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S: PLIOCENE BY: YOUSEF BAHBAHANI

FC: The Pliocene Epoch | By: Yousef Bahbahani Grade: 7-5

1: Table of content | introduction page 2&3 animals page 4&5 plants page 6&7 climate page 8&9 summary page 10 bibliography page 11

2: INTRODUCTION The Pliocene Epoch started 5.3 million years ago. The climate their was warm and cool. The Panamanian land bridge between north and south America appeared during the Pliocene. The cooling and drying of the global environment may have contributed to the enormous spread of grasslands and savannas during this time.

4: ANIMALS During large chunks of the Pliocene epoch, Eurasia, North America and South America were all connected by narrow land bridges and it wasn't all that difficult for animals to migrate between Africa and Europe, either. This wreaked havoc on mammalian ecosystems, which were invaded by migrating species, resulting in increased competition, displacement and even outright extinction. For example, camels migrated from North America to Asia, while the fossils of giant prehistoric bears like have been found in Eurasia, North America and Africa. Apes and hominids were mostly restricted to Africa, though there were scattered communities in Eurasia and North America as well.

6: PLANTS There weren't any wild bursts of innovation in Pliocene plant life. This epoch continued the trend seen during the preceding Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The gradual confinement of jungles and rain forests to equatorial regions, while deciduous forests and grasslands dominated higher northern and southern latitudes.

8: CLIMATE During the Pliocene epoch, the earth continued its cooling trend, with tropical conditions holding at the equator (as they do today) and more pronounced seasonal changes at higher and lower latitude. The temperature was 7 degrees Fahrenheit higher than today. The major geographic developments were the reappearance of the Alaskan land bridge between Eurasia and North America, after millions of years of submersion, as well as the formation of an isthmus connecting North and South America.

10: SUMMARY The Pliocene Epoch started 5.3 million years ago. The weather was cool and the temperature was higher than today in 7 degrees. There weren't any problems in the pliocene plant life. . This epoch continued the trend seen during the preceding Oligocene and Miocene epochs.

11: MY BIBLIOGRAPHY PLIOCENE Epoch, the end Pliocene, and Earth's continents assumed their modern configuration. The Pacific Ocean separated. "Pliocene epoch Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Pliocene epoch." Encyclopedia.com | Free Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2013. . "Pliocene Epoch (geochronology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Britannica Online Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2013. . "The Pliocene Epoch." UCMP - University of California Museum of Paleontology. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Feb. 2013.

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