for an equal amount of time. When his ship is swallowed, Odysseus hangs onto a branch until Charybdis closes. | The Cattle of The Sun: Herds of cattle that live on Thrinacia. They belong to Helios, the sun god. Helios punished Odysseus' crew because they killed some of the cattle. Odysseus' crew was getting very hungry because they got trapped on Thrinacia by winds blowing the wrong way. Eventually one man said that he would rather be | killed quickly by a god than starve to death slowly. So, they all slaughtered the cattle. Later, Zeus struck down their ships. Only Odysseus survived.

21: Cyclopes: This Cyclopes, named Polyphemus, traps Odysseus and some of his crew in his cave and eats six of his men. Odysseus uses his cunning skills to escape. He gets the Cyclops drunk and blinds him with a wooden stake. Then, he and his crew escape from Polyphemus' cave by hiding under sheep. | Lotus Eaters: People who eat a plant that makes them forget about home and want to stay there to eat more. They are visited by Odysseus and his crew while going to Aeaea. A couple of Odysseus' crew members, when scouting, were given the flower and got highly addicted to it. This made them forget about their homes. Odysseus dragged them back to the ships and continued his journey.

22: The Sirens: Women who live on an island and lure men to their doom by singing about the men's pasts. Odysseus passes by the place and listens to their song while tied down. This is after he leaves Circe's island and after she tells him to listen to the Sirens' songs if he wants to. The Sirens sing about Odysseus' past (the Trojan War). | Scylla: A six-headed monster that snatches six men, one for each of her heads, whenever a ship sails by. She lives in a cave opposite from the whirlpool, Charybdis. Also, Odysseus is told by Circe to pass her cave while journeying back to his homeland.

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  • Title: A Reader's Guide To: The Odyssey
  • Michaela Bloom
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