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FC: How does social work practice with intimate partner violence change when there are children involved? SOWK 201 Brittney Gendron

1: It is estimated that between 68% (Leighton,1989) to 80% (Sinclair,1985) of wife assault incidents are viewed by children. Typically, when interviewed it is found that children are more aware of the abuse than their mothers believed them to be (Rosenberg & Rossman,1990) | Resource: Cochrane, B. (2010). A manual : establishing healthy mother-child relationships impacted by family violence . Lethbridge, Ab: University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education.

2: Main Question How does social work practice with intimate partner violence change when there are children involved?

3: Does it have to be physical violence for a social worker to intervene or are reports of other types of abuse enough for an investigation? Is it possible to remove a child from the home if they are not being physically affected by the violence? Is it possible to educate people to recognize signs of a potentially violent partners? | What are the chances of intimate partner violence escalating to child abuse? If both intimate partner violence and child abuse are occurring, is it likely that one occurred before the other? Is it possible to make a relationship that already involves intimate partner violence and become a healthy functional relationship? | How does intimate partner violence affect children in the long run with regards to various aspects of their development? Due to the fact that intimate partner violence affects children's behaviour, does it affect the children that they interact with? | Subquestions

4: Types of Violence and Maltreatment Physical punishment Child abuse and neglect Sexual abuse Psychological abuse Child homocide | Alberta Children Services, (2006). Protocols for handling child abuse and neglect in child care services

5: Child Factors | It has been concluded that overall child characteristics play a minor role in initiation of violence and abuse but may play a greater role in the maintenance, persistence, or escalation of violence and maltreatment | Younger children are at the greatest risk for being physically abused and killed 41% of children killed by parents or caretakers are under the age of 1 and only 10% are above the age of 4 (McClain et al. 1993; Levine, Compaan & Freeman, 1994, 1995) | Gelle, R. J. (1997). Intimate violence in families. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications.

6: Individual traits Depression, anxiety and antisocial behavior have been identified as the three most important personality traits of physical abusers (National Research Council, 1993) | Drug and alcohol abuse is often blamed for abuse. However it has been found that it cannot be named as a cause, but rather, is connected in a much more complex way. | Another factor in child abuse is the fact that often times, these parents have unrealistic expectations for their children. For example, wanting a six month old to be potty trained and physically punishing them when they are not. | Individual Factors | Gelle, R. J. (1997). Intimate violence in families. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications.

7: Single parents are known to be overrepresented among abusers (American Humane Association,1984; Gelles,1989; Sack, Masson & Higgins, 1985; Wilson, Daly & Weghorst, 1980) Typically, single parents have to meet the demands without assistance Single parents are more likely to live in poverty | Those who are not biologically related to the children are at a greater risk for killing and sexually abusing children in their care (Daly & Wilson,1998b; Gordon,1989; Gordon & Creighton, 1988) | Family Factors | Gelle, R. J. (1997). Intimate violence in families. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications.

8: Walker (1984) reports that over 50% of batterers also abuse their children | Bowker, Arbitell & McFerron (1985) found that batterers abused their children in 70% of families and that the frequency and severity of wife abuse was proportionate to child abuse | Jaffe, Wolfe & Wilson (1990) in 1/3 of families where marital abuse is present there is also child abuse | Correlation between child abuse and marital abuse has had great variance with different studies across the years. | Alksnis, C. (1995). The impact of experiencing and witnessing family violence during childhood : child and adult behavioural outcomes . Ottawa, Ont: Correctional Service Canada, Correctional Programs, Research and Statistics.

9: According to Hurley & Jaffe (1990) a child who witnesses marital violence may experience sleep disturbance, poor impulse control, poor academic performance, and difficulty concentrating | Jaffe, Wolfe & Wilson 1990; Kashani, Daniel, Dandoy & Halcomb 1993 found that there was no "typical" reaction to family violence | Children who exhibit clinical levels of emotional/ behavioral problem due to living with family violence is around 1/3 for boys and 1/5 for girls | W W Witnessing Family Violence | Studies have found that around 30% of abused children go on to abuse their own offspring | Surprisingly only about 16-17% of witnesses report aggression in their intimate partner relationships later in life (Widom, 1989b) | Alksnis, C. (1995). The impact of experiencing and witnessing family violence during childhood : child and adult behavioural outcomes . Ottawa, Ont: Correctional Service Canada, Correctional Programs, Research and Statistics.

10: Outcomes of witnessing intimate partner violence (when child abuse is not coupled) | The child is likely to be more aggressive and the behaviour can continue into adulthood | Higher likelihood of committing crimes against the person in adulthood | However it is important to consider the problem that the majority of children who are witnessing intimate partner violence are also the victims of child abuse | Alksnis, C. (1995). The impact of experiencing and witnessing family violence during childhood : child and adult behavioural outcomes . Ottawa, Ont: Correctional Service Canada, Correctional Programs, Research and Statistics.

11: How women's actions change when children in the home observe the violence that is occurring | When children witness the violence around 60% of women leave compared to 34% when children did not witness the violence | Canadian law states that "past conduct unless that conduct is relevant to the ability of that person to act as a parent of child" | There is the argument that even if someone is abusive towards their spouse, that does not mean they are inept in regards to their parenting abilities | Bala, N. (2000). Children exposed to domestic violence: Current issues in research, intervention, prevention, and policy development. (Vol. 3). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press An Imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc.

12: Intimate partner violence can be cause for child removal if it is to the point of being classified as psychological maltreatment | There are several factors that need to be considered while evaluating whether or not psychological maltreatment is occurring | Age The younger the child the more severe the effects of intimate partner violence will be It is said to be around the age of 8 that children begin to recognize that intimate partner violence is the problem of the parents rather than their own | Zuskin, R. (2000). Handbook for child protection practice. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications Inc. | "The law does not guarantee children optimal parenting, but it does protect children from extremes of emotional and psychological torment"

13: The child's gender Males are more likely to identify with the aggressor and see violence for its supposed functional purposes | The child's developmental stage Often associated with age The development of children can become delayed or distorted if they are having to deal with trauma | Important Questions to Ask Yourself Are there apparent delays? Does the child show signs of difficulty? This may include global mistrust, chronic shame, or crippling guilt that may reflect harm from having been exposed to domestic violence earlier in development | The child's role in the family Scapegoat, caretaker, and peacemaker may be harmed more than children whose roles are not directly associated with the violence | Zuskin, R. (2000). Handbook for child protection practice. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications Inc.

14: Humphreys, C., & Stanley, N. (2006). Domestic violence and child protection. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

15: There is much debate around whether or not men particularly can be rehabilitated and have functional healthy relationships | It has been found that there are varying levels of success for programs for assaultive men. There has been range from "typically significant positive change" to "men...prepared to take social action, against the woman-battering culture) | Creating healthy relationships after intimate partner violence | Timble, D. (2000). Counselling programs for men who are violent in relationships. Ottawa, Ont: Minister of Public Works and Government Services C.

16: Types of Violent Acts | Violence: act carried out with the intention, or even perceived intention, of causing physical injury or pain | Minor violent acts: To throw something at another, to push, grab, shove, slap or spank | Severe violent acts: To kick, bite or hit with a fist; to hit or try to hit with an object; to beat up the other; to threaten to use a knife, gun or other deadly weapon; to use a knife, gun or other deadly weapon | Tutty, L. Health Canada , Family Violence Prevention Unit. (1999). Husband abuse: An overview of research and perspectives. Ottawa: Minster of Public Works and Government Services Canada

17: Women with mental retardation | Women in poverty (or being on social assistance) | Women with substance abuse problems | Women belonging to a minority | Women who are elderly | There are numerous other characteristics (many of which are uncontrollable) which can put a woman at a higher risk of being a victim of intimate partner violence. What is important, is recognizing signs and dealing with the situation appropriately if they find themselves victimized. | Characteristics that but put women at a higher risk of being a victim of intimate partner violence

18: Violence in lesbian relationships | Often these relationships are overlooked by researchers | It is less common for children to be involved in these relationships for obvious reasons, however researchers have found that control is still a major issue for abusers in these relationships | The specifics of violence in lesbian relationships for example vary from heterosexual relationships in the details. For example, physical violence such as hitting the breasts or genitals is more common. | Estimated rates of domestic violence in lesbian couples vary greatly from 11%-73%. Verbal abuse is one of the most common forms of abuse with estimated rates as high as 95% | Bergen, R. K. (1998). Issues in intimate violence. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications Inc.

19: Violence among gay and bisexual men | In one study 95% of gay men reported verbal abuse tactics were used and 47% reported physical aggression | There is fear by some members of the gay community who are reluctant to address the issue of battering for the fear that it will validate homophobic stereotypes and add to hatred | There are few programs designated for same-sex intimate partner violence | The fear of homophobia is not with only the general public, but also when reporting to the police | Bergen, R. K. (1998). Issues in intimate violence. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications Inc.

20: Sources: http://www.annapolis.gov/government/Departments/PoliceDepartment/CommunityConnection/Communityresource/Domesticviolence.aspx http://www.examiner.com/images/blog/EXID43448/images/Domestic_Violence2.jpg http://www.impactlab.net/2008/11/17/stress-hormone-found-in-children-who-watch-parents-argue http://pakupdate.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/AdultsArguing2.jpg http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-W1ym6vIQ0UQ/TwAHPpPDglI/AAAAAAAAAP8/fbs3d9zc9nw/s1600/abuse.jpg http://www.alignlife.com/userfiles/aggression(3).jpg http://s1.hubimg.com/u/482436_f260.jpg http://www.thelawyeradvices.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Child-Custody-lawyer1.jpg http://dreamcatchersforabusedchildren.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/10/2101911x11m557uwa.gif http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-rsx-qJkYU8U/TfHB_xGfoxI/AAAAAAAAAiw/zfFRRX4dE9M/s1600/single-parent1.jpg http://www.photoplayerhater.com/acting-career-pitfalls

21: Sources continued: http://sjrm.i.ph/photo/d/698-1/couple-holding-hands-posters.jpg http://www.visualphotos.com/image/2x3562327/domestic_violence_between_couple http://www.cosmopolitan.co.uk/cm/cosmopolitanuk/images/tU/argue-mSADkh-medium_new.jpgm http://bossip.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/black-men-arguing.jpg?w=414 Cochrane, B. (2010). A manual : establishing healthy mother-child relationships impacted by family violence . Lethbridge, Ab: University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Education. Gelle, R. J. (1997). Intimate violence in families. (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications. Alksnis, C. (1995). The impact of experiencing and witnessing family violence during childhood : child and adult behavioural outcomes . Ottawa, Ont: Correctional Service Canada, Correctional Programs, Research and Statistics. Bala, N. (2000). Children exposed to domestic violence: Current issues in research, intervention, prevention, and policy development. (Vol. 3). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press An Imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc. Zuskin, R. (2000). Handbook for child protection practice. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications Inc.

22: Sources cont. Humphreys, C., & Stanley, N. (2006). Domestic violence and child protection. London; Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Timble, D. (2000). Counselling programs for men who are violent in relationships. Ottawa, Ont: Minister of Public Works and Government Services C. Bergen, R. K. (1998). Issues in intimate violence. Thousand Oaks, Ca: Sage Publications Inc. Alberta Children Services, (2006). Protocols for handling child abuse and neglect in child care services Tutty, L. Health Canada , Family Violence Prevention Unit. (1999). Husband abuse: An overview of research and perspectives. Ottawa: Minster of Public Works and Government Services Canada Roberts, R., & White, B. (2007). Battered women and their families. (3rd ed.). New York. NY: Springer Publishing Company.

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