Christmas Standard Delivery Deadline 12/18
: :
Get up to 50% Off! Code: MXSHIP Ends: 12/12 Details
Apply
  1. Help

Blank Canvas Theme

Hello, you either have JavaScript turned off or an old version of Adobe's Flash Player. Get the latest Flash player.

Blank Canvas Theme - Page Text Content

S: Volcanoes

FC: Volcanoes by Keith Hedlund and Andrew Banister

1: Vulcanologists can predict approximately when volcanoes may erupt with many scientific instruments. One is the tiltmeter (top left photo).It detects rising and lowering levels of magma. | Another method is monitoring earthquakes with a seismograph. This is important because small earthquakes can be the only sign that a volcano will erupt. The INSAR method uses radar to monitor land deformation around the volcano. The last method is gas sampling. This uses gas probes(bottom right) to sample gases like carbon dioxide and sulfer dioxide.

2: The forces behind volcanoes are the earths plates restlessly shifting and colliding as well as the forming of hot spots.There are two types boundaries that can form volcanoes. Divergent boundaries are when two plates pull apart and magma fills the crack. Convergent boundaries (also known as subduction) is when one plate forces it self under another plate, and melts rock, causing magma to shoot out of the empty space. Hot spots are formed where the earths crust is very thin. Magma melts this crust and seeps through the hole.

3: Volcanoes can cause hot springs. Animals like the Japanese Macaque love to bath in and even sleep in it. | Volcanoes can be some of the most dangerous forces on earth, but they benefit the earth. Precious minerals like diamonds, opals, gold and silver are formed in lava under intense heat and pressure. Other minerals such as zinc, copper,lead,mercury and molybdenum are also formed in lava. Erupting volcanoes can produce lava and ash that make the soil very fertile. Cooled lava (over time) makes more land. In some places that volcanoes are abundant, cooled lava is used to make roads.

4: The ring of fire is one of the most active volcanic plate boundaries. | Volcanoes usually occur on plate boundries (see page 2). sometimes, a volcano will appear in the middle of a plate. Why? Because theres a hot spot there (page 2).

5: Volcanoes are measured on the VEI(Volcanic Explosivisty Index). It is a scale of zero to eight. It was invented by Stephen Self and Chris Newhall. They were famous vulcanologists in the 1980s. 0 is non-explosive and it usually does not kill people, but they erupt for long periods of time. 8 is rated mega-colossal and can obliterate a whole state and send a whole country into a nuclear winter. The most frequent is the VEI 4,5, and 6.We think that one of the only VEI 8 is in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming.

6: The worst volcano that has ever erupted in the U.S. is Mount Saint Helens. It was a VEI 5 and killed 57 people. When it erupted, the northern slope was blown off and turned into a wet, muddy pyroclastic flow. The eruption was not the only deadly trait. The mud caused rivers to flood and towns were flooded. The force of the eruption snapped trees like toothpicks. Ironically, 56 of the people that died suffocated from the ash thrown by the eruption. After the eruption, life began to fight back. Animals that had survived ate the surviving moss and lichen and deposited their seeds to other patches of fertile soil. Now wildlife thrives in the blast zone.

7: Mount Tambora is the most powerful in recorded history, killing 92,000 people, a new recored. It still holds the recored now in 2010 , almost 2 centuries later! The power of the eruption was felt thousands of miles away! 1815 was called "the year without summer" because ash circled part of the world and blocked out the sun for a year, although it took years for the ash to settle. Temperatures around the world dropped dramatically. 100,000 people died from the starvation that followed the eruption. Crops failed and livestock died. Many people do not know about this deadly eruption' which makes us wonder why smaller eruptions are better known. Maybe this is because it was way back in 1815 and the people that saw it are dead.

8: The worst volcano that has ever erupted in the U.S. is Mount Saint Helens. It was a VEI 5 and killed 57 people. When it erupted, the northern slope was blown off and turned into a wet, muddy pyroclastic flow. The eruption was not the only deadly trait. The mud caused rivers to flood and towns were flooded. The force of the eruption snapped trees like toothpicks. Ironically, 56 of the people that died suffocated from the ash thrown by the eruption. After the eruption, life began to fight back. Animals that had survived ate the surviving moss and lichen and deposited their seeds to other patches of fertile soil. Now wildlife thrives in the blast zone.

9: Mount Tambora is the most powerful in recorded history, killing 92,000 people, a new recored. It still holds the recored now in 2010 , almost 2 centuries later! The power of the eruption was felt thousands of miles away! 1815 was called "the year without summer" because ash circled part of the world and blocked out the sun for a year, although it took years for the ash to settle. Temperatures around the world dropped dramatically. 100,000 people died from the starvation that followed the eruption. Crops failed and livestock died. Many people do not know about this deadly eruption' which makes us wonder why smaller eruptions are better known. Maybe this is because it was way back in 1815 and the people that saw it are dead.

10: The property damage caused by volcanoes is estimated to cost 1 billion dollars every year. Major eruptions can cost way more than that. Take M.t. Pinatubo for example, it cost 7 billion dollars in damage.

11: Volcanoes kill as many as 1,000 people per year. These poor fellows were victims of Vesuvius. The casualties depend on how far the town is away from the volcano and the VEI of the eruption. For example, when Mt. Saint Helens erupted only 57 people died because of the towns distance from the volcano, a VEI 5. But when Mt. Vesuvius, a VEI 6, erupted, over 1,000 people died because they were living on the foot of the mountain.

12: Volcanoes can cause their own natural thunder storms because when the magma is in the ground it gets positively charged and when it erupts, those particles are brought to the negative ones in the sky and cause cloud to cloud lightning.

13: key: o=volcano o=land o=water o=plate border

14: Glossary extinct: dead;not in existence active:alive and staying alive vent: a hole or other opening that lets gasses escape tectonic: relating to the lithosphere tectonic plate: the upper part of the lithosphere vulcanologist: one who studies volcanoes magma: melted rock under ground pyroclastic: pertaining to a deadly ash cloud

15: Bibliography USGSgeologicsurvey.com/ wikipedia.com/ oraclequest.com/ epicdisasters.com/ allaboutvolcanoes.com/ BOOKS The Best Book of Volcanoes Volcano Alert Volcanoes and Earthquakes Volcano Witness to Disaster

Sizes: mini|medium|large|jumbo
Default User
  • By: Motter C.
  • Joined: about 6 years ago
  • Published Mixbooks: 0
No contributors

About This Mixbook

  • Title: Blank Canvas Theme
  • Theme for Mixbook Scrapbookers
  • Tags: None
  • Started: about 6 years ago
  • Updated: almost 6 years ago

Get up to 50% off
Your first order

Get up to 50% off
Your first order