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FC: The Nervous System

1: The human body is composed of tiny wires that send messages all around your body, from the brain and/or spinal cord. these wires are composed of tiny individual wires called neurons. Neurons are composed of a cell body and several connecting fibers. the cell body controls the neuron & contains the nucleus. the nucleus is covered in cytoplasm and together they create protoplasm. surrounding the cell body are thread like fibers that deliver messages to the cell body, these are called dendrites. the large fiber connected to the cell body is called the axon, which carries messages away from the cell. at the end of the axon are tiny fibers called end plates.

2: The nerves pass along the message form one never to the next, but the nerves don't touch. there is a space between each nerve called a synapse that the nerve must travel across to get to the next nerve. the synapse helps the nerve message stay in the right direction. | Some nerves have a myelin sheath which is a white, fatty substance covering the neuron. theses neurons are also known as white matter. nerves without the myelin sheath are called gray matter. some axons are enclosed in a tube like structure called the neurilemma which makes it possible for a nerve to regenerate its axon if it loses its.

3: Sensory Neurons ~carry messages from sense organs such as the skin, eyes, ears, tongue, nose, ect. and bring them towards the brain and spinal cord. | Motor Neurons ~carry messages from the brain and spinal cord to muscles ands glands causing movement. | Association Neurons ~connect sensory neurons to motor neurons.

4: when you go to the doctors' and he taps your knee with a small rubber hammer, he is checking your reflexes. if your knee jerks upward, your nerves are healthy and working well. when he strikes the knee, a nerve message is carried by a sensory neuron to the spinal cord. from there, an association neuron passes the neuron to a motor neuron and the motor neuron sends the message down the leg to the muscles, telling them to contract. | The term reflex means "to turn back". reflexes are involuntary, meaning you don't have to think about it, your body just does the action automatically without thought. Reflexes are protective mechanisms. your nerves tell you to pull away from a hot pan after touching it because your nerves react before your brain tells you whats going on.

5: The brain and spinal cord are the main switchboard of the entire body.they allow to speak, think, feel, move, and everything else you can think of. should the brain become injured in a certain area, you wouldn't be able to think, speak, or feel appropriately. if you were to injure your spinal cord, from that point down you would become paralized.

6: The Cerebrum the cerebrum is located on the top of the head. It receives sensory messages from the body, allows a person to think, and controls muscles. | The Cerebellum Found below and behind the cerebrum, this section of the brain coordinates the muscles of the body. | The Medulla Oblongata the medulla oblongata is lower part of the brain and connects to the spinal cord. it controls vital activities such as respiration, digestion, and heart beat.

7: The Cerebrum The cerebrum is the largest section of the brain and the fissure divides the two hemispheres. The cortex ( surface area) is folded into convolutions which keep the brain compact and small. One area of the cerebral cortex controls muscles, this area is known as the motor area. the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body. so if the left hemisphere was damaged, the right side of the body would be affected, and vise versa. just below the motor area, you can find nerve messages regarding touch.in the rear area of the cerebrum you can find where sight is controlled. the lower areas of the cerebrum control hearing, speech, taste, and smell. the cerebral medulla, the second layer of the cerebral cortex, helps all of theses sections of the cerebrum function harmoniously.

8: The Cerebellum Located below and behind the cerebrum, the cerebellum is divided into two hemispheres and contains both white and gray matter.the cerebellum controls balance and coordination.if the cerebellum was to become damaged, muscle movement could become unpredictable. | The Medulla Oblongata The medulla is connected to the spinal cord. It is coated in white matter which helps messages travel to the upper parts of the brain. there is gray matter on the medulla, which helps sensory messages coming to the central nervous system and motor messages on their way to a muscle or gland.the gray matter also helps control respiration, heart beat, digestion, ect | The Spinal Cord Within the vertebral column you can find a long bundle of nerves called the spinal cord, protruding of of the spinal cord are thirty one pairs of nerves carrying to and from the spinal cord. some messages travel to the brain, others to a muscle or gland.

9: The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. Forty three pairs of large nerves made up of many smaller nerves carrying messages to and from the central nervous system. twelve of the forty three pairs are known as cranial nerves. these nerves connect directly to the brain and involve sight, smell, taste, balance, and others. the vagus nerve, the largest of them all, keeps a nerve connection to most of your internal organs. | Thirty one out of the forty three nerves are spinal nerves. they connect the spinal cord to most external areas of the body. Some nerves fall into the category of automatic nerves. these nerves control some involuntary activities ( digestion, respiration, heart beat, ect) the vagus nerve is an automatic nerve for example. the automatic nerves are split into two categories. there is the parasympathetic, which slows rate of breathing and heart rate. there is also the sympathetic division which increases respiration and heart rate.

10: The Cerebellum Located below and behind the cerebrum, the cerebellum is divided into two hemispheres and contains both white and gray matter.the cerebellum controls balance and coordination.if the cerebellum was to become damaged, muscle movement could become unpredictable. | The Medulla Oblongata The medulla is connected to the spinal cord. It is coated in white matter which helps messages travel to the upper parts of the brain. there is gray matter on the medulla, which helps sensory messages coming to the central nervous system and motor messages on their way to a muscle or gland.the gray matter also helps control respiration, heart beat, digestion, ect | The Spinal Cord Within the vertebral column you can find a long bundle of nerves called the spinal cord, protruding of of the spinal cord are thirty one pairs of nerves carrying to and from the spinal cord. some messages travel to the brain, others to a muscle or gland.

11: The Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. Forty three pairs of large nerves made up of many smaller nerves carrying messages to and from the central nervous system. twelve of the forty three pairs are known as cranial nerves. these nerves connect directly to the brain and involve sight, smell, taste, balance, and others. the vagus nerve, the largest of them all, keeps a nerve connection to most of your internal organs. | Thirty one out of the forty three nerves are spinal nerves. they connect the spinal cord to most external areas of the body. Some nerves fall into the category of automatic nerves. these nerves control some involuntary activities ( digestion, respiration, heart beat, ect) the vagus nerve is an automatic nerve for example. the automatic nerves are split into two categories. there is the parasympathetic, which slows rate of breathing and heart rate. there is also the sympathetic division which increases respiration and heart rate.

12: Alcohol destroys nerves and brain cells | smoking & other drugs slow respiration

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